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Viktor Bunyakovsky

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Viktor Yakovlevich Bunyakovsky
Буняковский.jpg
Viktor Bunyakovsky in 1888
Born 16 December [O.S. 4 December] 1804
Town of Bar, Vinnytsia Region, State of Ukraine
Died 12 December [O.S. 30 November] 1889
St. Petersburg, Russian Empire
Residence Russian Empire
Citizenship Russian
Nationality Ukrainian
Fields Mathematics, Physics,Finances
Institutions St. Petersburg Academy of Sciences
Alma mater École Polytechnique
Doctoral advisor Augustin Cauchy
Known for theoretical mechanics, probability theory,number theory, condensed matter physics, finances

Viktor Yakovlevich Bunyakovsky (Ukrainian: Буняковський Віктор Якович, Russian: Ви́ктор Я́ковлевич Буняко́вский; 16 December [O.S. 4 December] 1804, Bar, Podolia Governorate, Russian Empire – 12 December [O.S. 30 November] 1889, St. Petersburg, Russian Empire) was a Ukrainian and Russian mathematician, member and later vice president of the Petersburg Academy of Sciences.

Bunyakovsky worked in the mathematics, including the theoretical mechanics and the number theory (see: Bunyakovsky conjecture), and is credited with an early discovery of the Cauchy–Schwarz inequality, proving it for the infinite dimensional case in 1859, many years prior to Hermann Schwarz's works on the subject.

Biography[edit]

Viktor Yakovlevich Bunyakovsky, noted as an eminent mathematician of the 19th century, was born in Bar, Podolia Governorate, Russian Empire (today Ukraine) in 1804. Viktor Ya. Bunyakovsky was a son of Colonel Yakov Vasilievich Bunyakovsky from the Ulansky regiment, who was killed in Finland in 1809.[1]

Education[edit]

Bunyakovsky obtained his initial mathematical education at the home of his father's friend, Count Alexander Tormasov in St. Petersburg. In 1820, he joined the count's son in traveling to a university in Coburg and subsequently to the Sorbonne in Paris in France to study mathematics. At the Sorbonne, Bunyakovsky had an opportunity to attend lectures from Laplace, Poussin, and Fourier, among others. He spent the most time studying and doing research in mathematics and physics with Cauchy.[1]

In 1824, Bunyakovsky received his bachelor's degree from Sorbonne in Paris in France. He wrote three doctoral dissertations under Cauchy's supervision at Sorbonne in Paris in France as of Spring, 1825:

1) The rotary motion in a resistant medium of a set of plates of constant thickness and defined contour around an axis inclined with respect to the horizon; [2]

2) The determination of the radius vector in elliptical motion of planets; [3]

3) The propagation of heat in solids. [4]

He successfully completed his dissertation on the theoretical physics, theoretical mechanics and mathematical physics, and obtained his doctorate under Cauchy supervision at Sorbonne in Paris in France. [5]

Scientific and Pedagogical Work[edit]

After the seven years abroad, Bunyakovsky returned to St. Petersburg in 1826 and took up teaching and research, which he pursued for much of his life. In addition to the university courses in analytical mathematics, differential equations, and probability theory, he was also active in preparing syllabi and teaching manuals for Russian schools and military academies.

He lectured on mathematics and mechanics at the First Cadet Corps (later the Naval Academy) in 1826 - 1831 and at the Communications Institute in St. Petersburg, Russia.

From 1828 to 1864, Bunyakovsky was attached to the officer classes at Naval Academy in St. Petersburg in Russia.

From 1846 to 1880, Bunyakovsky was a professor at St. Petersburg University in St. Petersburg, Russia.[1]

In 1859, Bunyakovsky teached the mathematics at St. Petersburg State Railways University named after Alexander I in St. Petersburg, Russia.

Alongside his teaching responsibilities, Bunyakovsky made significant scientific contributions in the number theory and probability theory. His scientific interests included:[6]

  1. Mathematical physics;
  2. Condensed matter physics;
  3. Mathematical analysis;
  4. Number theory;
  5. Theory of probability and its applications;
  6. Differential equations;
  7. Actuarial mathematics;
  8. Mathematics education with the focus on the mathematical terminology.

He worked in theoretical mechanics and number theory (see: Bunyakovsky conjecture), and is credited with an early discovery of the Cauchy–Schwarz inequality, proving it for the infinite dimensional case in 1859, many years prior to Hermann Schwarz's research on the subject.

Bunyakovsky is an author of the book, titled: "Foundations of the mathematical theory of probability," which was published in 1846.[7] Bunyakovsky published around 150 research papers.[1]

St. Petersburg Academy of Sciences[edit]

Bunyakovsky became a member of the precursor organization to the Russian Academy of Sciences. He was named an adjunct in the mathematics (May 7, 1828), an extraordinary academician (March 24, 1830), and an ordinary academician at the physics and mathematics division (January 8, 1841).

Bunyakovsky was elected to the post of the Vice President of the Russian Academy of Sciences on April 8, 1864 (in fact since August 10, 1863 г.) . Bunyakovsky was a Vice-President of the St-Petersburg Academy of Sciences for 25 years (08.04.1864 - 26.09.1889).

In 1875, the St. Petersburg Academy of Sciences issued a medal and established a prize, bearing Viktor Yakovlevich Bunyakovsky name, for his outstanding mathematical research.

Bunyakovsky is well known as one of the founders of the St-Petersburg scientific school of thinking on the number theory and the probability theory.

Scientific Contributions[edit]

Bunyakovsky wrote around the one hundred fifty research works and a number of books. [8]

Bunyakovsky published his first volume: "Lexicon of fundamental and applied mathematics", which was written until letter "D" in Russia in 1839. [9] After Bunyakovsky's death, the manuscripts with other volumes: E, F, G, H, I, J, K, L were found, containing a note by Bunyakovsky's hand: «Do not print, but pass to the Russian Academy of Sciences archive for the researchers, who will continue my Lexicon." The hand-written manuscripts are preserved at Department of Manuscripts, Library, Russian Academy of Sciences.

The book, titled: "Foundations of mathematical theory of probability", by Bunyakovsky was published in St. Petersburg in Russia in 1846. [10] Bunyakovsky became a famous scientist after this scientific book publication.

Bunyakovsky wrote a research article titled: "On possibility of introduction of certain measures of trust to results of some sciences and statistics mainly", which was published in "Sovremennik" in Russia in 1848. [11]

Bunyakovsky published his monograph: "The parallel lines" in which he provided the scientific evidences to the problems in the parallel lines theory in Russia in 1853. [12]

Bunyakovsky wrote a research article titled: "Biological researches and their application to man's population in Russia", which was published in "Zapiski Academii Nauk" in Russia in 1873—1874. [13]

Bunyakovsky printed a research article titled: "On the probability of number of divisions of Russian army in 1883—1885", which was published in "Zapiski Academii Nauk" in Russia in 1885. [14]

Bunyakovsky developed a number of practical applications as far as the probability theory is concerned, publishing his research articles in the following magazines: "Sovremennik", «Zhurnal Ministerstava Narodnogo Prosvesheniya" in Russia.

Bunyakovsky made a significant scientific contribution to the problem of the naval department pension fund creation, publishing his research articles in "Morskoi Sbornik" magazine in Russia in 1858. [15]

Bunyakovsky formulated an empirical law of the death, making it possible to solve the problems on the calculation of both the capitals insurance and the life-time incomes in the finances in 1869. [16]

Impacts on Modern Science[edit]

The scientific contributions by Viktor Yakovlevich Bunyakovsky have a number of significant impacts on the mathematics science, physics science, chemistry science, computer science, electronics science, finance science, economics science, business administration science.

"The Bunyakovsky International Conference" with the aim to pay respect to the Viktor Yakovlevich Bunyakovsky scientific achievements was conducted in the City of Kyiv in Ukraine in 2004, and a tour to the Bar, Ukraine was organized for all the conference participants.[6]

Respect to Scientific Achievements[edit]

There is a street named after Viktor Yakovlevich Bunyakovsky,[7] in Bar, Ukraine.

Viktor O. Ledenyov a famous physicist[17][18][19] and an econophysicist[20][21][22] was born in a private house on the Bunyakovsky Street in Bar, Ukraine in 1971.

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d BUNYAKOVSKY VIKTOR YAKOVLEVICH
  2. ^ Bunyakovsky V. Ya., Rotary motion in a resistant medium of a set of plates of constant thickness and defined contour around an axis inclined with respect to the horizon, Ph. D. Thesis no. 1 under Prof. Augustin - Louis Cauchy supervision, École Polytechnique, Paris, France, 1825a.
  3. ^ Bunyakovsky V. Ya., Determination of the radius-vector in elliptical motion of planets, Ph. D. Thesis no. 2 under Prof. Augustin - Louis Cauchy supervision, École Polytechnique, Paris, France, 1825b.
  4. ^ Bunyakovsky V. Ya., Heat propagation in solids, Ph. D. Thesis no. 3 under Prof. Augustin - Louis Cauchy supervision, École Polytechnique, Paris, France, 1825c.
  5. ^ Viktor Yakovlevich Bunyakovsky
  6. ^ a b BUNYAKOVSKY INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE
  7. ^ a b O. B. Sheynin (September 1991). "On V. Ya. Buniakovsky's work in the theory of probability". Article. Archive for History of Exact Sciences. Retrieved 15 December 2015. 
  8. ^ Bunyakovsky V. Ya., Liste des travaux mathematiques des Victor Bouniakowsky etc., St. Petersburg, 1889
  9. ^ Bunyakovsky V. Ya., Liste des travaux mathematiques des Victor Bouniakowsky etc., St. Petersburg, Russia, 1889
  10. ^ Bunyakovsky V. Ya., Foundations of the mathematical theory of probability, St. Petersburg, Russia, 1846.
  11. ^ Bunyakovsky V. Ya., Liste des travaux mathematiques des Victor Bouniakowsky etc., St. Petersburg, Russia, 1889
  12. ^ Bunyakovsky V. Ya., Liste des travaux mathematiques des Victor Bouniakowsky etc., St. Petersburg, Russia, 1889
  13. ^ Bunyakovsky V. Ya., Liste des travaux mathematiques des Victor Bouniakowsky etc., St. Petersburg, Russia, 1889
  14. ^ Bunyakovsky V. Ya., Liste des travaux mathematiques des Victor Bouniakowsky etc., St. Petersburg, Russia, 1889
  15. ^ Bunyakovsky V. Ya., Liste des travaux mathematiques des Victor Bouniakowsky etc., St. Petersburg, Russia, 1889
  16. ^ Bunyakovsky V. Ya., Liste des travaux mathematiques des Victor Bouniakowsky etc., St. Petersburg, Russia, 1889
  17. ^ http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012arXiv1206.4426L
  18. ^ http://arxiv.org/abs/1206.4426
  19. ^ http://arxiv.org/find/all/1/all:+ledenyov/0/1/0/all/0/1
  20. ^ http://econpapers.repec.org/scripts/search/search.asp?ft=ledenyov
  21. ^ https://ideas.repec.org/cgi-bin/htsearch?q=ledenyov
  22. ^ http://mpra.ub.uni-muenchen.de/cgi/search/archive/advanced?screen=Search&dataset=archive&_action_search=Search&documents_merge=ALL&documents=&title_merge=ALL&title=&creators_name_merge=ALL&creators_name=ledenyov&abstract_merge=ALL&abstract=&keywords_merge=ALL&keywords=&subjects_merge=ANY&date=&satisfyall=ALL&order=-date%2Fcreators_name%2Ftitle

External links[edit]

  • Bunyakovsky V. Ya., Rotary motion in a resistant medium of a set of plates of constant thickness and defined contour around an axis inclined with respect to the horizon, Ph. D. Thesis no. 1 under Prof. Augustin - Louis Cauchy supervision, École Polytechnique, Paris, France, 1825a.
  • Bunyakovsky V. Ya., Determination of the radius-vector in elliptical motion of planets, Ph. D. Thesis no. 2 under Prof. Augustin - Louis Cauchy supervision, École Polytechnique, Paris, France, 1825b.
  • Bunyakovsky V. Ya., Heat propagation in solids, Ph. D. Thesis no. 3 under Prof. Augustin - Louis Cauchy supervision, École Polytechnique, Paris, France, 1825c.
  • Bunyakovsky V. Ya., Foundations of the mathematical theory of probability, St. Petersburg, Russia, 1846.
  • Bounjakowsky W., «Mémoires de l’Académie des sciences de St-Pétersbourg. 7 série», vol. 1, № 9, Russia, 1859.
  • «Description of the Celebration of the Doctoral Jubilee of the Vice-President of the Academy of Sciences, Academician Bunyakovsky. 19 May 1875», St. Petersburg, Russia, 1876.
  • Bunyakovsky V. Ya., Liste des travaux mathematiques des Victor Bouniakowsky etc., St. Petersburg, Russia, 1889.
  • Andreev K. A., «V. Y. Bunyakovsky», Kharkov, Russia/Ukraine, 1890.
  • Zhdanov A. M., Bunyakovsky, Viktor Yakovlevich, Brokgauz and Efron Encyclopedia Vocabulary, 86 vols. (82 vols. and 4 additional vols.), St. Petersburg, Russia, 1890.
  • Viktor Yakovlevich Bunyakovsky, Russian Bibliographic Vocabulary, 25 vols., St. Petersburg - Moscow, 1896 - 1918.
  • Dickson L. E., «History of the Theory of Numbers», 3 vols, Washington, D.C., U.S.A., 1919 – 1923.
  • Prudnikov V. E., «On Essays by P. L. Chebyshev, M. V. Ostrogradskii, V. Ya. Bunyakovskii, and I. I. Somov» in the 'Encyclopaedic dictionary,' compiled by Russian scholars and literati, (in Russian), Istor.-Mat. Issled. 6, pp. 223–237, 1953.
  • Prudnikov V. E., «V. Y. Bunyakovsky, Scientist and Teacher», Moscow, Russia, 88 p., 1954.
  • Otradnyh F. P., «V. Ya. Bunyakovskii – Professor in the Petersburg University», (in Russian), Vestnik Leningrad University, 10(5) pp. 49–54, 1955.
  • Melnikov I. G., «Bunyakovsky’s Works on Number Theory», in Research Works of Institute of History of Natural Sciences and Technology, Academy of Sciences of the USSR, 17, pp. 270–286, 1957.
  • Youschkevitch A. P., «History of Mathematics in Russia Before 1917», pp. 296–302, Moscow, Russia, 1968.
  • Viktor Yakovlevich Bunyakovsky, Big Soviet Encyclopedia, Moscow, Russia, 1969.
  • Ermolaeva N. S., «V Ya Bunyakovskii's Doctoral Dissertation», (in Russian), History of Mathematics Research, 29, pp. 241 – 255, 348, 1985.
  • Kirsanov V. S., «V Ya Bunyakovskii's Dissertation and Cauchy's Theory of Residues», (in Russian), History of Mathematics Research, 28, pp. 261–266, 350, 1985.
  • Sheynin O. V., «On V. Ya. Buniakovsky's Work in the Theory of Probability», Archive for History of Exact Sciences, 12, XII, Volume 43, Issue 3, pp. 199–223, 1991.
  • Schreiber P, «The Cauchy–Bunyakovsky–Schwarz Inequality», in Hermann Grassmann, Lieschow, pp. 64–70, 1994, (Greifswald, 1995).
  • Yu F. Zhang, F. X. Bao and X. L. Fu, «The Origin and Development of the Cauchy–Bunyakovskii Inequality», (in Chinese), Qufu Shifan Daxue Xuebao Ziran Kexue Ban 21 (1), pp. 83–86, 1995.
  • «The Bunyakovsky International Conference», Institute of Mathematics of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine (NASU), Ministry of Science and Education of Ukraine, National Technical University of Ukraine "KPI", Taras Shevchenko Kyiv National University, Mykhailo Dragomanov National Pedagogical University, Vinnytsya National Technical University, Ukrainian Mathematical Society, Kyiv; Bar, Vinnytsia Region, Ukraine, 16–21 August 2004.
  • Grigorian A. T., «Biography: Bunyakovsky Viktor Yakovlevich», in Complete Dictionary of Scientific Biography, New York, U.S.A., 2008, Encyclopedia.com, 20 July 2014.
  • Viktor Yakovlevich Bunyakovsky, Russian Academy of Sciences, 2015, http://www.ras.ru/win/db/show_per.asp?P=.id-49730.ln-ru .
  • O'Connor, John J.; Robertson, Edmund F., "Viktor Bunyakovsky", MacTutor History of Mathematics archive, University of St Andrews ., 2015.