The former water tower in the center of Vinnytsia, Ukraine (now the War Veterans' Museum). View in the winter evening.
|Nickname(s): pearl of Podolia|
|Raion||Vinnytsia City Municipality|
| • Head of City
|Morgunov Serhiy Anatoliyovych|
|• City||113,2 km2 (437 sq mi)|
|• Density||5,066/km2 (13,120/sq mi)|
|Area code(s)||+380 432|
|Sister cities||Birmingham, Kielce, Peterborough, Rybnytsia|
Vinnytsia (Ukrainian: Ві́нниця, translit. Vinnycja, pronounced [ˈʋinːɪtsʲɐ]; Russian: Ви́нница, translit. Vinnica; Polish: Winnica; German: Winniza, and Romanian: Vinița) is a city in west-central Ukraine, located on the banks of the Southern Bug.
It is the administrative center of Vinnytsia Oblast and the largest city in the historic region of Podillia. Administratively, it is incorporated as a town of oblast significance. It also serves as an administrative center of Vinnytsia Raion, one of the 27 districts of Vinnytsia Oblast, though it is not a part of the district. Population: 372,484 (2015 est.)
The city's roots date back to the Middle Ages and it was under Polish control for centuries until the Russian Empire annexed it in 1793. During 1930s and early 1940s the city was the site of massacres, first during Stalin's purges and then during the Holocaust in Ukraine and the Nazi occupation. A Cold War-era airbase was located near the city.
- 1 Name
- 2 Geography
- 3 History
- 4 Education
- 5 Economy
- 6 Politics
- 7 Buildings and structures
- 8 Transport
- 9 Notable people
- 10 International relations
- 11 Gallery
- 12 See also
- 13 References
- 14 External links
The name of Vinnytsia appeared for the first time in 1363. It is assumed that the name is derived from the old Slavic word "Vino", meaning "given as a gift." This name can be explained by the fact that the Vinnytsia and surrounding land were captured by Lithuanian Duke Algirdas in the 14th century, and then, they were given as a gift to his nephews. 
It is the administrative center of the Vinnytsia Oblast (province), as well as the administrative center of the surrounding Vinnytsia Raion (district) within the oblast. The city itself is directly subordinated to the oblast.
A long lasting warm summer with a sufficient quantity of moisture and a comparatively short winter is characteristic of Vinnytsia. The average temperature in January is −5.8 °C (21.6 °F) and 18.3 °C (64.9 °F) in July. The average annual precipitation is 638 mm (25 in).
Over the course of a year there are around 6–9 days when snowstorms occur, 37–60 days when mists occur during the cold period, and 3–5 days when thunderstorms with hail occur.
|Climate data for Vinnytsia, Ukraine|
|Record high °C (°F)||11.6
|Average high °C (°F)||−1.4
|Daily mean °C (°F)||−4.1
|Average low °C (°F)||−6.7
|Record low °C (°F)||−35.5
|Average precipitation mm (inches)||29
|Average rainy days||7||6||10||13||14||15||15||10||12||11||12||9||134|
|Average snowy days||16||16||11||3||0.1||0||0||0||0||1||8||14||69|
|Average relative humidity (%)||85||83||78||68||66||72||72||71||76||80||86||88||77|
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||58||70||114||171||248||255||267||261||194||132||58||41||1,869|
|Source #1: Pogoda.ru.net|
|Source #2: NOAA (sun only 1961–1990)|
From Medieval to Early Modern period
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Vinnytsia has been an important trade and political center since the fourteenth century, when Fiodor Koriatowicz, the nephew of the Lithuanian Duke Algirdas, built a fortress (1363) against Tatar raiders on the banks of the Southern Bug. The original settlement was built and populated by Aleksander Hrehorovicz Jelec, hetman under Lithuanian Prince Švitrigaila. Aleksander Jelec built the fort, which he commanded as starosta afterwards.
In the 15th century, Polish King Alexander Jagiellon granted Winnica Magdeburg city rights. In 1566, it became part of the Bracław Voivodeship. Between 1569 and 1793 the town was a part of Poland and in this period, for a short time between 1672 and 1699 was a part of the Ottoman Empire. During period of Polish rule, Winnica was a Polish royal city. On March 18, 1783, Antoni Protazy Potocki opened in Winnica the Trade Company Poland.
After Second Partition of Poland in 1793 the Russian Empire annexed the city and the region. Russia moved to expunge the Roman Catholic religion – Catholic churches in the city (including what is now the Transfiguration Cathedral) were converted to Russian Orthodox churches.
World War II
It was occupied by German troops on 19 July 1941 during World War II. In 1943, the invading Germans exhumed almost 10,000 people, mostly male Ukrainians, from mass graves in Vinnytsia. The majority of the executions happened during the Stalinist Great Purge between 1937–1938 in the Vinnytsia massacre.
Nazi atrocities were committed in and near Vinnytsia by Einsatzgruppe C. Estimates of the number of victims run as high as 28,000. This included the mass murder of the town's large Jewish population who comprised 40% of all inhabitants at the time of the Nazi's invasion. In 1942 a large part of the Jewish quarter of Yerusalimka was destroyed by Germans. One infamous photo, The Last Jew of Vinnytsia, shows a member of Einsatzgruppe D about to execute a Jewish man kneeling before a mass grave. The text The Last Jew of Vinnytsia was written on the back of the photograph, which was found in a photo album belonging to a German soldier. It was captured by the Red Army on 20 March 1944.
Cold War period
Since the end of World War II, Vinnytsia has been the home for major Soviet Air Forces base, including an airfield, a hospital, arsenals, and other military installations. The headquarters of the 43rd Rocket Army of the Strategic Rocket Forces was stationed in Vinnytsia from 1960 to the early 1990s. The 2nd Independent Heavy Bomber Aviation Corps, which later became 24th Air Army, was also stationed in Vinnytsia from 1960 to 1992. The Ukrainian Air Force Command has been based in Vinnytsia since 1992.
In early 1959, Major Per Lindgren, writing in the Swedish military journal "Contact with the Armed Forces" reported that the Soviet Union had built a school in Vinnytsia for training KGB infiltrators in how to live in the United States. A mock-up of an entire American small town was built, complete with American-style stores, movie theater, houses, restaurants, American vehicles, and a small college campus that served as the classrooms of the school.
There are many educational universities and research institutions in Vinnytsia:
- Vinnytsia National Medical University, named after M. I. Pirogov
- Vinnytsia National Technical University
- Vinnytsia State Pedagogical University, named after Mykhailo Kotsiubynsky;
- Vinnytsia National Agriculture University
- Vinnytsia European University
- Vinnytsia Trade and Economics Institute
- Vinnytsia Social Economical Institute
Vinnytsia is a tourist, scientific and industrial center in Ukraine.
There are the Roshen confectionery corporation, the Crystal diamond polishing corporation, RPC Fort largest Ukrainian firearms manufacturing corporation, Analog corporation, Mayak corporation, Budmash corporation, Agregat corporation, Pnevmatika corporation, etc.
The headquarters of the Ukrainian Air Force is situated in Vinnytsia.
Vinnytsia is considered the long-time political base for the current Ukrainian President Petro Poroshenko. He owns a local confectionery (as part of the Roshen Corporation) and was elected member of parliament from the local constituency for several convocations. However, contrary to some speculations, Poroshenko has never lived in the city.
Buildings and structures
- The Transfiguration Cathedral, built in Vinnytsia in 1758.
- The new Greek Catholic Church at South Bug river.
- Baptist Church – reportedly one of the largest Evangelical Church Buildings in Europe.
- TV Tower Vinnytsia
- Vaksman family’s real estate, 1915 – Style: Art Nouveau. Address: 24 Chkalov Street. Built by architect Moisey Aaronovitch Vaksman. Architectural landmark.
- Afghan War Museum and War Glory Memorial Park – The Afghan War Museum is located in the red-brick bell tower. Exhibits include photos, letters and other artifacts representing Vinnytsia soldiers who fought in that war. The Memorial Park contains a large statue representing three different soldiers from World War II. An eternal flame burns in front of the statue.
- Multimedia Fountain Roshen – Built in 2011 it is considered as one of the largest floating fountains in Europe. It is the major multimedia attraction in the city.
There is a railway station in Vinnytsia, which is a part of 'South-Western Railway'. In 2013 it was named among 10 biggest railway stations in Ukraine  Current building of Vinnytsia railway station was built in 1952 and considered to be the 4th railway building in Vinnytsia (previous three were destroyed in different years). Vinnytsia is an important transport point, both for internal and external railway connection. Most of the international trains, which cross through Ukraine, have a stop in Vinnytsia. For example, trains from Moscow and Saint Petersburg (Russia), Minsk (Belarus), Sofia (Bulgaria), Chisinau (Moldova), Bratislava (Slovakia), Belgrade (Serbia), Budapest (Hungary) transit through Vinnytsia. [In internal railiway connection, Vinnytsia is also an important transport point for trains, heading to Western Ukraine (Lviv, Khmelnytskyi, Chernivtsi) and to South (Odessa), as well as to Central Ukraine (Kiev).
- Nathan Altman (1889–1970) – avant-garde artist
- Mykhailo Kotsiubynsky (1864–1913) – Ukrainian author of novels and short stories. His home is a museum.
- Mykola Leontovych (1877–1921) – Ukrainian composer who worked here
- Alexander Lerner (1913–2004) – Soviet-Israeli cyberneticist and dissident
- Yuri Levada (1930–2006) – sociologist, political scientist and the founder of the Levada Center
- Jerzy Niezbrzycki (1902–1968) – captain of the Polish Army
- Nikolai Pirogov (1810–1881) – originally from Moscow, this Imperial Russian doctor, considered to be the founder of field surgery, spent the later years of his life in Vinnytsia. His home is a museum and his chapel tomb is open to visitors.
- Olga Storozhenko (1992) Miss Ukraine Universe 2013 & Top 10 Miss Universe 2013
Twin towns — Sister cities
Glory Memorial and Eternal Flame.
Modernist building, built by architect V.P. Listovichiy.
Home stadium of PFC Nyva Vinnytsia.
- FC Nyva Vinnytsia
- Fountain Roshen
- TIK (band)
- Vinnytsia massacre
- Vinnytsia tram
- Werwolf (Wehrmacht HQ)
- Harold F. Cherniss, famous American scholar, son of emigrant from Vinnytsia
- Acting mayor Morhunov wins Vinnytsia election runoff – exit polls, Interfax-Ukraine (16 November 2015)
- "Чисельність наявного населення України (Actual population of Ukraine)" (PDF) (in Ukrainian). State Statistics Service of Ukraine. Retrieved 1 July 2016.
- "Pogoda.ru.net" (in Russian). May 2011. Retrieved 13 October 2015.
- "Vinnica (Vinnytsia) Climate Normals 1961–1990". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 13 October 2015.
- Speer, Albert (1995). Inside the Third Reich. London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson. pp. 328–329. ISBN 9781842127353.
- "The last Jew in Vinnytsia ". World's famous photos. Archived from the original on 30 April 2010. Retrieved 26 August 2010.
- "43rd Missile Army". Ww2.dk. Retrieved 2011-09-16.
- KGB Spy Town
- Author Unknown, (1959, April 27), RUSSIA: Iowa in the Ukraine, 'Time Magazine', Retrieved from http://content.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,811036,00.html
- "Small Town Espionage – 1960 Soviet Spy School / CIA Educational Documentary – WDTVLIVE42". YouTube. 2012-07-20. Retrieved 2014-07-17.
- "The national Pirogov's estate museum". Pirogov.com.ua. Retrieved 2014-07-17.
- "About fountain :: Europe's largest floating fountain". Fountainroshen.com. Retrieved 2013-01-05.
- "Roshen Fountain in Vinnitsa was opened! :: Confectionery Corporation ROSHEN". roshen.com. Archived from the original on 10 July 2015. Retrieved 25 October 2015.
- "Vinnytsia Twin Cities".
- "Kardeş Şehirler". Bursa Büyükşehir Belediyesi Basın Koordinasyon Merkez. Tüm Hakları Saklıdır. Retrieved 2013-07-27.
|Look up Vinnytsia in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.|
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Vinnytsia.|
|Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Vinnytsya.|
- Official website (in Ukrainian) (in English)