Viminol

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search
Viminol
Viminol2DACS.svg
Clinical data
Trade namesDividol
Other namesDividol, viminolo, diviminol
AHFS/Drugs.comInternational Drug Names
Routes of
administration
Oral
ATC code
Identifiers
CAS Number
PubChem CID
ChemSpider
UNII
KEGG
ChEMBL
ECHA InfoCard100.040.301 Edit this at Wikidata
Chemical and physical data
FormulaC21H31ClN2O
Molar mass362.94 g·mol−1
3D model (JSmol)
 ☒N☑Y (what is this?)  (verify)

Viminol (marketed under the brandname Dividol) is an opioid analgesic developed by a team at the drug company Zambon in the 1960s.[1] Viminol is based on the α-pyrryl-2-aminoethanol structure, unlike any other class of opioids.[2][3]

Viminol has both antitussive (cough suppressing) and analgesic (pain reducing) effects. Viminol has additional effects similar to other opioids including sedation and euphoria.[citation needed] It has six different stereoisomers which have varying properties. Four are inactive, but the 1S-(R,R)-disecbutyl isomer is a μ-opioid full agonist around 5.5 times more potent than morphine and the 1S-(S,S)-disecbutyl isomer is an antagonist.[4][5] Since vimonol is supplied as a racemic mixture of isomers, the overall effect is a mixed agonist–antagonist profile similar to that of opioids such as pentazocine, although with somewhat fewer side effects.[6]

Side effects[edit]

Side effects are similar to other opioids, and can include:[medical citation needed]

However, since viminol is supplied as a racemic mixture of agonist and antagonist isomers, the abuse potential and respiratory depression tends to be less than that of μ-opioid full agonist drugs.[medical citation needed]

Drug dependence may occur.[7]

Related compounds[edit]

Later work showed that replacing the chlorine atom with an fluorine atom (2F-Viminol) or with a trifluoromethyl group produced a compound with twice the potency and half the acute toxicity.[8] A later team at Zambon found that one isomer of a pyrrolidone analog is 318 times as potent as morphine in its analgesic activity in animal studies.[9] A number of related compounds were also found to be active, allowing a QSAR model to be constructed.

Trifluoromethyl analog
Fluoro analog "2F-Viminol"
Pyrrolidone analog, Z4349[10]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Teotino UM, Bella DD (10 November 1970). "US Patent 3539589 - 1-(α-PYRRYL)-2-AMINO ETHANOLS". Whitefin Holding Sa.
  2. ^ Contri AM (April 1981). "[Chromatographic separation of diastereoisomers of aminoalcohol salts and their densitometric determination]". Il Farmaco; Edizione Pratica (in Italian). 36 (4): 215–22. PMID 6894429.
  3. ^ Neto JM, Murad JE, Monteiro SS (December 1977). "Psychopharmacological properties of the viminol-p-hydroxybenzoate". Revista Brasileira de Pesquisas Medicas e Biologicas. 10 (6): 361–8. PMID 609773.
  4. ^ Bella DD, Bresso CV, Monza DC, Tiotino UM (31 December 1974). "US Patent 3857857 - Stereoisomers of 1(1'(-O-Chlorobenzyl)-2'-Pyrryl)-2-Disec.Butylamino-Ethanol". Whitefin Holding Sa.
  5. ^ Shook JE, Kallman MJ, Dewey WL (January 1984). "The discriminative stimulus properties of the R2 isomer of viminol". Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior. 20 (1): 59–62. doi:10.1016/0091-3057(84)90101-1. PMID 6546450. S2CID 11418389.
  6. ^ Cinelli M, Costa V, Ventresca GP, Lodola E (May 1986). "Viminol R2 analgesic activity in patients with postoperative pain: comparison with pentazocine". International Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, Therapy, and Toxicology. 24 (5): 232–5. PMID 3525423.
  7. ^ Turkiewicz, G.; Baltieri, D. A. (2009). "Dependence on Viminol". Journal of Substance Use. 12 (4): 301. doi:10.1080/14659890701237124. S2CID 71184621.
  8. ^ Franco Conti (10 April 1979). "US Patent 4148907 - Stereoisomers of 1-(1'benzyl-2'pyrryl)-2-di-sec.-butylaminoethanol and pharmaceutical compositions comprising same". Etablissement Viridis.
  9. ^ Carenzi A, Chiarino D, Bella DD, Grancini GC, Veneziani C (2 October 1990). "US Patent 4960788 - Pyrrolidone-2 compounds and their use for central analgesic activity". Zambon Group S.P.A.
  10. ^ Napoletano M, et al. Stereoselective synthesis and evaluation of all stereoisomers of Z4349, a novel and selective μ-opioid analgesic. Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters 1995; 5(6): 589-592. doi:10.1016/0960-894X(95)00077-7