Viola bicolor

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Viola bicolor
Viola bicolor jamestown1.jpg
A light morph of Viola bicolor growing in a sandy field along the mouth of the James River in southeastern Virginia

Secure (NatureServe)[1]
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
(unranked): Angiosperms
(unranked): Eudicots
(unranked): Rosids
Order: Malpighiales
Family: Violaceae
Genus: Viola
Species: V. bicolor
Binomial name
Viola bicolor
  • Viola kitaibeliana auct. non J.A. Schultes
  • Viola kitaibeliana var. rafinesquei Fern.
  • Viola rafinesquei Greene

Viola bicolor, commonly known as the American field pansy or wild pansy, is an annual plant in the violet family found throughout much of North America. There is some debate as to whether the plant is native here, or if it was introduced from the Old World as a variety of Viola kitaibeliana, but it is now generally thought to be native to the North America.[2] It is common in disturbed habitats, but is also found in fields and open woods on substrates ranging from sandy soil to clay to limestone.[3][4][5]


  1. ^ "Viola bicolor". NatureServe Explorer. NatureServe. Retrieved 2008-03-20. 
  2. ^ Flora of North America
  3. ^ Clausen, Jen; Channell, R.B.; Nur, Uzi (1964), "Viola rafinesquii, the only Melanium violet native to North America", Rhodora, 66 (17) 
  4. ^ McKinney, Landon E.; Russel, Norman H. (2002), "Violaceae of the Southeastern United States", Castanea, 67 (4): 369–379 
  5. ^ Hayden, W. John; Clough, John (1990), "Methyl Salicylate Secretory Cells in Roots of Viola arvensis and V. rafinesquii (Violaceae)", Castanea, 55 (1): 65–70 

External links[edit]

Media related to Viola bicolor at Wikimedia Commons