Viktor Vekselberg

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Viktor Vekselberg
Виктор Вексельберг
Viktor Vekselberg
Vekselberg in 2008
Born (1957-04-14) April 14, 1957 (age 66)
Drohobych, Ukrainian SSR, Soviet Union
(present-day Drohobych, Ukraine)
Alma materMoscow Transportation Engineering Institute
Known forFounder of Renova Group
TitleChairman of Renova Group

Viktor Felixovich Vekselberg (Russian: Виктор Феликсович Вексельберг, Ukrainian: Віктор Феліксович Вексельберг; born April 14, 1957) is a Ukrainian-born[3] Russian-Israeli-Cypriot oligarch, billionaire, and businessman.[4] He is the owner and president of Renova Group, a Russian conglomerate. According to Forbes, as of November 2021, his fortune is estimated at $9.3 billion, making him the 262nd richest person in the world.[5]

Vekselberg is close to the Kremlin.[6][7] In April 2018, the United States imposed sanctions on him and 23 other Russian nationals in relation to Russia's annexation of Crimea, officially freezing up to $2 billion in assets.[8]

Early life, family and education[edit]

Viktor Vekselberg was born in 1957 to a Ukrainian Jewish father and a Russian mother[9][10] in Drohobych, Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic (although some reports state that he was born in Lviv).[11] All of Vekselberg’s family of seventeen fell victims to the Holocaust.[12] They were murdered and buried in a mass grave during the Nazi repressions in Drohobych, Western Ukraine. Only Vekselberg’s father and his cousin survived the massacre. Vekselberg’s father had gone off to war, while his neighbors hid his cousin in a pit-house for almost four years. At the end of the war, she managed to flee to the territory that was controlled by the U.S. troops and later she moved to the U.S.[13] Andrew Intrater is Vekselbergs cousin.[14]

In 1979, he graduated from the Moscow State University of Railway Engineering.[15][16] After that, he worked as a researcher and headed the laboratory of the Design Bureau for rodless pumps "Konnas".[15]

Giving a presentation at the Skolkovo Institute of Science and Technology
Russian President Dmitry Medvedev witnessed the signing of a memorandum on cooperation between Governor of California Arnold Schwarzenegger and Viktor Vekselberg, June 23, 2010


In 1988, after the Gorbachev administration relaxed restrictions on private business as part of its new policy Perestroika and Glasnost, Vekselberg founded company Komvek, and in 1990, he co-founded Renova Group with college classmates, Leonard Blavatnik and Vladimir Balaeskoul (later, they both sold their stakes in Renova to Vekselberg). In the mid-1990s, Vekselberg and Blavatnik embarked on accumulating interests in aluminium smelters. The two partners recommissioned production at Irkutsk Aluminium Plant which had been previously suspended, and ran international sales from New York, USA.[17] In 1996, they co-founded Siberian-Urals Aluminium Company (SUAL) by merging of Ural and Irkutsk Aluminium Plants into Russia’s first aluminium holding company.[18][19] (SUAL would later merge with Russian Aluminium of Oleg Deripaska and alumina assets of Glencore to create United Company RUSAL, the world’s largest aluminium company).[20][21]  In 2002, SUAL constructed the first private railway in Russia to connect a bauxite mine in the Komi Republic with Ural Aluminium Plant through Trans-Siberian Railroad.[22]

SUAL was the first major Russian company to pursue a consistent social policy in regions, offering support to local communities and small entrepreneurs. [23][24] As from 2001, SUAL initiated several social and economic partnerships between its aluminium smelters and local municipalities in the regions of their presence.[25] Moreover, SUAL set up a lifetime pension plan for World War II veterans who used to work at the plants that became part of SUAL.[26]

In 1997, Alfa Group (owned by Mikhail Fridman, German Khan, and Alexei Kuzmichev) proposed to Vekselberg and Blavatnik a partnership for the acquisition of an interest in Tyumen Oil Company (TNK) that later became one of Russia's largest oil and gas companies.[27][28][29][30] In order to jointly hold oil assets, Alfa Group, Access Industries (a company owned by Blavatnik) and Vekselberg’s Renova established AAR consortium.[31]

In 2003, AAR and British Petroleum (a British-American company then) merged their Russian oil assets in a 50-50 joint venture named TNK-BP, and that was the largest private transaction in Russian history.[32] Acting as the chairman of the executive board of TNK, Vekselberg was instrumental in negotiating and closing the transaction. Vekselberg’s indirect participation in TNK-BP amounted to 12.5%.[33]

In the 2000’s, TNK-BP was the third oil & gas company in Russia. Among other things, TNK-BP considered construction of a gas pipeline from the Kovykta gas condensate field through Mongolia to China and South Korea.[34][35][36] Also, the original plan also envisaged the possibility to build up a large helium production facility on the basis of Sayanskkhimplast plant to export helium to Asia-Pacific markets.[37] In the middle of 2012, BP started talks with the state oil company with a view to selling BP’s 50% stake in TNK-BP.[38] Rosneft finalized preliminary agreement with respect to the complex deal in early 2013 by proposing to buy out TNK-BP in whole for a cash consideration to come from AAR and a mix of cash and shares from BP.[39]

In 2006, Renova Group decided to diversify its business and divest form oil and gas sector to expand its footprint in manufacturing, hi-tech, and renewable energy.[40] In 2007, Standard & Poor's assigned a 'BB' long-term corporate credit rating to Renova Holding Ltd. and that spoke for the Group’s significant progress in portfolio diversification and liquidity improvement.[41][42][43] After divesting from the oil & gas sector, Vekselberg focused on the renewable energy, transport infrastructure, manufacturing, and IoT. Vekselberg became a pioneer in the Russian solar power sector.[44] Founded by Renova in 2009, Hevel was the first company in Russia to build a full-cycle plant for the production of solar modules in 2015 and the first industrial-scale solar power plant in 2017.[45][46] In 2017, Vekselberg inaugurated Platov International Airport in Rostov-on-Don, the first greenfield airport built in Russia after the collapse of the USSR.[47][48] In 2019, Gagarin International Airport, the second greenfield airport, was put in operation in Saratov.[49]

In 2004, Renova Group opened a branch in Zurich, Renova Management AG, as a part of the strategic plan to diversify its business towards hi-tech.

In July 2006, Renova Group acquired 10.25% in Unaxis Holding AG (later renamed as OC Oerlikon) from Victory Industriebeteiligung AG, an Austrian conglomerate.[50][51]

In April 2007, Everest Beteiligungs GmbH, a joint venture of Renova Group and Victory, acquired approximately 18% in shares and additional 14% in physical delivery options in Sulzer.[50][51]

Later, in 2007 – 2008, Victory sold out their stakes in both companies.[52][53][54] In 2009, Renova Group raised its stake in Oerlikon to 44.7%.

This accumulation of stakes in the two flagships of the Swiss economy by the foreign conglomerate raised concerns with the Swiss authorities. Nevertheless, in 2010 the Federal Criminal Court confirmed that neither Vekselberg, nor Victory done any wrongdoing while building stakes in Oerlikon.[55] Later, the Federal Department of Finance dropped the criminal proceedings initiated against the three investors in Sulzer in 2009.[56][57]

In 2008, Vekselberg proxied a deal between Russian and Hungarian governments, buying the former embassy building from Hungary for $21m and immediately selling it to the Russian government for $116m, while the market price of the building was estimated at $50m. Investigation of the paper trail by Alexey Navalny and the Rospil project has found several invalid and backdated documents,[58] thus suggesting a collusion (e.g. the tender held by the Hungarian side was totally fictive, as the building was already sold by that time). Hungarian officials responsible for the deal (Tátrai Miklós, Marta Horvathne Fekszi and Arpad Szekely) were detained in February 2011.[59] On the Russian side, a criminal investigation was only started in August 2013.[60]

In 2010, Vekselberg was appointed President of the Skolkovo Foundation, a non-profit organization funded by a mix of private investors and the Russian government, with the goal of building a technology research hub in Russia.[61] As its president, Vekselberg signed a deal for Cisco Systems to invest $1 billion over ten years into Skolkovo Foundation projects.[61] The Federal Bureau of Investigation subsequently issued a statement claiming that the Skolkovo Foundation was being used by the Russian government to gain access to classified American technology.[61]

In May 2010 Vekselberg reported that he would be relocating from Zurich to the Zug canton, a region of Switzerland that still supports the lump sum tax policy which was abolished by Zurich.[62]

In March 2017, he was offered citizenship of the Republic of Cyprus due to his investments in the country; however, a spokesperson for Vekselberg reiterated that he only had Russian citizenship.[63]

Designation under United States sanctions programmes[edit]

Vekselberg is one of many Russian "oligarchs" named in the Countering America's Adversaries Through Sanctions Act (CAATSA) signed into law by President Donald Trump in 2017.[64]

In March 2018, members from Robert Mueller's team of special counsel investigators questioned Vekselberg at a New York area airport.[65]

In April 2018, the United States Department of the Treasury imposed sanctions on Vekselberg and Renova Group through designation under Executive Order 13662 ("Blocking Property of Additional Persons Contributing to the Situation in Ukraine").[66][67]

In February 2021, Vekselberg complained that more than $1.5 billion of his funds were frozen in American and Swiss bank accounts and that he was not allowed to send "small amounts" to charity.[68]

On September 1, 2022, several properties believed to be linked to Vekselberg were searched by the FBI and Department of Homeland Security. The inspection included an apartment in Manhattan; an estate in the Hamptons, New York; and property on Fisher Island in Florida. Officials were seen carrying boxes out of the two New York locations.[69]

In March 2022, following Russia's invasion against Ukraine, the United States strengthened its sanctions and the UK,[70] Poland[71][72] and Australia also placed sanctions on Vekselberg, thereby seizing his assets and imposing a travel ban.[73][74][75][76] During the Lady R incident Vekselberg was noted in the media as a possible source of Russian foreign influence over the South Africa's governing party, the African National Congress (ANC), through his 49% ownership stake in United Manganese of Kalahari which is a joint venture with the ANC owned Chancellor House.[77] United Manganese of Kalahari made a US$1.3 million donation to the party in 2022.[77]

Seizure of the Motoryacht Tango[edit]

United States Attorney General Merrick Garland announces the seizure of the Motoryacht Tango, April 4, 2022

Following the 2022 Russian invasion of Ukraine, United States President Joseph R. Biden signed Executive Order 14068, "Prohibiting Certain Imports, Exports, and New Investment With Respect to Continued Russian Federation Aggression," an order of economic sanctions under the United States International Emergency Economic Powers Act. The order targeted two properties of Vekselberg worth an estimated $180 million: the an Airbus A319-115 jet and the motoryacht Tango.[78] Estimates of the value of the Tango range from $90 million (U.S. Department of Justice estimate) to $120 million (from the website

In April 2022, the yacht was seized by Civil Guard of Spain and U.S. federal agents in Mallorca. A United States Department of Justice press release states that the seizure of the Tango was by request of Task Force KleptoCapture, an interagency task force operated through the United States Deputy Attorney General.[79][80][81]

The matter is pending in the United States District Court for the District of Columbia. The affidavit for the seizure warrant states that the yacht is seized on probable cause to suspect violations of 18 U.S.C. § 1349 (conspiracy to commit bank fraud), 50 U.S.C. § 1705 (International Emergency Economic Powers Act), and 18 U.S.C. § 1956 (money laundering), and as authorized by American statutes on civil and criminal asset forfeiture.[82]

Art collection[edit]

In February 2004, Vekselberg purchased nine Fabergé Imperial Easter eggs from the Forbes publishing family in New York City.[83] The collection was transported to Russia and exhibited in the Kremlin and in Dubrovnik in 2007. Vekselberg is the single largest owner of Fabergé eggs in the world, owning fifteen of them (nine Imperial, two Kelch, and four other Fabergé eggs). In a 2013 BBC Four documentary, Vekselberg revealed that he had spent just over $100 million purchasing the nine Fabergé Imperial eggs from the Forbes collection.[84] He claims never to have displayed them in his home, saying he bought them because they are important to Russian history and culture, and he believed them to be the best jewelry art in the world. In the same BBC documentary, Vekselberg revealed plans to open a museum to display the eggs in his collection.[84] The result was the Fabergé Museum in Saint Petersburg, Russia, which had its official opening ceremony on November 19, 2013.[85]

In September 2006, Vekselberg agreed to pay approximately $1 million in expenses to transport the Lowell House Bells from Harvard University in the United States back to their original location in the Danilov Monastery and to purchase replacement bells. The historic bells returned to Moscow on September 12, 2008, with the assistance of the U.S. director of the organization, Edward Mermelstein.

Vekselberg paid £1.7 million at a Christie's auction in 2005 for Odalisque, a nude said to be the work of Russian artist Boris Kustodiev.[86] However, soon after the purchase, experts working for Vekselberg's art fund, Aurora, began to cast doubt on the picture's authenticity. They claimed that Kustodiev's signature, dated 1919, was done in aluminium-based pigment not available until after the artist's death in 1927. Vekselberg sued Christie's, and the judge ruled in July 2012 that he was entitled to recover the £1.7 million that he paid for the painting, plus Christie's was ordered to pay around £1 million in costs.[87]

Charitable donations[edit]

Vekselberg's firm Renova donated between $50,000 and $100,000 to the Clinton Foundation.[88]

He donated $4.5 million to the construction of the $50 million Jewish Museum and Tolerance Center in Moscow, and is the chairman of the museum's board of trustees.[89][90] He finances the restoration and construction of synagogues in Russia, including the construction of the Choral Synagogue in Saratov.[91]

In 2019, a monument was opened in Moscow to commemorate resistance heroes in concentration camps and ghettos. Vekselberg donated $300,000 to its creation.[92]

In 2020, when the coronavirus pandemic began, Viktor Vekselberg donated 180 million rubles to buy medical equipment, personal protective equipment, and food for socially vulnerable groups of citizens.[93]

In 2021, Russian Foreign Minister Sergey Lavrov awarded Viktor Vekselberg, among other leaders of the Russian Union of Industrialists and Entrepreneurs, for helping to bring back Russian tourists from abroad.[94]

Personal life[edit]

He is married to Marina and has two children, a daughter and a son.[95] His father is Jewish, and his mother Christian. He identifies himself as multi-national and does not attend weekly synagogue or church services.[96]

Vekselberg is a longtime friend and business partner of British–American billionaire and major Republican Party donor Len Blavatnik,[97] who is close to Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu.[98]

Being placed under sanctions by President Trump's administration he names to be his personal tragedy, because he was left unable to visit his daughter and grandson in New York.[99]

Vekselberg reportedly lives in Switzerland.[100]


  1. ^ Farolfi, Sara. "Russian Billionaire linked to Trump, Manafort Has New Cyprus Passport". OCCRP. Retrieved March 16, 2022.
  2. ^ Presentation of state decorations January 26, 2017,
  3. ^ Filatova, Irina (March 15, 2012). "Newsmaker: Vekselberg's Career Is Filled With Energy". The Moscow Times. Retrieved February 28, 2022.
  4. ^ מוסקבה, סופי שולמן (June 7, 2019). "המיליארדר שמחבר בין פוטין, טראמפ, גנץ, הייטק ויד ושם". כלכליסט - Retrieved November 16, 2022.
  5. ^ Forbes: The World's Billionaires - Viktor Vekselberg October 2019
  6. ^ Smith, Stephen (August 2, 2013). "Viktor Vekselberg: Tracking Down Russia's Secret Billionaire". Archived from the original on January 2, 2018. Retrieved December 3, 2022.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: unfit URL (link)
  7. ^ Allen, Matthew (May 27, 2008). "Vekselberg denies Kremlin influence / ISN". International Relations and Security Network (ISN). Archived from the original on December 7, 2014. Retrieved December 3, 2022 – via Swissinfo.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: unfit URL (link)
  8. ^ "U.S. sanctions on Vekselberg have $1.5-$2 billion assets frozen: sources". Reuters. April 21, 2018. Retrieved March 26, 2022.
  9. ^ Der Spiegel: "Im Westen wartet keiner auf mich" by Walter Von Mayr and Gerhard Spörl March 6, 2006 (in German) | "Der alltägliche Antisemitismus ist nicht zu leugnen. Ich habe ihn selbst häufig zu spüren bekommen, obwohl ich unter Juden nicht als Jude gelte, da meine Mutter Russin ist. Die Russen wiederum halten mich nicht für einen Russen, weil mein Vater Jude ist" - "The everyday anti-Semitism is undeniable. I myself often get to feel it, even though I don't count as a Jew among the Jews, as my mother is Russian. The Russians in turn do not think I'm a Russian because my father is a Jew."
  10. ^ Harding, Luke (July 2, 2007). "The richer they come ..." the Guardian. Retrieved December 3, 2022.
  11. ^ Norris, Stephen M. (2012). Blockbuster history in the new Russia : movies, memory, and patriotism. Bloomington: Indiana University Press. pp. 251–253. ISBN 978-0-253-00708-7. OCLC 812911824.
  12. ^ Фанайлова, Елена (February 8, 2021). "Полтора города, две церкви". Радио Свобода (in Russian). Retrieved November 29, 2022.
  13. ^ "Виктор Вексельберг — Forbes: "Я всегда считал, что хорошо понимаю западный мир"". (in Russian). February 2021. Retrieved November 29, 2022.
  14. ^ Protess, Ben; Rashbaum, William K. (July 1, 2019). "Russia Sanctions Froze His Fortune. Can the 4th Amendment Unlock It?". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved February 19, 2023.
  15. ^ a b "Виктор Вексельберг". (in Russian). Retrieved November 16, 2022.
  16. ^ "Всегда в движении | РУТ (МИИТ)". Официальный сайт Российского университета транспорта | РУТ (МИИТ) (in Russian). February 10, 2022. Retrieved November 16, 2022.
  17. ^ Foy, Henry; Seddon, Max (June 6, 2019). "From Russian oil to rock'n'roll: the rise of Len Blavatnik". Financial Times. Retrieved August 22, 2023.
  18. ^ "Объединение алюминиевых предприятий". (in Russian). June 19, 1996. Retrieved August 22, 2023.
  19. ^ "Виктор Вексельберг оставил нефть себе". Ведомости (in Russian). September 19, 2007. Retrieved August 22, 2023.
  20. ^ ""Русал", СУАЛ и Glencore завершили сделку по слиянию". РБК (in Russian). March 27, 2007. Retrieved August 22, 2023.
  21. ^ "Алюминий стал "Российским"". Ведомости (in Russian). October 10, 2006. Retrieved August 22, 2023.
  22. ^ "В России открывается первая частная железная дорога". (in Russian). September 20, 2002. Retrieved August 22, 2023.
  23. ^ "СУАЛ всерьез взялся за развитие муниципалитетов". (in Russian). Retrieved August 22, 2023.
  24. ^ "Бизнес отвечает за качество экономического роста" (in Russian). Retrieved August 22, 2023.
  25. ^ "«СУАЛ» — компания национальной значимости — ВСП.RU" (in Russian). Retrieved August 22, 2023.
  26. ^ "СУАЛ пообещал пожизненную пенсию". - новости Екатеринбурга (in Russian). December 1, 2004. Retrieved August 22, 2023.
  27. ^ "Тюменскую нефтяную продали Альфе". (in Russian). July 22, 1997. Retrieved August 22, 2023.
  28. ^ "ТНК и Альфа". (in Russian). July 25, 1997. Retrieved August 22, 2023.
  29. ^ "Развязка в ТНК-ННГ". (in Russian). September 16, 1997. Retrieved August 22, 2023.
  30. ^ Bruck, Connie (January 12, 2014). "The Billionaire's Playlist". The New Yorker. ISSN 0028-792X. Retrieved August 22, 2023.
  31. ^ "BP in Russia: a timeline". Retrieved August 22, 2023.
  32. ^ "BP in Russia: a timeline". The Telegraph. October 22, 2012. Retrieved September 19, 2023.
  33. ^ "Виктор Вексельберг оставил нефть себе". Ведомости (in Russian). September 19, 2007. Retrieved September 19, 2023.
  34. ^ "Нефтяной десант в Пекине". (in Russian). March 21, 2000. Retrieved September 19, 2023.
  35. ^ "Прибайкальцев сделают «счастливыми и развитыми»". (in Russian). December 6, 2003. Retrieved September 19, 2023.
  36. ^ "Трое в лодке, не считая Газпрома". (in Russian). January 30, 2004. Retrieved September 19, 2023.
  37. ^ Group, Oerlikon (March 29, 2010). "Oerlikon discloses further details on financial restructuring proposal". Retrieved September 19, 2023.
  38. ^ "OC Oerlikon: Haarscharf am Konkurs vorbei". Handelszeitung (in Swiss High German). Retrieved September 19, 2023.
  39. ^ Medienmitteilung der SCHMOLZ+BICKENBACH AG vom 4. April 2013
  40. ^ Ему всегда чего-то не хватает Зачем группа «Ренова» скупает активы по всему миру Коммерсант №100 9 июня 2007 г.
  41. ^ "Виктор Вексельберг оставил нефть себе". Ведомости (in Russian). September 19, 2007. Retrieved September 19, 2023.
  42. ^ "Renova присвоены кредитные рейтинги. Прогноз – "Стабильный"". Вслух.ru (in Russian). Retrieved September 19, 2023.
  43. ^ "S&P Rates Renova Holding Ltd. BB, ruAA Russia National Scale". Retrieved September 19, 2023.
  44. ^ "Виктор Вексельберг". (in Russian). Retrieved September 19, 2023.
  45. ^ "«Ренова» может вложить в энергетику около $1 млрд". Ведомости (in Russian). April 3, 2013. Retrieved September 19, 2023.
  46. ^ "Hevel Energy Group".
  47. ^ "«Платов»: от первого камня до первого самолета". РБК (in Russian). December 6, 2017. Retrieved September 19, 2023.
  48. ^ "Первый после распада СССР аэропорт открылся в Ростове-на-Дону". Ведомости (in Russian). November 20, 2017. Retrieved September 19, 2023.
  49. ^ "Новый саратовский аэропорт "Гагарин" принял тестовый рейс". (in Russian). August 18, 2019. Retrieved September 19, 2023.
  50. ^ a b "RENOVA Group acquires stake in technology company Sulzer through its Everest investment vehicle". (in German). April 20, 2007. Retrieved July 20, 2023.
  51. ^ a b "Renova buys out investment holding co. in Sulzer". Reuters. August 20, 2007. Retrieved July 20, 2023.
  52. ^ "Victory to sell out of Oerlikon-magazine". Reuters. May 1, 2008. Retrieved July 20, 2023.
  53. ^ ""Ренова" выкупила у Victory Industriebeteiligung AG долю в компании, владеющей 31% акций Sulzer". Retrieved July 20, 2023.
  54. ^ "Viktor Vekselberg alleiniger Grossaktionär bei Sulzer". Neue Zürcher Zeitung (in Swiss High German). August 21, 2007. ISSN 0376-6829. Retrieved July 20, 2023.
  55. ^ Lob, Gerhard (September 23, 2010). "Schlappe für das EFD". St. Galler Tagblatt (in German). Retrieved July 20, 2023.
  56. ^ "Aktuelle Nachrichten aus Liechtenstein -". Retrieved July 20, 2023.
  57. ^ " - Kein Weiterzug des Urteils in Sachen OC Oerlikon". November 21, 2015. Archived from the original on November 21, 2015. Retrieved July 20, 2023.
  58. ^ "Инновационные технологии: как это работает на самом деле". Archived from the original on June 25, 2012. Retrieved July 31, 2012.
  59. ^ Hungary: detentions linked to the sale of property in Moscow. OSW. February 16, 2011
  60. ^ Возбуждено уголовное дело по факту хищения при приобретении Минрегионом здания в центре Москвы. Interfax. 8 августа 2013.
  61. ^ a b c Burke, Garance; Braun, Stephen (July 5, 2018). "Sanctioned Russian oligarch linked to Cohen has vast US ties". Associated Press.
  62. ^ Ведомости (May 12, 2010). "Виктор Вексельберг переселяется в деревню из-за референдума". Retrieved December 5, 2018.
  63. ^ Farolfi, Sara; Harding, Luke; Ophanides, Stelios (March 2, 2018). "EU citizenship for sale as Russian oligarch buys Cypriot passport". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved December 12, 2018.
  64. ^ "Report to Congress Pursuant to Section 241 of the Countering America's Adversaries Through Sanctions Act of 2017 Regarding Senior Foreign Political Figures and Oligarchs in the Russian Federation and Russian Parastatal Entities" (PDF). January 29, 2018.
  65. ^ Goldman, Adam; Protess, Ben; Rashbaum, William K. (May 4, 2018). "Viktor Vekselberg, Russian Billionaire, Was Questioned by Mueller's Investigators". New York Times. Retrieved May 4, 2018.
  66. ^ "Ukraine-/Russia-related Designations and Identification Update: OFAC Specially Designated Nationals List". United States Department of the Treasury. April 6, 2018. Retrieved April 6, 2018.
  67. ^ "США ввели санкции против семи российских олигархов и 17 чиновников из "кремлевского списка"" [The US imposed sanctions against seven Russian oligarchs and 17 officials from the "Kremlin list"]. Meduza (in Russian). April 6, 2018. Retrieved April 6, 2018.
  68. ^ "Виктор Вексельберг — Forbes: "Я всегда считал, что хорошо понимаю западный мир"". February 1, 2021.
  69. ^ Dienst, Jonathan; Winter, Tom (September 1, 2022). "FBI, Homeland Security search alleged properties of Russian oligarch in New York and Florida".
  71. ^ "Poland imposes sanctions against 15 Russian oligarchs, 35 firms over Ukraine war".
  72. ^ "Viktor Feliksovich Vekselberg". April 14, 1957. Retrieved March 24, 2023.
  73. ^ "UK sanctions Russian oligarch behind major Fabergé egg loan to V&A exhibition". The Art Newspaper - International art news and events. March 18, 2022. Retrieved March 26, 2022.
  74. ^ "Russian billionaire on EU sanctions list quits as Royal Academy trustee". The Guardian. March 1, 2022. Retrieved March 26, 2022.
  75. ^ "Australian government extends sanctions to Russian oligarchs Oleg Deripaska and Viktor Vekselberg". The Guardian. March 18, 2022. Retrieved March 26, 2022.
  76. ^ Pickford, James; Massoudi, Arash (March 14, 2022). "Tate cuts links with two billionaires hit with sanctions over Ukraine invasion". Financial Times. Archived from the original on December 10, 2022. Retrieved March 26, 2022.
  77. ^ a b Cotterill, Joseph (May 17, 2023). "South Africa's flirtation with Moscow risks billions of dollars in US exports". Financial Times. Retrieved May 18, 2023.
  78. ^ "Treasury Sanctions Kremlin Elites, Leaders, Oligarchs, and Family for Enabling Putin's War Against Ukraine". United States Department of the Treasury. March 11, 2022. Archived from the original on March 11, 2022. Retrieved April 4, 2022.
  79. ^ "US seizes yacht owned by oligarch with close ties to Putin". AP NEWS. April 4, 2022. Retrieved April 4, 2022.
  80. ^ "La Guardia Civil incauta en Mallorca el yate de un oligarca ruso reclamado por EEUU". (in Spanish). Guardia Civil. April 4, 2022. Archived from the original on April 4, 2022. Retrieved April 4, 2022.
  81. ^ "$90 Million Yacht of Sanctioned Russian Oligarch Viktor Vekselberg Seized by Spain at Request of United States". April 4, 2022. Archived from the original on April 4, 2022. Retrieved April 4, 2022.
  82. ^ "In the Matter of the Seizure of The Motor Yacht Tango, with International Maritime Organization Number 1010703". Retrieved April 4, 2022.
  83. ^ "Russian Tycoon Buys Forbes Faberge Eggs". Forbes. February 4, 2004. Archived from the original on December 3, 2022. Retrieved December 3, 2022.
  84. ^ a b "BBC Four - The World's Most Beautiful Eggs: The Genius of Carl Faberge". BBC. 2013. Retrieved December 3, 2022.
  85. ^ The Fabergé Museum has officially opened in the Shuvalov Palace in St. Petersburg, Official website of the Link of Times Foundation, archived from the original on February 4, 2017, retrieved March 6, 2015
  86. ^ High Court Drama, Art News, February 5, 2013, retrieved March 6, 2015
  87. ^ Singh, Anita (July 27, 2012), Russian oligarch wins £1.7m refund,, retrieved March 6, 2015
  88. ^ Mosk, Matthew; Ross, Brian (September 26, 2017). "Special counsel probing flow of Russian-American money to Trump political funds". ABC News. Retrieved December 3, 2022.
  89. ^ Bloomberg: "Jewish Museum and Tolerance Center Peres Inaugurates Jewish Museum Funded by Putin, Vekselberg" By Ilya Arkhipov & Henry Meyer November 8, 2012
  90. ^ Vekselberg headed the board of trustees of the Jewish Museum and Tolerance Center Interfax, July 18, 2013
  91. ^ Вексельберг построит синагогу в Саратове Izrus, 3 February 2015 13:55
  92. ^ "В Москве откроется памятник жертвам Холокоста. Участие в церемонии примет президент России". Эхо Москвы (in Russian). Retrieved December 3, 2021.
  93. ^ "Лечебные миллиарды: как участники списка Forbes борются с коронавирусом". (in Russian). April 17, 2020. Retrieved December 3, 2021.
  94. ^ "Лавров: россияне оценили помощь бизнеса в вывозе граждан из-за границы в начале пандемии". ТАСС. Retrieved December 3, 2021.
  95. ^ "Rosneft deal makes Viktor Vekselberg Russia's richest man". the Guardian. October 23, 2012. Retrieved December 3, 2022.
  96. ^ Кого в России считать евреем? Archived March 10, 2014, at the Wayback Machine Александр Рогаткин, Выпуск от October 31, 2004
  97. ^ May, Ruth (August 3, 2017). "GOP campaigns took $7.35 million from oligarch linked to Russia". Dallas News.
  98. ^ "Kremlin-linked Billionaire, Netanyahu Friend Donated to Trump's Private Legal Fund". Haaretz. September 25, 2017.
  99. ^ Foy, Henry (June 3, 2019). "Russian billionaire pushes back over US sanctions". Financial Times. Archived from the original on December 10, 2022. Retrieved December 3, 2021.
  100. ^ "Meet the oligarchs: Switzerland's awkward guests". SWI March 25, 2022. Retrieved December 3, 2022.

External links[edit]