Violin Concerto (Mendelssohn)
|by Felix Mendelssohn|
|Scoring||Violin and orchestra|
|Date||13 March 1845|
Felix Mendelssohn's Violin Concerto in E minor, Op. 64, is his last large orchestral work. It holds an important place in the violin repertoire and is one of the most popular and most frequently performed violin concertos in history. A typical performance lasts just under half an hour.
Mendelssohn originally proposed the idea of the violin concerto to Ferdinand David, a close friend and then concertmaster of the Leipzig Gewandhaus Orchestra. Although conceived in 1838, the work took another six years to complete and was not premiered until 1845. During this time, Mendelssohn maintained a regular correspondence with David, who gave him many suggestions. The work itself was one of the foremost violin concertos of the Romantic era and was influential on many other composers.
Although the concerto consists of three movements in a standard fast–slow–fast structure and each movement follows a traditional form, the concerto was innovative and included many novel features for its time. Distinctive aspects include the almost immediate entrance of the violin at the beginning of the work (rather than following an orchestral preview of the first movement's major themes, as was typical in Classical-era concertos) and the through-composed form of the concerto as a whole, in which the three movements are melodically and harmonically connected and played attacca (each movement immediately following the previous one without any pauses).
The concerto was well received and soon became regarded as one of the greatest violin concertos of all time. The concerto remains popular to this day and has developed a reputation as an essential concerto for all aspiring concert violinists to master, and usually one of the first Romantic era concertos they learn. Many professional violinists have recorded the concerto and the work is regularly performed in concerts and classical music competitions. It was recorded by Nathan Milstein and the New York Philharmonic as an album and released as the first LP record upon the format's introduction in 1948.
Mendelssohn also wrote a virtuoso Concerto for Violin and String Orchestra in D minor between 1821 and 1823, when he was 12 to 14 years old, at the same time that he produced his twelve string symphonies. This work was "rediscovered" and first recorded in 1951 by Yehudi Menuhin.
Following his appointment in 1835 as principal conductor of the Leipzig Gewandhaus Orchestra, Mendelssohn named his childhood friend Ferdinand David as the orchestra's concertmaster. The work's origins derive from this professional collaboration. In a letter dated 30 July 1838, Mendelssohn wrote to David: "I should like to write a violin concerto for you next winter. One in E minor runs through my head, the beginning of which gives me no peace."
The concerto took another six years to complete. There are many possible reasons for the delay, including self-doubt, his third symphony and an unhappy period in Berlin after a request from King Frederick William IV of Prussia. Nevertheless, Mendelssohn and David kept up a regular correspondence during this time, with Mendelssohn seeking technical and compositional advice. Indeed, this violin concerto was the first of many to have been composed with the input of a professional violinist, and would influence many future collaborations. The autographed score is dated 16 September 1844, but Mendelssohn was still seeking advice from David until its premiere. The concerto was first performed in Leipzig on 13 March 1845 with Ferdinand David as soloist. Mendelssohn was unable to conduct due to illness and the premiere was conducted by the Danish composer Niels Gade. Mendelssohn first conducted the concerto on 23 October 1845 again with Ferdinand David as soloist.
An autograph manuscript of the concerto re-emerged in 1989 in the Biblioteka Jagiellonska in Kraków, leading to some scholarly scepticism of the veracity of Breitkopf & Härtel's 1862 edition of the published score. Some notable differences include the tempo character of the first movement being written as "Allegro con fuoco" rather than the commonplace "Allegro molto appassionato" as well as significant alterations of the solo violin's passage-work.
The concerto consists of three movements with the following tempo markings:
- Allegro molto appassionato (E minor)
- Andante (C major)
- Allegretto non troppo – Allegro molto vivace (E major)
Allegro molto appassionato
Instead of an orchestral tutti, the concerto opens with the almost immediate entry of the solo violin, playing the very tune in E minor that gave Mendelssohn no peace. Following a bravura of rapidly ascending notes, the opening theme is then restated by the orchestra. There is then a frenetic chromatic transition passage as the music subsides and modulates into a tranquil second subject theme in G major. The melody is initially played by the woodwinds with the soloist providing a pedal note on an open G string. The tune is played by the solo violin itself before a short codetta ends the exposition section of the opening movement. The opening two themes are then combined in the development section, where the music builds up to the innovative cadenza, which Mendelssohn wrote out in full rather than allowing the soloist to improvise. The cadenza builds up speed through rhythmic shifts from quavers to quaver-triplets and finally to semiquavers, which require ricochet bowing from the soloist. This serves as a link to the recapitulation, where the opening melody is played by the orchestra, accompanied by the continuing ricochet arpeggios by the soloist. During the recapitulation, the opening themes are repeated with the second theme being played in the E major before returning to E minor for the closing of the movement. The music gathers speed into the coda, which is marked "Presto", before a variant of the original chromatic transition passage ends the first movement.
The bassoon sustains its B from the final chord of the first movement before moving up a semitone to middle C. This serves as a key change from the E minor opening movement into the lyrical C major slow movement. The movement is in ternary form and is reminiscent of Mendelssohn's own Songs Without Words. The theme to the darker, middle section in A minor is first introduced by the orchestra before the violin then takes up both the melody and the accompaniment simultaneously. The tremulous accompaniment requires nimble dexterity from the soloist before the music returns to the main lyrical C major theme, this time leading towards a serene conclusion.
Allegretto non troppo – Allegro molto vivace
Following the second movement, there is a brief fourteen-bar transitional passage in E minor for solo violin and strings only. This leads into the lively and effervescent finale, the whole of which is in E major and whose opening is marked by a trumpet fanfare. This movement is in sonata rondo form with an opening theme requiring fast passage work from the soloist. The opening exposition leads into a brief second B major theme which is played by the soloist and builds to a series of rapidly ascending and descending arpeggios, reminiscent of the cadenza from the first movement. The orchestra then plays a variation of the opening melody, after which the music moves into a short development section in G major. The recapitulation is essentially similar to the exposition, apart from the addition of a counter-melody in the strings. The second theme is repeated, this time in the home key of E Major. There is almost a small cadenza near the end of the movement when the woodwinds play the main tune against prolonged trills from the solo violin. The concerto then concludes with a frenetic coda.
The concerto is innovative in many respects. In the first movement alone, Mendelssohn departs from the typical form of a Classical concerto in many ways, the most immediate being the entry of the soloist almost from the outset, which also occurs in his First Piano Concerto. Although the first movement is mostly in the conventional sonata form, Mendelssohn has the first theme played by the solo violin and then by the orchestra. Classical concertos typically opened with an orchestral introduction followed by a version of essentially the same material that incorporates the soloist.
The cadenza is also novel in that it is written out as part of the concerto and located before the recapitulation. In a typical Classical concerto, the cadenza is improvised by the performing soloist and occurs at the end of a movement, after the recapitulation and just before the final coda. Mendelssohn's written cadenza was not included in the first published version of the concerto, but instead a "streamlined" version by Ferdinand David without the contrapuntal complexity of the original. This is the most played version today, although some artists, e.g. Arabella Steinbacher, play Mendelssohn's original. Joshua Bell performs the concerto with his own cadenza.
The violin concerto stands out from previous concertos with its connected movements. There is no break between the first and second movements, with a bassoon note held between the two. The bridging passage between the last two movements begins almost immediately after the slow movement. The melody is similar to that of the opening, which hints at the cyclic form of the piece. The linking was designed to eliminate applause between movements. This would have come as a surprise to Mendelssohn's audience, who, unlike today's, were used to applauding between movements.
The concerto also calls on the soloist to function as an accompanist to the orchestra for extended periods, such as the ricochet arpeggios at the start of the recapitulation. This too was novel for a violin concerto of its time.
Mendelssohn's Violin Concerto influenced the concertos of many other composers, who adopted aspects of it in their own concertos.
For example, the unusual placement of the cadenza before the recapitulation is reflected in the violin concerto of Tchaikovsky (where the cadenza is similarly placed) and the violin concerto of Sibelius (where the cadenza serves to extend the development section). Moreover, following this concerto it was very rare for a composer to leave a cadenza unwritten for the soloist to improvise as in the days of Mozart and Beethoven. The linking of the three movements also influenced other concertos, such as Liszt's Second Piano Concerto.
The concerto itself was an instant success, warmly received at its premiere and well received by contemporary critics. By the end of the nineteenth century, the piece was already considered one of the greatest violin concertos in the repertoire. It would become one of Mendelssohn's most popular pieces, and was still regularly performed, even when interest in his music declined in the early twentieth century. In 1906, the year before his death, the celebrated violinist Joseph Joachim told the guests at his 75th birthday party:
The Germans have four violin concertos. The greatest, most uncompromising is Beethoven's. The one by Brahms vies with it in seriousness. The richest, the most seductive, was written by Max Bruch. But the most inward, the heart's jewel, is Mendelssohn's.
The work has developed a reputation as an essential one for aspiring violin virtuosi to conquer. This has led to its becoming virtually ubiquitous in the discography of concert violinists, even including those who were only active at the very dawn of recorded sound and of whom very little recorded music exists, such as Eugène Ysaÿe. Even so, it remains technically challenging and is generally considered to be as difficult as many other famous counterparts.
This section needs additional citations for verification. (May 2020)
Among a vast discography, the following recordings have received notable awards and outstanding reviews:
- 1940: Yehudi Menuhin, Concerts Colonne, Georges Enesco (conductor), Gramophone, Co. Ltd.
- 1946: Nathan Milstein, New York Philharmonic Orchestra, Bruno Walter (conductor), V Disc
- 1949: Campoli, London Philharmonic Orchestra, Eduard van Beinum (conductor), Decca
- 1950: Mischa Elman, Chicago Symphony Orchestra, Désiré Defauw (conductor), RCA Victor
- 1950: Fritz Kreisler, London Philharmonic Orchestra, Sir Landon Ronald (conductor), RCA Victor Red Seal
- 1952: Yehudi Menuhin, Berlin Philharmonic Orchestra, Wilhelm Furtwängler (conductor), RCA Victor
- 1953: Gioconda de Vito, London Symphony Orchestra, Sir Malcolm Sargent (conductor), Long Play
- 1953: Joseph Szigeti, London Philharmonic Orchestra, Sir Thomas Beecham (conductor), Columbia Masterworks
- 1955: Johanna Martzy, Philharmonia Orchestra, Paul Kletzki (conductor), Angel Records
- 1955: Louis Kaufman, Netherlands Philharmonic Orchestra, Otto Ackermann (conductor), Musical Masterpiece Society
- 1955: Siegfried Borries, Berlin Philharmonic Orchestra, Sergiu Celibidache (conductor), RCA Victor
- 1956: David Oistrakh, Philadelphia Orchestra, Eugene Ormandy (conductor), Columbia Masterworks
- 1956: Igor Oistrakh, Gewandhaus Chamber Orchestra, Leipzig, Frank Konwitschny (conductor), Decca
- 1958: Ruggerio Ricci, London Symphony Orchestra, Pierino Gamba (conductor), London
- 1958: Fredell Lack, The Stadium Symphony Orchestra of New York, Alexander Smallens (conductor), World Record Club
- 1958: Michael Stern, Philharmonia Orchestra, Sir Adrian Boult (conductor), Angel Records
- 1958: Christian Ferras, Philharmonia Orchestra, Constantin Silvestri (conductor), Angel Records
- 1959: Jascha Heifetz, Boston Symphony Orchestra, Charles Munch (conductor), CBS, Inc.
- 1959: Issac Stern, Philadelphia Orchestra, Eugene Ormandy (conductor), CBS, Inc.
- 1960: Julian Olevsky, Vienna State Opera Orchestra, Julius Rudel (conductor), EMI Records
- 1964: Josef Suk, Czech Philharmonic, Karel Ančerl (conductor), Supraphon – "Highly Recommended" by the Gramophone Classical Music Guide, 2010
- 1972: Itzhak Perlman, London Symphony Orchestra, André Previn (conductor), EMI
- 1973: Nathan Milstein, Wiener Philharmoniker, Claudio Abbado (conductor), Deutsche Grammophon
- 1976: Salvatore Accardo, London Philharmonic Orchestra, Charles Dutoit (conductor), Philips
- 1976: Eugene Fodor, New Philharmonia Orchestra, Peter Maag (conductor), RCA
- 1981: Kyung-Wha Chung, Montreal Symphony Orchestra, Charles Dutoit (conductor), Decca – "4 star" by the Penguin Guide
- 1981: Anne-Sophie Mutter, Berlin Philharmoniker, Herbert von Karajan (conductor), Deutsche Grammophon
- 1983: Uto Ughi, London Symphony Orchestra, Georges Pétre (conductor), RCA
- 1983: Isaac Stern, Boston Symphony Orchestra, Seiji Ozawa (conductor), CBS Records Masterworks.
- 1988: Takako Nishizaki, Slovak Philharmonic Orchestra, Kenneth Jean (conductor) Naxos
- 1988: Nadja Salerno-Sonnenberg, New York Chamber Symphony, Gerard Schwarz (conductor), EMI Classics
- 1990: Itzhak Perlman, Concertgebouw Orchestra, Bernard Haitink (conductor), EMI Classics
- 1991: Viktoria Mullova, Academy of St Martin in the Fields, Neville Marriner (conductor), Philips
- 1993: Anne Akiko Meyers, Philharmonia Orchestra, Andrew Litton, (conductor), RCA Red Seal-"Rapt is her playing" Gramophone
- 1993: Itzhak Perlman, Chicago Symphony Orchestra, Daniel Barenboim (conductor), Erato
- 1993: Maxim Vengerov, Leipzig Gewandhaus Orchestra, Kurt Masur (conductor), Teldec
- 1994: Kim Chee-yun, London Philharmonic Orchestra, Jesús López-Cobos (conductor), Denon
- 1998: Robert McDuffie, Scottish Chamber Orchestra, Joseph Swensen (conductor), Telarc – "Rosette" by the Penguin Guide
- 2002: Joshua Bell, Camerata Salzburg, Sir Roger Norrington (conductor), Sony Classical
- 2003: Midori, Berlin Philharmoniker, Mariss Jansons (conductor), Sony BMG Music Entertainment
- 2003: Viktoria Mullova, Orchestre Révolutionnaire et Romantique, John Eliot Gardiner (conductor), Philips
- 2005: Sarah Chang, Berlin Philharmoniker, Mariss Jansons (conductor), Warner Classics
- 2005: Tasmin Little, BBC Scottish Symphony Orchestra, Stefan Solyom (conductor), BBC Music Magazine
- 2007: Janine Jansen, Gewandhausorchester Leipzig, Riccardo Chailly (conductor), Decca Classics
- 2007: Daniel Hope, Chamber Orchestra of Europe, Thomas Hengelbrock (conductor), Deutsche Grammophon – "10/10" by Classicstoday.com; "Highly recommended recording" by Gramophone magazine, April 2014
- 2007: Nicola Benedetti, Academy of St. Martin in the Fields, James MacMillan (conductor), Deutsche Grammophon
- 2007: Joshua Bell, Academy of St Martin in the Fields, Neville Marriner (conductor), Decca
- 2007: Leila Josefowicz, Orchestre du Symphonique Montréal, Charles Dutoit (conductor), Philips
- 2009: Akiko Suwanai, Czech Philharmonic Orchestra, Vladimir Ashkenazy, (conductor), Decca
- 2010: Hilary Hahn, Oslo Philharmonic, Hugh Wolff (conductor), Sony Recording.
- 2010: James Ehnes, Philharmonia Orchestra, Vladimir Ashkenazy (conductor), Onyx – "Editor's Choice" by Gramophone magazine, February 2011; "Recommended Recording" by ClassicFM; No. 1 Mendelssohn Top Recording, Gramophone, February 2016
- 2011: Ray Chen, Swedish Radio Symphony Orchestra, Daniel Harding (conductor), Sony Classical – "Disc of the Month" by Gramophone magazine, June 2012
- 2012: Philippe Quint, Orquesta Sinfónica de Minería, Carlos Miguel Prieto (conductor), – "Editor's choice" by Gramophone magazine, February 2012.
- 2013: Tianwa Yang, Sinfonia Finlandia Jyväsklä, Patrick Gallos (conductor), Naxos
- 2015: Augustin Hadelich, Norwegian Radio Orchestra, Miguel Marth-Bedova (conductor), Avie Records
- 2016: Carolin Widmann, Chamber Orchestra of Europe, Robert Schumann (conductor), ECM New Series
- 2017: Isabelle Faust, Freiburger Barockorchester, Pablo Heras-Casado (conductor), harmonia mundi
- 2019: Nikolaj Znaider, Israel Philharmonic Orchestra, Zubin Mehta (conductor), Sony Classical
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|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Violin Concerto E minor.|
- Violin Concerto (Mendelssohn): Scores at the International Music Score Library Project
- BBC Discovering Music (browse for .ram file containing discussion of this work)
- ABC Classic FM Deep Listen guide based on a recording by the Tasmanian Symphony Orchestra with Niki Vasilakis.