Viola adunca

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Viola adunca
Viola adunca 5819.JPG
Scientific classification edit
Kingdom: Plantae
Clade: Angiosperms
Clade: Eudicots
Clade: Rosids
Order: Malpighiales
Family: Violaceae
Genus: Viola
Species:
V. adunca
Binomial name
Viola adunca
Synonyms

Viola bellidifolia
Viola cascadensis

Viola adunca is a species of violet known by the common names hookedspur violet, early blue violet, sand violet, and western dog violet. It is native to meadows and forests of western North America, Canada, and the northern contiguous United States.[1][2]

The compact arrangement of 5–40 mm (0.20–1.57 in) round-ovate blunt-tipped leaves, edges generally crenulate, on 5–70 mm (0.20–2.76 in) stalks, and pale to deep violet flowers are characteristic of the species. This individual is subspecies adunca.

This is a hairy, compact plant growing from a small rhizome system. The leaves are spade- or heart-shaped, sometimes with broadly wavy margins. They are generally 1 to 4 centimeters long. The single-flowered inflorescence grows at the end of a long, very thin peduncle. The nodding flower is a violet with five purple petals, the lower three with white bases and purple veining. The two side petals are white-bearded near the throat. The upper two petals may have hooked spurs at their tips.[3][4][5] It is a perennial.[6]

There are several varieties of V. adunca; a white-petaled form has been noted in Yosemite National Park.

Has also been noted in Southern Ontario in tall grass prairies on the sand plain and in black oak savannas.

Ecology[edit]

Viola adunca is the larval host plant of Myrtle's silverspot. Bees and other insects pollinate it. Polites mardon uses it as a nectar source, and birds and mice use the seed as a food source.[7]

Conservation status in the United States[edit]

The species is listed as endangered in Massachusetts[2] and in Connecticut.[8]

Consumption by humans[edit]

The leaves and flowers are edible, and can be eaten in salads, as potherbs, or brewed as tea. These plant parts are high in vitamins A and C. However, the rhizomes, fruit, and seeds are poisonous to humans and can cause upset stomach, intestinal problems, respiratory and circulatory depression.[9]

Native American ethnobotany[edit]

The Blackfoot apply an infusion of the roots and leaves to sore and swollen joints,[10] give an infusion of the leaves and roots to asthmatic children,[11] and use the plant to dye their arrows blue.[12] The Dakelh take a decoction of the entire plant for stomach pain,[13] the Klallam apply a poultice of smashed flowers to the chest or side for pain,[14] the Makah chew the roots and leaves while giving birth,[15] and the Tolowa apply a poultice of chewed leaves to sore eyes.[16]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Sullivan, Steven. K. (2015). "Viola adunca". Wildflower Search. Retrieved 2015-04-23.
  2. ^ a b "Viola adunca". Natural Resources Conservation Service PLANTS Database. USDA. Retrieved 9 December 2017.
  3. ^ Klinkenberg, Brian (Editor) (2014). "Viola adunca". E-Flora BC: Electronic Atlas of the Plants of British Columbia [eflora.bc.ca]. Lab for Advanced Spatial Analysis, Department of Geography, University of British Columbia, Vancouver. Retrieved 2015-04-23.CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link)
  4. ^ Giblin, David (Editor) (2015). "Viola adunca". WTU Herbarium Image Collection. Burke Museum, University of Washington. Retrieved 2015-04-23.CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link)
  5. ^ "Viola adunca". Jepson Flora Project: Jepson Interchange. Jepson Herbarium; University of California, Berkeley. 1993. Retrieved 2015-04-23.
  6. ^ https://plants.usda.gov/plantguide/pdf/pg_viad.pdf
  7. ^ http://web.sonoma.edu/cei/prairie/ecology/concepts.shtml
  8. ^ "Connecticut's Endangered, Threatened and Special Concern Species 2015". State of Connecticut Department of Energy and Environmental Protection Bureau of Natural Resources. Retrieved 2 January 2017. (Note: This list is newer than the one used by plants.usda.gov and is more up-to-date.)
  9. ^ https://plants.usda.gov/plantguide/pdf/pg_viad.pdf
  10. ^ Hellson, John C., 1974, Ethnobotany of the Blackfoot Indians, Ottawa. National Museums of Canada. Mercury Series, page 79
  11. ^ Hellson, John C., 1974, Ethnobotany of the Blackfoot Indians, Ottawa. National Museums of Canada. Mercury Series, page 74
  12. ^ Hellson, John C., 1974, Ethnobotany of the Blackfoot Indians, Ottawa. National Museums of Canada. Mercury Series, page 123
  13. ^ Smith, Harlan I., 1929, Materia Medica of the Bella Coola and Neighboring Tribes of British Columbia, National Museum of Canada Bulletin 56:47-68, page 60
  14. ^ Gunther, Erna, 1973, Ethnobotany of Western Washington, Seattle. University of Washington Press. Revised edition, page 40
  15. ^ Gunther, Erna, 1973, Ethnobotany of Western Washington, Seattle. University of Washington Press. Revised edition, page 40
  16. ^ Baker, Marc A., 1981, The Ethnobotany of the Yurok, Tolowa and Karok Indians of Northwest California, Humboldt State University, M.A. Thesis, page 62

External links[edit]

  • Media related to Viola adunca at Wikimedia Commons
  • Viola adunca in the CalPhotos Photo Database, University of California, Berkeley