Vindeby Offshore Wind Farm

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Vindeby Offshore Wind Farm
Country Denmark
Coordinates 54°58′12″N 11°7′48″E / 54.97000°N 11.13000°E / 54.97000; 11.13000Coordinates: 54°58′12″N 11°7′48″E / 54.97000°N 11.13000°E / 54.97000; 11.13000
Status Decommissioned
Commission date 1991
Decommission date 2017
Construction cost 75 million Danish kroner
Owner(s) DONG Energy
Wind farm
Max. water depth 4 m (13 ft)
Distance from shore 2 km (1 mi)
Hub height 35
Rotor diameter 35
Power generation
Units operational 11 x 450 kW
Make and model Bonus
Nameplate capacity 4.95 MW
Capacity factor 22.1%[1]
Annual net output 9.61 GW·h (lifetime average)

Vindeby Offshore Wind Farm was the first offshore wind farm in the world, made in 1991.

History[edit]

Elkraft, one of predecessors of DONG Energy, began considering offshore turbines in 1987, and surveyed the waters around Lolland in 1989.[3]

The wind farm started in 1991 and cost an estimated €10 million, built by SEAS and Elkraft. The electricity industry at the time generally considered offshore turbines to be ludicrous, as they were placed in salty conditions and were much smaller than central power plants.[4][5] The sceptic attitude had changed 6 years later, as offshore winds drove production higher than on land.[6][7]

A single wind turbine had been erected in Swedish waters earlier, but Vindeby was the first collection of turbines, making it the first offshore wind farm.[5] Four years later, the similar sized Tunø Knob wind farm was made.[8][9] Tests were done to learn what to do and what not to do. Experience from Vindeby contributed to the development of cheaper ways to extract power from offshore winds.[10]

The original government concession is for 25 years; from 1991 to 2016. In 2016, DONG Energy considered shutting down the wind farm, as it is well past its design life and had become uneconomical. Vindeby was the first in a long line of wind farms in a downwards cost trend.[4][11]

Dong Energy has completed decommissioning the wind farm in September 2017.[12] In 25 years, Vindeby has produced a total of 243 GWh.

Technology[edit]

The developers contracted Bonus Energy to supply 11 wind turbines (450 kW each) for the project, placed in shallow waters.[2] The annual power is equivalent to 2-3,000 Danish households. The turbines were modified for offshore use by sealing the towers and controlling the humidity inside with air conditioning,[13] extending the life of the machinery.[14][5]

The area was also used for a wave plant in 2010.[15]

Construction[edit]

The 11 turbines were erected in 11 days.[5]

Operation[edit]

As of 2015, the farm has produced 242 GWh.[1][16]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "Capacity factors at Danish offshore wind farms". energynumbers.info. 2017-02-14. Retrieved 2017-03-16. 
  2. ^ a b "Vindeby". 4C Offshore Limited. Retrieved 2016-02-09. 
  3. ^ "Elkraft igang med verdens første offshore møllepark" Ingeniøren, 18 August 1989. Accessed: 9 February 2016.
  4. ^ a b Korsgaard Nielsen, Michael. "Farvel til verdens første hav-møller" Berlingske, 8 February 2016
  5. ^ a b c d Korsgaard Nielsen, Michael. "Fra energiens originaler til bølgernes gulddrenge" Berlingske, 8 February 2016
  6. ^ "Elsektoren positiv over for havmøller". Ingeniøren. 10 April 1997. 
  7. ^ "Elværkerne klar til aftale om havmøller". Ingeniøren. 22 May 1997. 
  8. ^ "Havmøller i disen - Ingeniøren". 10 August 1995. 
  9. ^ ing.dk/artikel/vindmolle-fest-pa-tuno-knob-13739
  10. ^ Andersen, Jan. "Stålfundamenter gør havmøller billigere" Ingeniøren, 14 January 1997. Accessed: 9 February 2016.
  11. ^ DONG to dismantle Vindeby 4c
  12. ^ "Dong completes Vindeby removal". 2017-09-06. Retrieved 2017-03-16. 
  13. ^ Prinds, Karsten (20 April 2011). "Where offshore wind was invented". LORC. Archived from the original on 29 April 2016. Retrieved 27 February 2017. 
  14. ^ Stenstrop, Georg. Vindeby Kulturarv. Retrieved: 9 February 2016. Archive
  15. ^ "Verdens første kombinerede bølge- og vindkraftanlæg søsat". Ingeniøren. 22 June 2010. 
  16. ^ Spliid, Iben B. Data on operating and decommissioned wind turbines (as at end of 2015) Archived 2 August 2014 at the Wayback Machine. (.xls spreadsheet) Danish Energy Agency, 2016. Main page Archived 15 April 2013 at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved: .

External links[edit]