Violence against Christians in India
Anti-Christian violence in India refers to religiously-motivated violence against Christians in India. Violence against Christians has been seen by the organization Human Rights Watch as a tactic used to meet political ends. The acts of violence include arson of churches, conversion of Christians by force and threats of physical violence, sexual assaults, murder of Christian priests and destruction of Christian schools, colleges, and cemeteries.
In August 2017, the US Commission on International Religious Freedom (USCIRF) ranked India’s persecution severity at “Tier 2” along with Iraq and Afghanistan. In the past six years,[when?] India has risen from No. 31 to No. 11 on Open Doors' World Watch List, ranking just behind Iran in persecution severity.
- 1 Background
- 2 Overview
- 3 West Bengal
- 4 Response
- 5 See also
- 6 References
- 7 Further reading
From 1964 to 1996, at least 38 incidents of violence against Christians were reported. In 1997, 24 such incidents were reported. Since 1998, Christians in India have faced a wave of violence. In 1998 alone, 90 incidents were reported.
In 1999 an Human Rights Watch (HRW) report stated that Vishva Hindu Parishad (VHP), Bajrang Dal, and Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh (the sister organisations of the Bharatiya Janata Party) are the most accused Hindu organizations for violence against Christians in India. The National Commission for Minorities has stated that the State governments ruled by the Bharatiya Janata Party and its allies provided support to the perpetrators.
Although anti-Christian violence is routine in India, it is underreported by the media. In most reported cases the named perpetrators are members of the Sangh Parivar organizations. The Sangh Parivar are small subgroups that formed under the umbrella of the Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh (RSS), an umbrella organization whose roots date back to 1925. The RSS, who promote a form of Hindu nationalism called Hinduvata, oppose the spread of "foreign religions" like Islam and Christianity. According to Human Rights Watch, Sangh Parivar and local media were also involved in promoting anti-Christian propaganda in Gujarat. Mainstream Protestant, Catholic and Orthodox Christians are targeted far less frequently than Evangelical and Pentecostal Christians.
Multiple news organizations reported an increase in incidents of violence against Christians after the new BJP government under Narendra Modi came to power after the general election in April–May 2014. An investigation of crime records shows that church attack figures under NDA rule match those under UPA. In 2014 the Ministry of Home Affairs reported a “steep 30 per cent rise in the number of communal violence incidents in 2013 as compared to 2012, with the maximum number of cases being reported from Uttar Pradesh.” Reported incidents of abuse carried out against Christians in India went up to 177 in 2015, and escalated to 300 in 2016, according to the Evangelical Fellowship of India.
The persecution of Christians in India increased sharply in the year 2016, according to a report by Open Doors. India was ranked 15th in the word in terms of danger to Christians, up from 31st four years earlier. According to the report, it is estimated that a church was burnt down or a cleric beaten on average 10 times a week in India in the year to 31 October 2016, a threefold increase on the previous year. According to the All India Christian Council, there was an attack on Christians recorded every 40 hours in India in 2016. There were 26 documented cases of violence against Christians in the country between January and March 2016, while the central government refrained from speaking out against it. There were incidents of anti-Christian violence in Uttar Pradesh and Rajasthan around Christmas in December 2016.
Incidents of violence against Christians have occurred in nearly all parts of India, it has largely been confined to north, central, and western India, in the states of Gujarat, Maharashtra, Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, and the capital area of New Delhi.
In June 2000, four churches around India were bombed. In Andhra Pradesh, church graves were desecrated. A church in Maharashtra was ransacked. In September 2008, two churches were partly damaged in Kerala. Christian leaders described the events of September 2008 as deliberate acts by anti-socials and denied any religious motive in the attacks.
In 2015, a church building under construction was vandalised in Haryana. St. George church in Mumbai was also attacked by masked persons. Four people were arrested by the police including a person who operated an illegal gambling den. The police claimed that it was a revenge attack because the accused suspected that a complaint from St. George's Church had led to a police raid on their gambling den. In the same month, the cathedral of Jabalpur was attacked and more than a dozen people were injured. The same cathedral had also been attacked in 2008 and the entire altar burnt down. In April 2015, St. Mary's Church in Agra was vandalised and statues of Mother Mary and the Infant Jesus were damaged. Police arrested a Muslim man who reportedly was angry about being rejected by a Christian girl. In June, a nun was sexually assaulted in Raipur. A Church in Kachna area of Raipur was attacked by a mob during a Sunday service and five people were injured when they tried to stop the assailants. There were reports of a mob "thrashing" women and children, however police maintained no women and children were injured.
Several churches were attacked in the capital Delhi in recent years,[when?] like St. Sebastian's Church, which was burned. On May 5, 2018 St. Stephen's college chapel was vandalised and the cross desecrated with pro-Hindutva slogans.
The small Christian minority in the northern state of Uttar Pradesh, population 200 million, are the target of increasing violence. Citing an article by Institute for Leadership and Community Development, India Today lists Uttar Pradesh first among states of India which “tend to have the greatest number of incidents of religiously-motivated attacks and communal violence.” Considered by many[weasel words] the birthplace of both the religion of Hinduism and of India as a nation, Uttar Pradesh is a focal point for large Hindu festivals such as the Kumbh Mela, and for Hindu religious pilgrims from all over the nation. Christians are often viewed as being anti-nationalist due to their commitment to worship only the God of the Bible rather than Hindu deities.
In the first half of 2016, there were more hate crimes against Christians in Uttar Pradesh than in any other state of India. In the first 100 days after Chief Minister Yogi Adityanath assumed office on March 19, 2017, there were at least 16 reported incidents of violence against Christians in U.P. As reported by the Evangelical Fellowship of India, a partial list of incidents in the first half of 2017 is given below:
- On March 19 in Hardoi, a pastor was threatened by RSS Hindu activists in the presence of the media. He was told that he would not be allowed to conduct any further Sunday worship services.
- On March 26 in Lakhimpur Kheri around 50 Hindu extremists disrupted a worship service. The pastor and some of the parishioners were arrested and later released.
- On March 9 in Mau a pastor and three other Christians were attacked by six men.
- On March 29 in Agra while returning home from a prayer meeting six Christians were attacked by a mob of about 20 Hindu extremists, severely assaulted, and handed to the local police.
- On April 9 in Ghazipur, a pastor was attacked by the local liquor mafia with the help of Hindu extremists on allegations opposing the liquor shop situated near the church. He was later released.
- On April 12 in Jaunpur a pastor’s house was raided in order to take him into police custody to prevent him conducting Easter service in his Church. Another Jaunpur pastor was threatened to not conduct his Easter service. Police protection was granted and Easter services were held.
- On May 1 in Ghazipur district Hindu extremists attacked 20 Christian families, abusing them and assaulting the female pastor. When she approached the police, they were of little help.
- On May 7 in Jaunpur policemen disrupted the Sunday worship service that was being lead by a lady pastor. She was arrested at the request of Hindu extremists of that village.
- On May 9 in Mau Hindu extremists incited police to arrest six Christians who had organised a prayer meeting.
- On May 14 in Ghaziabad Hindutva extremists disrupted a church worship service, and beat up the pastor and the parishioners. The pastor sustained multiple injuries and was unable to walk because of the beatings. The attackers also damaged church property.
- On May 19 in Bhadohi around 25 – 30 Hindu extremists surrounded a church shouting anti-Christian slogans and threatened the pastor to discontinue services.
- On June 2 in Unnao Hindu extremists incited police to threaten a pastor and demanded that he produce a letter of permission for conducting church services.
- On June 11 in Jaunpur a pastor was beaten and threatened by the police to stop conducting Sunday services in his church. When he sought justice in court, he was refused help.
- On June 25 in Sitapur policemen disrupted a Sunday worship service, scattered the worshippers and using abusive words, warned the leaders to discontinue the service.
- On June 25 in Ballia a prayer meeting was disrupted by 25-30 Hindu activists. The Christians present were assaulted.
- On June 25 in Bareilly three Christians were arrested after Hindus accused them of conversion activities.
- In June, Christian families in Uttar Pradesh were beaten and denied water for their crops.
Jammu and Kashmir
|“||The anti-Christian intolerance in Jammu and Kashmir is reaching alarming proportions||”|
|— Sajan George, The president of the Global Council of Indian Christians (GCIC)|
Christians in India have frequently been subjected to intolerance, harassment, intimidation, and attacks by Muslims. In Jammu and Kashmir, a Christian convert and missionary, Bashir Tantray, was killed, allegedly by militant Islamists in 2006.
The Government of Jammu-Kashmir in 2010 asked Jim Borst, a Dutch Catholic missionary, who was at that time one of the two members of the Institute Mill Hill missionary in the Kashmir valley, to leave the valley. Borst was also in charge of two schools there. Nevertheless, the spokesperson for Indian Christians, John Dayal rejected the claim that any forced conversion took place. John Dayal stated, "A fact finding team which went to Srinagar in the wake of the arrest of Rev Khanna, and interviewed Church personnel, Ulema, school authorities and the police, found no evidence of force or fraud in baptisms that have been carried out over a period of time. Each baptism has been proved to be voluntary".
In January 2012, a Sharia court of Kashmir announced a Fatwa against Christian schools in Kashmir. It asked three priests to leave the valley on the charge that they were "luring Muslims to Christianity". The court not only instructed the government of Jammu and Kashmir to monitor such activities in the future but to also take over the management of the Christian missionary schools.
In April 2012, a Christian couple was arrested with that accusation of "promoting enmity". The policemen later explained that the arrest was made "as a precaution to prevent tensions in the area." However, their children told a completely different tale: "Our parents went to Srinagar on April 16 last year to attend a wedding. The next day, while doing some shopping at the market, talking to a salesman our father said he was Christian and they were insulted, beaten and finally arrested by local police."
In May 2012, unidentified arsonists, believed to be Muslim, set fire to a Catholic church.
Concerning these issues Father Mathew Thomas, pastor of Holy Family commented "With these gestures, the Muslim community is trying to intimidate the Christian minority. But there are not even 400 Christians in Srinagar: I appeal to Omar Abdullah, chief minister, a Muslim who studied in Christian institutions. He must protect the entire population of Srinagar, including minorities."
A Muslim mob with Imprimatur of Local Imam, in April 2013, attacked a group of seven British Christians including five women and two children, who were living in Shivpora for about four years. Stones were hurled at their vehicles and their house. The reason they claimed was to stop conversions to Christianity.
On 5 February 2013, a crwd of people threw stones at the walls of the hotel where eight Americans and four Koreans, who were accused of forcing conversion through a Facebook page, were staying. There were no injuries. The Facebook page of Gulmarg News showed an image of three oriental women and first line of a long caption stated, "Attention Kashmir!!! Islam in Kashmir is under attack, Christians trying to convert Muslims."
In Madhya Pradesh a church was destroyed and bibles were burnt in Mandla district in September 2014. In March 2015, a Bible convention was attacked in Jabalpur, with allegations that religious conversions were taking place. Christian tribals were said to be living in fear with the rising incidence of attacks. Several community leaders said the attacks on Christians started to increase when the Hindu-nationalist Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) rose to power back in 2003 and again in 2014.[unreliable source?]
A Christian priest, K. K. Alavi in Manjeri, a 1970 convert from Islam, thereby raised the ire of his former Muslim community and received many death threats. An Islamic group named "The National Development Front" actively campaigned against him. Muslim clerics are known to hold up Alavi as a prime example of an enemy of Islam even during prayers. In that area traditional Christianity is considered blasphemy.
In the southern state of India, Kerala which has an ancient pre-Islamic community of Eastern Rite Christians, fundamentalists chopped off the hand of Professor T.J. Joseph due to allegation of blasphemy of prophet. On 4 July 2010, a group of eight people in a Maruti Omni waylaid the Professor near his home at Muvattupuzha. Joseph was pulled out of his car along with his sister and his mother. They were attacked with knives, swords, axes and home-made bombs. Professor Joseph’s right hand was chopped off at the wrist and thrown away. He also suffered wounds to other parts of his body. His left hand from the wrist also has been severely damaged. His sister and his mother also suffered injuries. According to police, the attack was carried out by an eight-member team consisting of Savad of Asamannoor, Pareeth of North Vazhakkulam, Shobin of Kothamangalam, Nazar of Aluva, Shajil of Muvattupuzha, Shamsuddin of Perumbavoor, Shanvas and Jamal.
In 2008, there was a wave of attacks directed against Christian churches and prayer halls in Karnataka by the Hindu extremist group Bajrang Dal around 2008 . The violence started from 14 September 2008 when about 20 churches were vandalized in Mangalore, Udupi, Chikkamagaluru, and in other districts of Karnataka. Minor violence was later reported from the border state of Kerala. B.S. Yeddyurappa, the Chief Minister of Karnataka, said the attacks were provoked by conversions of Hindus to Christianity. He also alleged that a Protestant group had distributed literature which insulted Hindu gods. The Chief Minister however clarified that he was not defending the actions of those who attacked prayer halls and churches in Mangalore, Udupi and Chikmagalur on Sunday. Later, the Christian leaders denied it and commented that Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) was inciting violence rather than working to calm the situation. On the other hand, the Central Government had strongly criticized and sent showcase notices to the state Government for not solving the issue effectively. 
Incidents of mob attacks against Jehovah’s Witnesses have been reported with increasing frequency in Karnataka. The attackers gather in gangs of 20 to 50 individuals to intimidate small groups of Witnesses engaging in the Christian ministry that they are well known for.
In a well-publicised case, Graham Staines, an Australian Christian missionary, was burnt to death along with his sons Timothy (aged 10) and Philip (aged 6), while they were sleeping in his station wagon at Manoharpur village in Keonjhar district in Orissa in January 1999. He was running the Evangelical Missionary Society of Mayurbhanj, an Australian missionary society. In 2003, Dara Singh was sentenced to life in prison after being convicted of leading the gang responsible.
An outbreak of violence started on 24 December 2007 at Bamunigam village of Kandhamal District when Hindu activists forcefully removed a Christmas decoration placed on a site traditionally used during Durga Puja.
In August 2008, Swami Lakshmanananda, a Hindu swami and VHP anti-conversion and reconversion activist, was attacked and killed, along with four associates by Maoist guerrillas. The violence that followed resulted in the death of some Christians. The violence later spread to more than 600 villages in 14 of the 30 districts in the state, resulting in 5,600 Christian houses burnt and 54,000 homeless. 38 Christian people were murdered, while 18,000 were injured. Human rights groups estimated 100 deaths, including women, disabled and children. 295 churches and places of worship were destroyed, along with 13 schools and colleges and 5 non-profit organisation offices. As of 2015, the Christian victims were still awaiting justice and rehabilitation.
On March 16, 1999 a Hindu mob of 5,000 attacked Ranalai (PIN - 761 017) in Gajapati District and set houses on fire. and engaged in looting. Three people were injured. The CM of Odisha, Sri Giridhar Gamang, visited the next day.
In 1997 in Gujarat, 22 churches were burnt or destroyed, and another 16 damaged. Recently, there has been a sharp increase in violent attacks on Christians. A Hindu group claims to have converted 2,000 tribal Christians to Hinduism. The attackers had vandalized places of worship and thus caused strike terror among the tribals. On 18 September, the Central Government issued an advisory under Article 355 of the constitution to the Orissa government along with Karnataka.[unreliable source?]
In March 2015, a 71-year-old nun was gang raped in West Bengal during an attack on a convent school in which the school's chapel was ransacked and sacred items stolen. The Police identified all eight perpetrators and arrested six of them, two of whom were Bangladeshi nationals.
US State Department
In its annual human rights reports for 1999, the United States Department of State criticised India for "increasing societal violence against Christians." The report on anti-Christian violence listed over 90 incidents of anti-Christian violence, ranging from damage of religious property to violence against Christians pilgrims. The incidents listed in the report were attributed to local media reports and information gathered by Christian groups in India.
National Commission for Minorities
After the 2008 attacks on Christians in southern Karnataka by Bajrang Dal and Sri Ram Sena activists, the National Commission for Minorities accused the Karnataka government of serious lapses in handling the situation. They were found directly responsible for allowing the violence to spread, and claimed the police failed to solve the issue effectively as the violence continues. They also clarified that there were no reported complaints of forced conversion registered in the state.
National Integration Council of India
On 13 October 2008, the National Integration Council of India called a special meeting chaired by Manmohan Singh, then Prime Minister of India, where he condemned the violence of Hindu militant organizations such as Bajrang Dal, VHP etc. The prime minister had earlier publicly admitted that the ongoing violence against the Christian communities was a matter of great "national shame".
Pope Benedict XVI
|Part of a series on|
of the Catholic Church
On 12 October 2008, Pope Benedict XVI criticized the continuing anti-Christian violence in India.
On 28 October, the Vatican called upon the memory of Mahatma Gandhi for an end to the religious violence in Orissa. In a written address to Hindus, the Vatican office said Christian and Hindu leaders needed to foster a belief in non-violence among followers. Although the Mahatma had been strong in his opposition to forced conversion and Christian missionary activities, he had denounced violence as an appropriate response.
- "Anti-Christian Violence on the Rise in India". Human Rights Watch. 29 September 1999. Archived from the original on February 11, 2009.
- Vinay Lal. "Anti-Christian Violence in India". Manas: India and Its Neighbors. UCLA College of Letters and Science.
- Zylstra, Sarah Erkhoff (August 2017). "State Department's Unusually Short Religious Freedom Update: ISIS Is Bad". Christianity Today. Retrieved August 28, 2017.
- "World Watch List - India". Retrieved January 31, 2018.
- Kaur, Surinder (July 4, 2017). "Police in Indian State of Uttar Pradesh Threaten and Extort Christian Families". Christian Persecution Update. Retrieved August 29, 2017.
- Stanley, Alessandra (6 November 1999). "Pope Lands in India Amid Rise in Anti-Christian Violence". The New York Times. Retrieved 1 April 2010.
- "NCM blames Bajrang Dal for Karnataka, Orissa violence". The Times of India. September 21, 2008. Retrieved July 30, 2018.
- "No case of forcible conversion in Udupi district: Qureshi". The Hindu. September 18, 2008. Retrieved July 30, 2018.
- Bauman, Chad M. (2015-02-02). Pentecostals, Proselytization, and Anti-Christian Violence in Contemporary India. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-026631-8.
- Cite error: The named reference
baumanwas invoked but never defined (see the help page).
- "Violence against Christians: Cong slams govt". thehindubusinessline.com.
- "Bearing the cross: Recent attacks against Christians worrisome". hindustantimes.com. 15 March 2015.
- "Churches under fire! A list of recent church attacks in the country". oneindia.com.
- "Religious Minorities, Dalits Face Discrimination in India: Report". The Economic Times. Feb 9, 2017. Retrieved August 29, 2017.
- "Church attack figures in UPA rule match those under NDA - Times of India ►". indiatimes.com.
- "Communal incidents up by 30%, UP tops list". The Indian Express. 2014-02-06. Retrieved 2017-09-04.
- "Evangelical Fellowship of India Persecution Report 2015". www.worldea.org. Retrieved 2017-09-04.
- Sherwood, Harriet (11 January 2017). "Christians in India increasingly under attack, study shows". the Guardian.
- "Violent Persecution of Christians Rises in India, 'An Attack Being Recorded Every 40 Hours': Report". christianpost.com.
- Chiaramonte, Perry (14 March 2016). "Christian persecution by Hindus rises in India, say humanitarian groups". foxnews.com.
- "Christmas attacks confirm threats facing Christians in India". cruxnow.com. 30 December 2016.
- "Anti-Christian Violence in India".
- "Xian, Hindu priests chant for peace at historic Kerala summit". Gulf-times.com. 1 October 2008. Archived from the original on 8 June 2011. Retrieved 29 April 2010.
- "Police recover bike used during church attacks".[permanent dead link]
- "Attacks on churches decried". Chennai, India: The Hindu. 30 September 2008. Retrieved 29 April 2010.
- "Church attacked in Haryana, cross replaced by Hanuman idol". deccanchronicle.com. 16 March 2015.
- Church Vandalised in Haryana, Hanuman Idol Allegedly Placed Inside, NDTV News, 16 March 2015.
- "Masked men attack St George Catholic Church in Navi Mumbai, caught on CCTV footage - Firstpost". www.firstpost.com.
- "'Navi Mumbai church attacked after raid on gambling den'". hindustantimes.com. 25 March 2015.
- "MP: Church, two schools attacked in Jabalpur". hindustantimes.com. 22 March 2015.
- "Jabalpur church targeted for second time since 2008". india.com. 23 March 2015.
- "Agra church vandalised, Mother Mary idol damaged". hindustantimes.com. 16 April 2015.
- "Spurned lover attacked Agra church: Cops - Times of India ►". indiatimes.com.
- "Indian nun in Raipur sexually assaulted - ucanews.com". ucanews.com.
- "Mob Chanting 'Jai Sri Ram' Vandalises Church In Chhattisgarh". The Huffington Post. Retrieved 2016-03-06.
- "Chhattisgarh Church Attacked During Service, Congregants Thrashed". NDTV.com. Retrieved 2016-03-06.
- "Delhi Church Vandalised, 5th Church Attacked In 9 Weeks". huffingtonpost.in. 2 February 2015.
- "Protests After Fire in Delhi Church, Police Investigate Possible Arson". ndtv.com.
- ""There Should Be A Temple Here": Vandalism Hits St Stephen's College Chapel". ndtv.com.
- Borgohain, Sonalee (February 10, 2017). "Attacks Against Muslims, Dalits Grew Sharply in India Under Modi: US Report". India Today. Retrieved August 28, 2017.
- "Hate and Targeted Violence against Christians in India" (PDF). Evangelical Fellowship of India. August 2016. Retrieved August 31, 2017.
- "Sixteen incidents against Christians in 100 days of Yogi government in Uttar Pradesh". Global Christian News. 2017-06-29. Retrieved 2017-09-04.
- "Sixteen incidents against Christians in 100 days of Yogi government in Uttar Pradesh". Global Christian News. 2017-06-29. Retrieved 2017-09-04.
- Mansfield, Katie (24 June 2017). "Christian families beaten and left without water in latest horrifying persecution". express.co.uk.
- Gheddo, Piero. "INDIA Indian Kashmir, two Christians arrested on false charges of forced conversions - Asia News". Asianews.it. Retrieved 2013-05-13.
- Gheddo, Piero. "INDIA Kashmir, false accusations on Facebook: mob tries to lynch 12 tourists - Asia News". Asianews.it. Retrieved 2013-05-15.
The violent reaction was triggered by a photo published on the Facebook page Gulmarg News.
- Christian convert from Islam shot dead in Kashmir,SperoNews.
- Gheddo, Piero. "INDIA Missionary forced to leave Kashmir because his schools are "too good" - Asia News". Asianews.it. Retrieved 2013-05-13.
- "'Fatwa' announced against Christian schools in Kashmir, 3 priests asked to leave valley - The Times of India". Timesofindia.indiatimes.com. Retrieved 2013-05-13.
- Gheddo, Piero (2012-04-20). "INDIA Indian Kashmir: Christians arrested for "promoting enmity" - Asia News". Asianews.it. Retrieved 2013-05-13.
- Gheddo, Piero (2012-05-25). "INDIA Indian Kashmir, "unknown arsonists" set fire to a Catholic church - Asia News". Asianews.it. Retrieved 2013-05-13.
- AsiaNews.it. "Kashmir, false accusations on Facebook: mob tries to lynch 12 tourists". www.asianews.it.
- "Church set ablaze in Mandla district". The Times of India. September 28, 2014. Retrieved July 30, 2018.
- Das, Siddarth Ranjan (March 22, 2015). "Church Attacked in Jabalpur, Christians Threaten to Shut Schools if Attackers Not Caught". NDTV. Retrieved July 30, 2018.
- Das, Siddarth Ranjan (March 25, 2015). "Fear Rules in Tribal Pockets of Madhya Pradesh After Attack on Churches". NDTV. Retrieved July 30, 2018.
- "Christian persecution feared in Indian state after church is razed". www.ecumenicalnews.com.
- "IN SEARCH OF ASSURANCE" by K. K. Alavi
- Convert from Islam in India Remains on Death List Archived 11 May 2013 at the Wayback Machine.,Christian Examiner
- Special Correspondent (2010-07-28). "No report yet on 'Taliban-model' courts: Kodiyeri". The Hindu. Retrieved 2013-05-13.
- "Taliban writ in God's own country". The Times of India. 5 July 2010. Archived from the original on 2 November 2013. Retrieved 11 July 2010.
- "Controversial lecturer's palm chopped off". The New Indian Express. 5 July 2010. Retrieved 12 May 2011.
- "Attackers cut off Newman college prof Joseph's hand". Mathrubhumi. 4 July 2010. Archived from the original on 16 July 2011. Retrieved 12 May 2011.
- "Home". Manorama Online. Retrieved 12 May 2011.
- "Church blasts culprits may be sentenced today - The Times of India". The Times Of India.
- UPA govt puts State on notice Archived December 26, 2013, at the Wayback Machine. Deccan Herald - 19 September 2008
- ‘Adoration Monastery attack was pre-planned’ Deccan Herald - 25 August 2010
- AsiaNews.it. "INDIA Karnataka: 20 churches attacked, Christians accuse police of inaction". www.asianews.it. Retrieved 2016-03-06.
- More church attacks in Karnataka BBC - 17 September 2008
- India government warns state over anti-Christian attacks[dead link] Daily Times - 20 September 2008
- AsiaNews.it. "INDIA Karnataka: New wave of violence and attacks on Christians. Complicity of authorities". www.asianews.it. Retrieved 2016-03-22.
- "Bajrang Dal cadre attacks churches in Karnataka". timesofindia-economictimes. Retrieved 2016-03-06.
- "Mangalore church vandalised days after Modi's call for tolerance". India Today.
- "Mangalore Church Attacked Days After PM's Remarks on Religious Tolerance". ndtv.com.
- The Staines case verdict V. Venkatesan, Frontline Magazine, 11–23 Oct 2003
- "Tehelka:: Free. Fair. Fearless:Next Stop Orissa". Tehalka. Archived from the original on 15 July 2012. Retrieved 8 September 2008.
- "Report of the NCM visit to Orissa, 6–8 January 2008" (PDF). NCM. Retrieved 26 August 2008.
- Maoists killed Lakshmanananda, say Orissa Police, The Hindu, 17 October 2008.
- Osuri, Goldie (2013). Religious Freedom in India: Sovereignty and (anti) Conversion. Routledge. p. 39–40. ISBN 0415665574.
- Editorial (30 August 2014). "Indulging the Hate-mongers". Economic and Political Weekly. XLIX (35).
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 21 February 2014. Retrieved 2014-02-22. Tehelka magazine Vol 5, Issue 36, Dated Sept 13, 2008
- Volume 16 - Issue 8, Apr. 10 - 23, 1999, India's National Magazine from the publishers of THE HINDU
- "Another attack in Orissa". www.frontline.in.
- The Hindu, Aug 27, 2008
- "Violence spreads in Orissa". 27 August 2008 – via www.thehindu.com.
- "Hindu extremists convert 2,000 Christians in India".
- "Nun gang-raped in West Bengal: Cops detain eight people for interrogation - Times of India ►". indiatimes.com.
- "Nun Gang Rape Case: Archbishop clears Mamata, blames Modi govt for rising violence against minorities". indianexpress.com. 17 March 2015.
- Ranaghat gang-rape case: Police detains two Bangladesh nationals, DNA India, 20 March 2015.
- Indian nun rape case: Police make more arrests, BBC News, 1 April 2015.
- Suspects in nun rape case appear in Indian court, Al Jazeera News, 3 April 2015.
- "US rights report slams India for anti-Christian violence". 27 February 1999. Retrieved 17 December 2007.
- "India under siege". Economictimes.indiatimes.com. 18 October 2008. Retrieved 29 April 2010.
- "Vatican invokes Gandhi in plea to end Orissa violence". In.reuters.com. 28 October 2008. Retrieved 29 April 2010.
- Conversion: Old Worlds and New, p. 273, Kenneth Mills, Anthony Grafton, University Rochester Press, quote= "Furthermore, Gandhi's famous distrust of Christian missionaries and Christian conversions offered a screen."
- Gandhi's Pilgrimage of Faith: From Darkness to Light, Uma Majmudar, p.119, Suny Press, quote="Gandhi also disapproved of schools run by the Christian Missionaries because of their Western bias."
- "His faith, our faith". Hindustan Times. 29 January 2008. Retrieved 29 April 2010.
From these two beliefs followed the third, which was that Gandhi rejected conversion and missionary work.
- Bauman, Chad M. (August 2013). "Hindu-Christian Conflict in India: Globalization, Conversion and the Coterminal Castes and Tribes". The Journal of Asian Studies. 72 (3): 633–653. doi:10.1017/s0021911813000569.
- Osuri, Goldie (2013). Religious Freedom in India: Sovereignty and (anti) Conversion. Routledge. ISBN 0415665574.
- Uma, Saumya; Grover, Vrinda (2010). Kandhamal: The Law must Change its Course. New Delhi: MARG: Multiple Action Research Group. ISBN 978-81-87377-19-1.