|This article needs additional citations for verification. (August 2015)|
|Nickname(s): Vizhi Maanagar|
|• Type||Selection Grade Municipality|
|• Body||Municipal council|
|• Municipal chairman||G. Baskaran|
|• Total||8.36 km2 (3.23 sq mi)|
|Elevation||44 m (144 ft)|
|• Density||12,000/km2 (30,000/sq mi)|
|Time zone||IST (UTC+5:30)|
|Telephone code||+91–4146(STD Code)|
|Distance from Chennai||161 kilometres (100 mi)|
|Distance from Madurai||305 kilometres (190 mi)|
|Distance from Bengaluru||269 kilometres (167 mi)|
|Sex ratio||1019 ♂/♀|
Viluppuram (also spelled as Villupuram and Vizhupuram) is a municipality and the administrative headquarters of Viluppuram district, the largest district in the state of Tamil Nadu, India. The town serves as a major railway junction, and National Highway 45 passes through it. With agriculture as its main source of income, According to Census 2011 Viluppuram's literacy rate has been recorded as 90.16%.
For a short period, the Cholas were overthrown by Simhavishnu Pallava and the Region came under the Pallava rule for sometime. Vijayalaya Chola again revived Chola rule. This was the beginning of great Chola Empire. The later Chola rulers were weak and the power passed on to the hands of Eastern Chalukyas.
Cholas regained their lost position but with the rise of Jatavarman Sundara Pandya-1 (1251 A.D), Chola supremacy came to an end. The sway of Pandyas lasted for over 50 years, followed by Muslim domination from 1334 to 1378 A.D. By 1378, the region came under the rule of Vijayanagara Empire and Nayaks were appointed as the rulers of the region.
In 1677 Shivaji took Gingee area with the assistance of Golkonda forces. Then came the Mughals. During the Mughals regime, both the English and French acquired settlements in South Arcot. During the Anglo-French rivalry, the entire district was turned into a war land. After sometime, the entire area came under the control of East India Company. It remained under British authority till 1947 when India became independent.
Viluppuram is located in the far southeast part of India, 40 kilometres (25 mi) west of the Bay of Bengal. The area contains metamorphic rocks formed by pressure and heat belonging to the granite-like gneiss family. There are also three major groups of sedimentary rocks, layers of particles that settled in different geological periods. Kalrayan Hills forest park is located 116 kilometres (72 mi) to the west and Gingee Hills forest park 50 kilometres (31 mi) to the north. The Thatagiri Murugan Temple is about 191 kilometres (119 mi) to the southeast in Senthamangalam with the Lord Siva temple in Koppampatti 153 kilometres (95 mi) southwest of the town. Viluppuram's GPS location is 11° 56' N 79° 29' E.
As of 2011[update] census of India, the town has population of 96,253. The total population constitute, 47,670 males and 48,583 females —a sex ratio of 1019 females per 1000 males, higher than the national average of 940 per 1000. 10,217 children are in the age group of 0–6 years, of which 5,133 are boys and 5,084 are girls—a ratio of 991 per 1000. The average literacy rate stands at 90.16% with 77,571 literates, significantly higher than the national average of 72.99%.
Politically, Viluppuram is part of the Villuppuram Lok Sabha constituency and the Viluppuram State Assembly constituency. The municipality was established in 1919 and was upgraded to a second grade municipality in 1953, a first grade municipality in 1973, and a selection grade municipality in 1988. It has a population of 96,256 (2011 census) and an area of 8.36 square kilometres (3.23 sq mi). The town is divided into 42 wards. The municipal council is composed of 42 ward councillors and is headed by a chairperson elected by voters of the town. Councillors elect a vice-chairperson among themselves while the executive wing is headed by a commissioner, who is assisted by a team of officials including the health officer, municipal engineer, town planning officer, manager, revenue officer and other staff.
Places of interest
- Gingee Fort is well known for its history and stone architecture.
Viluppuram is well connected by roads to major cities and to the rest of the state. Villupuram has the longest National roads of any district in Tamil Nadu. The major national highways of the town are:
- NH 45, which connects Chennai to Theni, via Viluppuram–Tiruchirapalli–Dindigul-Periyakulam.
- NH 45A, which connects Viluppuram to Nagapattinam via Pondicherry and Cuddalore.
- NH 234, which Connects Villupuram to Mangalore via Thiruvannaamalai-Vellore–Gudiyatham.
- NH 45C, which connects (Viluppuram) Vikravandi to Thanjavur via Panruti–Neyveli–Kumbakonam and intersects with NH 45A in Koliyanur, about 5 km from Viluppuram.
Besides the above-mentioned national highways, several state highways also run through the district and town.
The town has a lot of buses frequently to major cities such as Chennai, Tiruchirapalli, Bangalore, Madurai, Salem, Pondicherry, Vellore etc. The town also serves the frequent bus services to nearby towns like Cuddalore, Thiruvannamalai, Tindivanam, Kallakurichi etc. Viluppuram is also the headquarters of the Tamil Nadu State Transport Corporation(TNSTC) – Viluppuram Tamil Nadu State Transport Corporation division (the erstwhile Thanthai Periyar Transport Corporation [TPTC]). It is one of the six Tamil Nadu State Transport Corporation divisions serving the state. Viluppuram Bus Station is one of the largest bus terminus by area in Tamil Nadu.
Viluppuram has a well-known railway station.It was first built under the British .The Viluppuram Railway Junction at Viluppuram serves as the distribution point of rail traffic from Chennai, the state capital of Tamil Nadu, towards the southern part of the state. It is one of the important junctions in Tamil Nadu. Five railway lines branch out of Viluppuram:
- Double Electrified BG (Broad Gauge) line towards Chennai Beach via Chengulpattu Junction.
- Electrified BG (Broad Gauge) line towards Tiruchirapalli Junction via Vriddachalam Junction and Ariyalur. Electrification work was completed in 2009. Also called "Chord Line" to Tiruchirapalli.
- Non electrified BG (Broad gauge) line towards Tiruchirapalli Junction via Cuddalore Port Junction, Mayiladuthurai Junction, Kumbakonam and Thanjavur
- Under electrification BG (Broad gauge) line towards Katpadi Junction via Tiruvannamalai and Vellore Cantonment
- Electrified BG (Broad Gauge) line to Pondicherry. Gauge conversion was underway in 2010, making rail traffic even heavier.
Viluppuram railway station has been undergone a massive infrastructure upgrade to handle this traffic.
Since the town is landlocked, the weather in Viluppuram is generally humid and hot. It relies on the monsoon for rain during October, November and December. Summers are very hot, and temperatures can get up to 40 °C. Winters are moderate with temperatures ranging between 30 °C and 35 °C. Viluppuram has a tropical climate. In winter, there is much less rainfall in Viluppuram than in summer. This climate is considered to be Aw according to the Köppen-Geiger climate classification.
The average annual temperature is 28.4 °C in Viluppuram. The average annual rainfall is 1046 mm. The driest month is March, with 6 mm of rainfall. With an average of 222 mm, the most precipitation falls in October. The warmest month of the year is May, with an average temperature of 32.0 °C. January has the lowest average temperature of the year. It is 24.6 °C.
|Climate data for Viluppuram|
|Average high °C (°F)||28.8
|Average low °C (°F)||20.4
|Average rainfall mm (inches)||20
The difference in precipitation between the driest month and the wettest month is 216 mm. During the year, the average temperatures vary by 7.4 °C.
According to the 2011 census, Viluppuram municipality is divided into 42 wards for which elections are held every 5 years. The Viluppuram Municipality has population of 96,253 of which 47,670 are males while 48,583 are females as per report released by Census India 2011. Population of Children with age of 0-6 is 10217 which is 10.61% of total population of Viluppuram (M). In Viluppuram Municipality, Female Sex Ratio is of 1019 against state average of 996. Moreover, Child Sex Ratio in Viluppuram is around 990 compared to Tamil Nadu state average of 943. Literacy rate of Viluppuram city is 90.16% higher than state average of 80.09%. In Viluppuram, Male literacy is around 94.93% while female literacy rate is 85.50%. Viluppuram Municipality has total administration over 22,832 houses to which it supplies basic amenities like water and sewerage. It is also authorize to build roads within Municipality limits and impose taxes on properties coming under its jurisdiction.
Schedule Caste (SC) constitutes 12.53% while Schedule Tribe (ST) were 0.29% of total population in Viluppuram (M).
Out of total population, 33,597 were engaged in work or business activity. Of this 26,828 were males while 6,769 were females. In census survey, worker is defined as person who does business, job, service, and cultivator and labour activity. Of total 33597 working population, 85.69% were engaged in Main Work while 14.31% of total workers were engaged in Marginal Work.
- "Cities having population 1 lakh and above". The Registrar General & Census Commissioner, India. Retrieved 1 August 2014.
- "Viluppuram Census 2011".
- "History of Viluppuram". Viluppuram Municipality.
- "Google Maps". Google Maps.
- "TAMILNADU WATER SUPPLY AND DRAINAGE BOARD". twadboard.gov.in.
- "Imperial Gazetteer of India ...". google.com.
- Urban Infrastructure Report 2006, pp. 7-9
- "Census Info 2011 Final population totals – Viluppuram". Office of The Registrar General and Census Commissioner, Ministry of Home Affairs, Government of India. 2013. Retrieved 26 January 2014.
- "Sex Ratio". The Registrar General & Census Commissioner, India. Retrieved 1 September 2014.
- "India - Literacy rate, 7+ yrs". CensusInfo India 2011. Retrieved 19 August 2015.
- "TNSTC Viluppuram".
- "Climate:Viluppuram". Retrieved 4 January 2014.
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