Virūḍhaka (Heavenly King)

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Virūḍhaka
蓮華院増長天1.JPG
Sanskritविरूढक
Virūḍhaka
Pāliविरूळ्हक
Virūḷhaka
Burmeseဝိရဠက
Chinese增長天王
(Pinyin: Zēngzhǎng Tiānwáng)
Japanese増長天
(romaji: Zōjōten or Zōchōten)
Korean증장천왕
(RR: Jeungjang Cheonwang)
Thaiท้าววิรุฬหก
Thao Virunhok"
Tibetanའཕགས་སྐྱེས་པོ
Wylie: 'phags skyes po
THL: Pak Kyepo
VietnameseTăng Trưởng Thiên
Information
Venerated byTheravāda

Mahāyāna

AttributesGuardian of the South
Dharma Wheel.svg Buddhism portal

Virūḍhaka is a major deity in Buddhism. He is one of the Four Heavenly Kings and a dharmapala.

Names[edit]

The name Virūḍhaka comes from the identical Sanskrit term, which refers to sprouting grain. As such, his name means "increase" or "growth.".[1] Other names include:

  • Traditional Chinese: 增長天; simplified Chinese: 増長天; pinyin: Zēngzhǎng Tiānwáng; Japanese: Zōjōten or Zōchōten; Korean: 증장천왕 Jeungjang Cheonwang; Vietnamese: Tăng Trưởng Thiên, a calque of Sanskrit Virūḍhaka
  • Traditional Chinese: 毘楼勒叉; pinyin: Bí lóu lè chā; Japanese: Birurokusha; Korean: 비루늑차Biluneugcha; Vietnamese: Tỳ Lưu Ly. This is a transliteration of the original Sanskrit name.
  • Tibetan: འཕགས་སྐྱེས་པོ, Wylie: 'phags skyes po, THL: Pak Kyepo, "Noble Birth"
  • Thai: ท้าววิรุฬหก Thao Virunhok is an honorific plus the modern pronunciation of Pali Virūḷhaka.

Characteristics[edit]

Virūḍhaka is the guardian of the southern direction. He lives on the southern part of Sumeru. He is leader of the kumbhāṇḍa and pretas.

Theravāda[edit]

In the Pāli Canon of Theravāda Buddhism, Virūḍhaka is called Virūlha or Virūḷhaka. Virūḷhaka is one of the Cātummahārājāno, or "Four Great Kings," each of whom rules over a specific direction.[2]

Japan[edit]

In Japan, Zōjōten (増長天) is commonly depicted with a fierce expression. He is clad in armor, often brandishing a sword or spear while trampling a jaki.[3]

The Heavenly King Zōchō.

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Virūḍhaka". Wisdom Library. Retrieved 2019-02-20.
  2. ^ "Virūlha". Buddhist Dictionary of Pali Proper Names. Retrieved 2019-02-20.
  3. ^ "Zouchouten 増長天". JAANUS. Retrieved 2019-02-20.

External links[edit]

  • Media related to Virudhaka at Wikimedia Commons