September 25, 1847|
Madison, Wisconsin, United States
|Died||November 20, 1914
Washington, D.C., United States
Ream was born September 25, 1847, in a log cabin in Madison, Wisconsin, as Lavinia Ellen Ream. She was the youngest daughter of Lavinia and Robert Ream. Robert Ream was a surveyor and a Wisconsin Territory civil servant. Her mother was a McDonald of Scottish ancestry. The Reams also operated a stage coach stop, one of the first hotels in Madison, from their home. Guests slept on the floor.
In 1861, her family moved to Washington, D.C. After her father's health began to fail, she began working outside the home to support her family. Vinnie Ream was one of the first women to be employed by the federal government, as a clerk in the dead letter office of the United States Post Office from 1862 to 1866 during the American Civil War. She sang at the E Street Baptist Church, and for the wounded at Washington, D.C. hospitals. She collected materials for the Grand Sanitary Commission.
In 1863, James S. Rollins introduced Ream to sculptor Clark Mills. She became an apprentice in Mills's sculpting studio the next year, at the age of seventeen. In 1864, President Lincoln agreed to model for her in the morning for five months, and she created a bust of his figure. During this time, Ream also began intense public relations efforts, selling photographs of herself and soliciting newspaper attention as a marketing strategy.
Vinnie Ream was the youngest artist and first woman to receive a commission as an artist from the United States government for a statue. She was awarded the commission for the full-size Carrara marble statue of Lincoln by a vote of Congress on July 28, 1866, when she was 18 years old. She had used her previous bust of Lincoln as her entry into the selection contest for the full-size sculpture. There was significant debate over her selection as the sculptor, however, because of concern over her inexperience and the slanderous accusations that she was a "lobbyist", or a public woman of questionable reputation. She was notorious for her beauty and her conversational skills, which likely contributed to these accusations. She worked in a studio in Room A of the basement of the Capitol.
Senator Edmund G. Ross boarded with Ream's family during the impeachment of Andrew Johnson. Ross cast the decisive vote against the removal of President Johnson from office, and Ream was accused of influencing his vote. She was almost thrown out of the Capitol with her unfinished Lincoln statue, but the intervention of powerful New York sculptors prevented it. Once the U.S. government had approved the plaster model, Ream traveled to Paris, Munich, Florence, then Rome, to produce a finished marble figure. She studied with Léon Bonnat in Paris, also producing busts of Gustave Doré, Père Hyacynthe, Franz Liszt, and Giacomo Antonelli. Her studio in Rome was at 45 Via de San Basile. She met Georg Brandes at that time. While in Rome, she faced controversial rumors that claimed that it was the Italian workmen and not Ream who were responsible for her successful sculpture of Lincoln.
When the statue was complete, Ream returned to Washington. On January 25, 1871, her white marble statue of President Abraham Lincoln was unveiled in the United States Capitol rotunda, when Ream was only 23 years old. She later opened a studio at 704 Broadway, New York. In 1871, she exhibited at the American Institution Fair.
She returned to Washington and opened a studio and salon at 235 Pennsylvania Avenue. She was unsuccessful in her entry in the Thomas statue competition. In 1875, George Armstrong Custer sat for a portrait bust. In 1876, she exhibited at the Centennial Exposition. In November 1877, she produced a model for a Lee statue in Richmond. After lobbying William Tecumseh Sherman and Mrs. Farragut, she won a competition to sculpt Admiral David G. Farragut (Ream statue). Her sculpture, located at Farragut Square, Washington, D.C., was unveiled on May 28, 1878. It was cast in the Washington Navy Yard.
Ream married Richard L. Hoxie, of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, on May 28, 1878. They had one son. Her husband was reassigned to Montgomery, Alabama, and Saint Paul, Minnesota. Finally, the Hoxies lived at 1632 K Street near Farragut Square, and had a summer home at 310 South Lucas Street, Iowa City, Iowa. Vinnie played the harp for entertainment.
Her marbles, America, The West, and Miriam, were exhibited at the 1893 World's Columbian Exposition. Ream designed the first free-standing statue of a Native American, Sequoyah, to be placed in Statuary Hall at the Capitol.
- Sappho 1865–1870
- Thaddeus Stevens 1865
- America 1870
- The West 1870?
- Miriam 1870?
- Abraham Lincoln 1871
- Abraham Lincoln ca. 1870–1874
- Admiral David G. Farragut (Ream statue) 1881
- Edwin B. Hay 1902–06
- Samuel Jordan Kirkwood 1906
- Sequoyah 1912–1914
Sappho (1870), Smithsonian American Art Museum
Abraham Lincoln (1871), United States Capitol rotunda
"Abraham Lincoln" (ca. 1864-1870) Cornell University Library
A first-day cover stamp was issued in honor of Vinnie Ream and her work on the statue of Sequoyah, the Native American inventor of the Cherokee alphabet.
- Vinnie Ream. Press of Gibson bros. 1908.
- Glenn V. Sherwood (1997). A labor of love: the life & art of Vinnie Ream. SunShine Press Publications. ISBN 978-0-9615743-6-9.
- Edward S. Cooper (2009). Vinnie Ream: An American Sculptor. Academy Chicago Publishers. ISBN 978-0-89733-589-8.
- "Lincoln’s “Unfathomable Sorrow”: Vinnie Ream, Sculptural Realism, and the Cultural Work of Sympathy in Nineteenth-Century America", European Journal of American Studies
- Vinnie Ream [Hoxie]. Aoc.gov. Retrieved on July 19, 2011.
- Cooper, p. 3.
- Columbia College spotlight stories: Vinnie Ream, Christian College's first artist. Spotlight.ccis.edu (January 24, 2011). Retrieved on 2011-07-19.
- Vinnie Ream (1847–1914) – Historic Missourians – The State Historical Society of Missouri. Shs.umsystem.edu. Retrieved on January 10, 2013.
- Dabakis, Melissa (January 1, 2008). "Sculpting Lincoln: Vinnie Ream, Sarah Fisher Ames, and the Equal Rights Movement". American Art. 22 (1): 78–101. doi:10.1086/587917.
- Cooper, p. 7.
- Cooper, p. 11.
- Cover :: Missouri Historical Review. Statehistoricalsocietyofmissouri.org. Retrieved on July 19, 2011.
- Gibson, p. 4.
- Cooper, p. 26.
- Cooper, pp. 73–81.
- Vinnie Ream (American sculptor) – Britannica Online Encyclopedia. Britannica.com (November 20, 1914). Retrieved on 2011-07-19.
- Cooper, p. 122.
- Cooper, pp. 126–129.
- Reminiscences of my childhood and youth, Georg Brandes, pp. 318ff.
- Gibson, pp. 15–17.
- Vinnie Ream Hoxie. Military Spouse & Sculptor. Arlingtoncemetery.net. Retrieved on July 19, 2011.
- Cooper, p. 149.
- Cooper, p. 154.
- "AMERICAN INSTITUTE FAIR.; The Fortieth Annual Exhibition A Large Display in the Different Branches of Art, Agriculture and Manufacture". The New York Times. September 6, 1871.
- Cooper, p. 157.
- Cooper, pp. 167–168.
- Cooper, p. 205.
- Cooper, p. 210.
- Cooper, p. 220.
- Vinnie Ream Hoxie. Awomanaweek.com (November 20, 1914). Retrieved on 2011-07-19.
- Cooper, p. 241.
- Gibson, pp. 56–57.
- Richard Leveridge Hoxie, Brigadier General, United States Army. Arlingtoncemetery.net. Retrieved on July 19, 2011.
- Gibson, p. 57.
- McDonald on Vinnie Ream Hoxie. Lib.uiowa.edu. Retrieved on July 19, 2011.
- Cooper, p. 261.
- Eagle, Mary Kavanaugh Oldham, (ed). "Lincoln and Farragut." by Mrs. Vinnie Ream Hoxie (1847–1914). The Congress of Women: Held in the Woman's Building, World's Columbian Exposition, Chicago, U.S.A., 1893. Chicago, Ill: Monarch Book Company, 1894. pp. 603–608.
- Kathryn Allamong Jacob (1998). Testament to Union: Civil War monuments in Washington, Part 3. Photograph Edwin Harlan Remsberg. JHU Press. ISBN 978-0-8018-5861-1.
- Cover: Missouri Historical Review. Statehistoricalsocietyofmissouri.org. Retrieved on July 19, 2011.
- Vinita Oklahoma Area Chamber of Commerce promoting visitor information for the purpose of relocation & tourism Archived August 10, 2007, at the Wayback Machine.
- Stewart Alsop (1968), The Center: People and Power in Political Washington, 1968 reprint, New York: Popular Library.
- David O. Stewart (2009), Impeached: The Trial of President Andrew Johnson and the Fight for Lincoln's Legacy, New York: Simon and Schuster, ISBN 9781416547495 .
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Vinnie Ream.|
- The Vinnie Ream Cultural Center of Vinita, Oklahoma
- Vinnie Ream (Hoxie)
- Vinnie Ream Hoxie, Wisconsin State Historical Society
- "Vinnie Ream and Richard Leveridge Hoxie papers", Library of Congress
- John J. McDonald, "Vinnie Ream Hoxie at Iowa and Elsewhere", Books at Iowa 22 (April 1975)
- "The Farragut Statue: Vinnie Ream's Other Big Commission", Streets of Washington, D.C.
- "Vinnie Ream. Photographer unknown. Biographical File. Prints and Photographs Division. LC-USZ62-10284.". Library of Congress. Retrieved February 15, 2012.
- Vinnie Ream at Find a Grave