In 2011, Patel graduated from the Central School of Speech and Drama with an MA in writing. In 2014, he wrote True Brits, a play juxtaposing the news of the London 2012 Olympics, with the 7 July 2005 London bombings. This led to his selection for the Bush/Kudos TV writing scheme and an original short commission for BBC iPlayer. In 2018, he wrote An Adventure, inspired by his grandparents, for the Bush Theatre.
In 2016, he wrote BBC One’s honour killing drama Murdered By My Father. It tells of an honour killing of a British Asian Muslim teenage girl, Salma (played by Kiran Sonia Sawar), by her father Haroon (Salman Akhtar). It was nominated for a BAFTA TV Award for best single drama. He has also written for the first series of The Good Karma Hospital and, in 2018, contributed the sixth episode of the eleventh series of Doctor Who, "Demons of the Punjab", set during the Partition of India.
- "Breakthrough Brits: Vinay Patel, Writer". British Academy of Film and Television Arts. 27 October 2016. Retrieved 6 January 2019.
- Natasha Tripney (11 September 2018). "Playwright Vinay Patel: 'Putting on the play is not enough – it's who you get in the room'". The Stage. Retrieved 6 January 2018.
- Bridget Minamore (26 July 2018). "Vinay Patel: 'I think people having their power dismantled is good'". The Guardian. Retrieved 6 January 2019.
- Gavin Collinson (4 April 2016). "Murdered By My Father: Interview with Writer Vinay Patel". BBC Writers Room. Retrieved 6 January 2019.
- Andrea Laford (15 October 2018). "Doctor Who Series 11: episodes 5 and 6 titles, synopses, photos". Cultbox. Retrieved 6 January 2019.
- Gayle Sequeira (17 November 2018). "Doctor Who's Newest Episode Is A Compelling Look At Partition-Era India". Film Companion. Retrieved 6 January 2019.