Viluppuram district

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Villupuram district
District
Gingee Fort
Location in India
Location in India
Coordinates: 11°57′16.92″N 79°31′39.83″E / 11.9547000°N 79.5277306°E / 11.9547000; 79.5277306Coordinates: 11°57′16.92″N 79°31′39.83″E / 11.9547000°N 79.5277306°E / 11.9547000; 79.5277306
Country India
StateTamil Nadu
MunicipalitiesViluppuram, Tindivanam
Largest TownViluppuram
HeadquartersViluppuram
TalukasGingee, Thindivanam, Vanur, Viluppuram,
Government
 • CollectorDr. L. Subramanian, IAS
Area
 • Total4,194 km2 (1,619 sq mi)
Population
(2011)
 • Total3,458,873
 • Rank11
 • Density820/km2 (2,100/sq mi)
Languages
 • OfficialTamil
Time zoneUTC+5:30 (IST)
PIN
604xxx, 6056xx, 6062xx
Telephone code04146, 04147, 04149, 04151, 04153
Vehicle registration,TN-16,TN-32[1]
Websiteviluppuram.nic.in

Viluppuram (also Villupuram or Vizhupuram) is one of the 33 districts which make up the state of Tamil Nadu, situated on the southern tip of India. The district headquarters is located at Viluppuram. The district was founded on September 30, 1993, when it was created out of the South Arcot district. Viluppuram is the largest district in the state. It lies between the Tiruchirapalli and Chennai national highways. It is well-connected by rail and road, and is a major rail junction. This district has several tourist spots which are more than 500 years old, such as the Gingee Fort.

Etymology[edit]

Viluppuram is named after a class of people known as "Vizhupparaiyar" (விழுப்பரையர்). One of the famous Tamil poets Jayamkondar wrote a book titled "Karanai Vizhupparaiyan madal" (also known as Aadhinatha Valamadal) in praise of Aadhinathan Vizhupparaiyan who served as a commander in the army of Kulottunga Chola I. The town came to be known as the "Vizhupparaiyan" sect named after him. They are also known as "Vizhupaadharaiyar".[2][3] Viluppuram is also affectionately called as "Vizhimaa Nagaram" (விழிமா நகரம்) in Tamil, meaning "town with wide-eyed people."

History[edit]

Viluppuram district was formerly a part of South Arcot District along with Cuddalore District. It was then bifurcated from Cuddalore and became a separate district on 30 September, 1993. Because of this, the history of Viluppuram district closely resembles that of Cuddalore. The Chola were among the earliest rulers, Karikala Chola being the most famous and influential. For a short period, the Cholas were overthrown by Simhavishnu Pallava, and the region came under the rule of the Pallava. Vijayalaya Chola reinstated Chola rule, beginning the great Chola Empire.

With the rise of Jatavarman Sundara Pandya I (1251), Chola supremacy came to an end. The sway of Pandyas lasted for over 50 years, followed by Muslim domination from 1334 to 1378. By 1378, the region came under the rule of Vijayanagara Empire and Nayaks were appointed as the rulers of the area.

In 1677 Shivaji took Gingee area with the assistance of Golkonda forces. Then came the Mughals. During the Mughal regime, both the English and French acquired settlements in South Arcot. During the Anglo-French rivalry, the entire district turned into a war zone. After some time, the entire area came under the control of East India Company. It remained under British authority till 1947 when India became independent.[4]

Economy[edit]

In 2006, the Ministry of Panchayatin Raj named Viluppuram one of the 250 most backward districts (out of a total of 640) in the country.[5] It is one of the six districts in Tamil Nadu currently receiving funds from the Backward Regions Grant Fund Program (BRGF).[5]

District Administration[edit]

At present Viluppuram district comprises of 1490 revenue villages, 4 revenue divisions, 13 administrative taluks, 22 blocks, 15 town panchayat unions, 1099 village panchayats, and 3 municipalities.

The general geological formation of the district appears to be simple. The more significant part of it is covered by the metamorphic rocks belonging to the genesis family. There are also three great groups of sedimentary rocks belonging to different geological periods. The Kalrayan Hills in the north represents a continuous range of hills covered with some thorny forests and vegetation. Among the hills, the most beautiful part of the district lies around the Gingee hills.

Taluks[edit]

Viluppuram district has 13 taluks.

Demographics[edit]

According to 2011 census Viluppuram district had a population of 3,458,873 with a sex-ratio of 987 females for every 1,000 males, much above the national average of 929.[6] A total of 404,106 were under the age of six, constituting 208,246 males and 195,860 females. Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes accounted for 29.37% and 2.16% of the population respectively. The average literacy of the district was 63.48%, compared to the national average of 72.99%.[6] The district had a total of 800,368 households. There were a total of 1,703,249 workers, comprising 322,900 cultivators, 537,581 main agricultural labourers, 23,961 in house hold industries, 376,360 other workers, 442,447 marginal workers, 46,746 marginal cultivators, 294,632 marginal agricultural labourers, 14,276 marginal workers in household industries and 86,793 other marginal workers.[7]

Tourist Attractions[edit]

Gingee Fort[edit]

A panorama of Gingee Fort.

Nestled on three hills and enclosed by a huge rampart 60 feet thick, stands the Gingee Fort.

It stands 800 feet tall and is guarded by an 80 foot wide moat. Much of the early history of the fort is shrouded in mystery, as it changed many hands times before being annexed to the Vijayanagar empire.



See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "www.tn.gov.in" (PDF). Retrieved 2011-12-18.
  2. ^ நாசா விண்வெளி ஆய்வு நடுவத்தில் ஒரு தமிழுள்ளம் [Archive] - தமிழ் மன்றம்.காம்
  3. ^ இனியது கேட்கின்!: 08. இஇ - மடப்பாவையார் நம் வசமாக
  4. ^ "History of Viluppuram". Viluppuram Municipality.
  5. ^ a b Ministry of Panchayati Raj (8 September 2009). "A Note on the Backward Regions Grant Fund Programme" (PDF). National Institute of Rural Development. Archived from the original (PDF) on 5 April 2012. Retrieved 27 September 2011.
  6. ^ a b "Census Info 2011 Final population totals". Office of The Registrar General and Census Commissioner, Ministry of Home Affairs, Government of India. 2013. Retrieved 26 January 2014.
  7. ^ "Census Info 2011 Final population totals - Viluppuram district". Office of The Registrar General and Census Commissioner, Ministry of Home Affairs, Government of India. 2013. Retrieved 26 January 2014.