Villa Guerrero, State of Mexico
|State||State of Mexico|
|• Municipal president||C. Tito Maya de la Cruz m(2016)|
|Time zone||CST (UTC-6)|
|• Summer (DST)||CDT (UTC-5)|
Villa Guerrero is a town and municipality in the State of Mexico, Mexico. It is located on the southern slopes of the Nevado de Toluca, which is also known as "Xicnahuitecatl", and is 50 minutes/58 km from Toluca.
Its original name was Tequaloyan, which literally in Náhuatl means "place where there are wild beasts that devour men". The Prehispanic philosophy said that Tequani u Ocelotl (jaguar) was the symbol of the west, where the sun goes underground, to make a nocturnal trip and visit the Mictlan or Dead World, sharing its trip with the Wolf Dog as a guide (or Venus as Tlahuiscalpanteuhctli, lord of the rising, to be born in the morning as a new flowered boon. Probably the original name either comes from the previous existence of wild animals called tecuani (tē = "someone, people"; cuā = "eat"; ni = "habitual" suffix), as now noted in the coat of arms shield. Its name was changed in 1867 to honor the duty and courage of its inhabitants, who participated in many war successes during the nineteenth century, such as the Independence battle of January 19 and 20, 1812, National Guard in 1547 and help in Monterrey under command of Santiago Tapia during American intervention, successful battle on September 14, 1857, versus General Jose Maria Cobos, anti liberal army, National guard at Puebla to fight the French Army on May 5, 1862. 
Tequaloyan started out as an Ulmec settlement coming from the Gulf of Mexico, which is why the cult to the ocelot named Nahuatl Ocelotl Tequani giving significance to the name of the town and people (Tequanipas) surely was re-founded by the Otomis in the seventh century. Starting in the tenth century, it came under the influence of the Toltec and Teotihuacan civilizations. From 1221 to 1295, it was part of the Cuitlach Teuhctli domain. In 1472 the area was conquered by the Aztec Empire under Axayacatl. During this period, the town of Tequaloyan, along with some other communities, rose in importance.
After the Spanish conquest, the town became an administrative and political center, with the surrounding lands distributed to various conquistadors who created a number of haciendas including San Miguel, San José, and San Nicolás Buenavista. The natives were evangelized by Augustinians who came from neighboring Malinalco. One of the first secular governors was Don Miguel Sanchez, who signed a title of land for neighbour Iztlahuatzinco, with the presence of Pedro de Gante and Alonso de Santiago in 1560. True separation of ecclesiastical and secular powers came about between 1692 and 1744, finalizing with the naming of Juan de la Cruz as Governor of Tequaloyan, with ecclesiastical authority in the area remaining with Malinalco and Tenancingo.
During the Mexican War of Independence, one battle between the insurgents and royalist forces took place here on January 3, 1812. Rosendo Porlier of the royalist forces attacked José María Oviedo of the rebels, who fortified the town and helped to defend it. Porlier returned on January 17 to attack Tequaloyan as the nearby ravine of the Texcaltenco River, leading to Oviedo's death. This hastened the arrival of José María Morelos, who along with Hermenegildo Galeana, Nicolás Bravo and Mariano Matamoros gathered a force of 3,200 men to defeat the royalist forces on the 19th and 20th of the same month, allowing the insurgents to win again at Tenancingo two days later.
Because of it size at the time (over 1,000 inhabitants), Tequaloyan was designated officially as a municipality with the promulgation of the Constitución Española de Cádiz in 1812, with Don Francisco Hernández as the first mayor; however, it belonged first to the municipality of Malinalco until 1826 when the town voted to secede. This is considered to be the foundation of the town's free municipal seat status.
During American Intervention, the inhabitants were rehabilitated as National Guard and fought with the Mexican Army at Padierna and Molino del Reyn neighbourhood of Chapultepec in Mexico City.
At the promulgation of Liberal Constitution in 1857, the inhabitants of Tequaloyan fought many times versus the Conservator Army commanded for Jose Maria Cobos and had a successful battle on September the 14th, some time after, combat the French Army in Puebla on May 5, 1862, so at the end of Juarez Reform, its main town grew up to "Villa Guerrero", to honor duty and courage of the inhabitants. on April 20, 1867, not before at one tax trade to rebuild the official buildings.
As municipal seat, the town of Villa Guerrero is the governing authority for the following communities: Buenavista El Carmen, Cruz Vidriada, La Finca, El Islote, El Izote, Jesús Carranza (Rancho de Jesús), La Loma de la Concepción (La Loma), Matlazinca, El Moral, Porfirio Díaz, Potrero de la Sierra, Potrero Nuevo, El Progreso Hidalgo, San Bartolomé (San Bartolo), San Diego, San Felipe, San Francisco, San Gaspar, San José, San Lucas, San Mateo Coapexco, San Miguel, San Pedro Buenos Aires (San Pedro), Santa María Aranzazú (Santa María), Santiago Oxtotitlán, Tequimilpa, Totolmajac, Zacango, Coxcacoaco, Ejido de la Finca, La Joya, El Peñón, Ejido de San Mateo Coapexco, Los Ranchos de San José, La Merced (Ex-hacienda la Merced), El Potrero, Loma del Capulín, Los Arroyos (La Baja de San Felipe), Cuajimalpa (Los Cuervos), Presa Tecualoya, Loma de Zacango (El Aventurero), San Martín, El Venturero Santa María Aranzazú, La Alta de Santiago Oxtotitlán, La Loma de Santiago Oxtotitlán, El Potrero de Santiago Oxtotitlán, Potrerillos Santa María Villa Guerrero, and Zanjillas San Bartolomé.
Villa Guerrero is bordered to the north by Zinacantepec, Toluca, Calimaya and Tenango del Valle; to the east by the municipalities of Tenancingo and Zumpahuacán, to the south by Ixtapan de la Sal and to the west with the same Ixtapan de la Sal and Coatepec Harinas.
Its two major geographical features (aside from the view of the Nevado de Toluca) are the Cerro (Hill) Cuate or of Cuaximalpa with an altitude of 3,760 meters above sea level, followed by the Cerro Cuexcontepec at 3,330 meters. A chain of hills coming down from the Chignahuitecatl volcano divides the municipality on the east from Ixtapan de la Sal and Coatepec Harinas. It is noted for its deep ravines and jagged cliffs and has been compared to Riasa, in Spain. As part of the Alto Balsas basin, it has a number of rivers including the Texcaltenco, the Chiquito de Santa María, the San Gaspar, the Los Tizantez, the Tequimilpa, the Cruz Colorada or San Mateo and the Calderón. Many of these contain waterfalls such as the Salto de Candelitas, the Atlaquisca, the Maquilero; the Salto del Río Grande de San Gaspar, and the Salto de la Neblina, called like this, because never ends of falling but change its water for a perpetual foggy. The territory also possesses natural springs such as La Estrella, La Piedra Ahuecada, El Coponial, Los Chicamoles, and El Agua de la Pila as well as a thermal spring popularly known as El Salitre.
The economy of the municipality is based on agriculture, with about half of the territory dedicated to such, and about half is left as forest. In the 1940s, Mexico State governor Wenceslao Labra introduced 300,000 avocado trees to the area. Avocados, along with peaches, are extensively grown, most of which are sold at the Mercado Merced in Mexico City. However, the most important economic developments occurred from the 1930s to the 1950s when large numbers of Japanese immigrants settled in the area, initiating floriculture. Roses in various varieties, are the primary flower grown, followed by the "gerbera", the lilies as "casablanca", the "stargeiser", chrysanthemum and the Dutch tulip as well as other ornamental plants such as the dollar eucalyptus, aster and most recently many filler plants. The quality of Villa Guerrero's flowers has allowed them to penetrate national and international flower markets, exporting flowers to the United States, Canada and various European countries. This floriculture is said to be the "pride of the Villaguerrenses" and is now the main economic staple of the municipality. In the 2005–2010 period the Mexican Flower Council, the most important flower and pot plant growers organization, developed a special quality program that achieved WF&FSA organization membership. Other economic ventures such as industry and tourism are negligible or nascent.
- "Enciclopedia de los Municipios Estado de Mexico Villa Guerrero, by Rodolfo Guadarrama Gonzalez, Federal Government Ministry". 2005. Archived from the original on 28 May 2007. Retrieved 1 April 2015.
- "Principales resultados por localidad 2005 (ITER)". Archived from the original on June 13, 2011. Retrieved 2008-03-08.
- Rodolfo Guadarrama Gonzalez, Ed. Mexiquense Institute of Culture, Government of the State of Mexico, 1999.
- Mexican Flower Council internal documents