Viral disease

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Viral disease
Other namesviral infection
Novel Coronavirus SARS-CoV-2.jpg
Transmission electron microscope image of a Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) virion
SpecialtyInfectious disease

A viral disease (or viral infection) occurs when an organism's body is invaded by pathogenic viruses, and infectious virus particles (virions) attach to and enter susceptible cells.[1]

Structural characteristics[edit]

Basic structural characteristics, such as genome type, virion shape and replication site, generally share the same features among virus species within the same family.

Pragmatic rules[edit]

Human-infecting virus families offer rules that may assist physicians and medical microbiologists/virologists.

As a general rule, DNA viruses replicate within the cell nucleus while RNA viruses replicate within the cytoplasm. Exceptions are known to this rule: poxviruses replicate within the cytoplasm and orthomyxoviruses and hepatitis D virus (RNA viruses) replicate within the nucleus.

Baltimore group[edit]

This group of analysts defined multiple categories of virus. Groups:

Clinically important virus families and species with characteristics
Family Baltimore group Important species Envelopment
Adenoviridae I[3][4] Adenovirus[3][4] N[3][4]
Herpesviridae I[3][4] Herpes simplex, type 1, Herpes simplex, type 2, Varicella-zoster virus, Epstein–Barr virus, Human cytomegalovirus, Human herpesvirus, type 8[5][6][7] Y[3][4]
Papillomaviridae I[3][8] Human papillomavirus[3][8] N[3][8]
Polyomaviridae I[3][9] BK virus, JC virus[3][9] N[3][9]
Poxviridae I[3][4] Smallpox[3][4] Y[3][4]
Hepadnaviridae VII[3] Hepatitis B virus[3][4] Y[3][4]
Parvoviridae II[3][4] Parvovirus B19[3][4] N[3][4]
Astroviridae IV[10] Human astrovirus[4] N[4]
Caliciviridae IV[11] Norwalk virus[4] N[4]
Picornaviridae IV[12] coxsackievirus, hepatitis A virus, poliovirus,[4] rhinovirus N[4]
Coronaviridae IV[13] Severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus, strains:Severe acute respiratory syndrome virus[4], Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 Y[4]
Flaviviridae IV[3][4][14] Hepatitis C virus,[3] yellow fever virus,[3] dengue virus,[3] West Nile virus,[3] TBE virus[4], Zika virus Y[3][4]
Matonaviridae IV[3][4][15] Rubella virus[3][16] Y[3][4]
Hepeviridae IV[17] Hepatitis E virus[4] N[4][17]
Retroviridae VI[3][18] Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)[3][4] Y[3][4]
Orthomyxoviridae V [3][19] Influenza virus[3][19] Y[3][19]
Arenaviridae V [20] Lassa virus[4][20] Y[4][20]
Bunyaviridae V [21] Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus, Hantaan virus[4] Y[4][21]
Filoviridae V [22] Ebola virus,[22] Marburg virus[22] Y[4]
Paramyxoviridae V [23] Measles virus,[3] Mumps virus,[3] Parainfluenza virus[3][4] Y[3][23]
Pneumoviridae V [24] Respiratory syncytial virus[3] Y[3]
Rhabdoviridae V [25] Rabies virus[3][4] Y[3][4]
Unassigned[26] V [26] Hepatitis D[26] Y[26]
Reoviridae III[11] Rotavirus,[11] Orbivirus, Coltivirus, Banna virus N[4]

Clinical characteristics[edit]

The clinical characteristics of viruses may differ substantially among species within the same family:

Type Family Transmission Diseases Treatment Prevention
Adenovirus Adenoviridae None[3][9]
  • Adenovirus vaccine[9]
  • hand washing
  • covering mouth when coughing or sneezing
  • avoiding close contact with the sick
Coxsackievirus Picornaviridae None[3]
  • hand washing
  • covering mouth when coughing/sneezing
  • avoiding contaminated food/water
  • improved sanitation
Epstein–Barr virus Herpesviridae None[3]
  • avoiding close contact with the sick
Hepatitis A virus Picornaviridae Immunoglobulin (post-exposure prophylaxis)[3]
Hepatitis B virus Hepadnaviridae

Vertical and sexual[30]

Hepatitis C virus Flaviviridae
  • avoiding shared needles/syringes
  • safe sex
Herpes simplex virus, type 1 Herpesviridae
  • avoiding close contact with lesions
  • safe sex
Herpes simplex virus, type 2 Herpesviridae
  • avoiding close contact with lesions[3]
  • safe sex[3]
Cytomegalovirus Herpesviridae
  • hand washing
  • avoid sharing food and drinks with others
  • safe sex
Human herpesvirus, type 8 Herpesviridae many in evaluation-stage[3]
  • avoid close contact with lesions
  • safe sex
HIV Retroviridae HAART,[3] such as protease inhibitors[34] and reverse-transcriptase inhibitors[34]
  • zidovudine (perinatally)[3]
  • blood product screening[3]
  • safe sex[3]
  • avoiding shared needles/syringes
Influenza virus Orthomyxoviridae
  • droplet contact[3]
Measles virus Paramyxoviridae None[3]
Mumps virus Paramyxoviridae None[3]
Human papillomavirus Papillomaviridae
Parainfluenza virus Paramyxoviridae None[3]
  • hand washing
  • covering mouth when coughing/sneezing
Poliovirus Picornaviridae None[3]
Rabies virus Rhabdoviridae Post-exposure prophylaxis[3]
Respiratory syncytial virus Pneumoviridae (ribavirin)[3]
  • hand washing[3]
  • avoiding close contact with the sick[3]
  • palivizumab in high risk individuals[3]
  • covering mouth when coughing/sneezing
Rubella virus Togaviridae None[3]
Varicella-zoster virus Herpesviridae
  • droplet contact[3]
  • direct contact

Varicella:

Zoster:

Varicella:

Zoster:

  • vaccine
  • varicella-zoster immunoglobulin
SARS-CoV-2 Coronaviridae
  • droplet contact
None

Notes[edit]

In 2010, it was reported that the presence of a tobamovirus (Pepper mild mottle virus) in the stool was associated with clinical disease and a specific immune response.[37] If this association can be confirmed it is the first known case of disease caused by a virus previously considered pathogenic only to plants.

Diagnosis and treatment[edit]

Viral disease is usually detected by clinical presentation, for instance, severe muscle and joint pains preceding fever, or skin rash and swollen lymph glands. Testing for viral infection may involve imaging, nucleic acid testing, serological testing and antigen testing.

Viral infections are commonly of limited duration, so treatment usually consists in reducing the symptoms; antipyretic and analgesic drugs are commonly prescribed.[38] Anti-viral drugs include treatments for HIV and influenza.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Taylor, M.P.; Kobiler, O.; Enquist, L. W. (2012). "Alphaherpesvirus axon-to-cell spread involves limited virion transmission". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. PNAS. 106 (42): 17046–17051. doi:10.1073/pnas.1212926109. PMC 3479527. PMID 23027939.
  2. ^ Hunt, M. "Arboviruses". University of South Carolina School of Medicine.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj bk bl bm bn bo bp bq br bs bt bu bv bw bx by bz ca cb cc cd ce cf cg ch ci cj ck cl cm cn co cp cq cr cs ct cu cv cw cx cy cz da db dc dd de df dg dh di dj dk dl dm dn do dp dq dr ds dt du dv dw dx dy dz ea eb ec ed ee ef eg eh ei ej ek el em en eo ep eq er es et eu ev ew ex ey ez fa fb fc fd fe ff fg fh fi fj fk fl fm fn fo fp fq fr fs ft fu fv fw fx fy fz ga gb gc gd ge gf gg gh gi Fisher, Bruce; Harvey, Richard P.; Champe, Pamela C. (2007). Lippincott's Illustrated Reviews: Microbiology (PDF). Lippincott's Illustrated Reviews Series. Hagerstown MD: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. pp. 354–366. ISBN 978-0-7817-8215-9. Retrieved 7 September 2020.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am Table 1 in: Dimitrov, Dimiter S. (2004). "Virus entry: molecular mechanisms and biomedical applications". Nature Reviews Microbiology. 2 (2): 109–22. doi:10.1038/nrmicro817. ISSN 1740-1526. PMC 7097642. PMID 15043007.
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  6. ^ Whitley RJ (1996). Baron S; et al. (eds.). Herpesviruses. in: Baron's Medical Microbiology (4th ed.). Univ of Texas Medical Branch. ISBN 0-9631172-1-1.
  7. ^ Murray PR, Rosenthal KS, Pfaller MA (2005). Medical Microbiology (5th ed.). Elsevier Mosby. ISBN 978-0-323-03303-9.
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  9. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m "Polyomavirus". ViralZone. SIB Swiss Institute of Bioinformatics. Retrieved 2015-10-03.
  10. ^ Murillo A, Vera-Estrella R, Barkla BJ, Méndez E, Arias CF (2015). "Identification of Host Cell Factors Associated with Astrovirus Replication in Caco-2 Cells". J. Virol. 89 (20): 10359–70. doi:10.1128/JVI.01225-15. PMC 4580174. PMID 26246569.
  11. ^ a b c Page 273 in: Lennette's Laboratory Diagnosis of Viral Infections (Fourth ed.). CRC Press. 2010. ISBN 978-1420084962.
  12. ^ Tuthill, Tobias J.; Groppelli, Elisabetta; Hogle, James M.; Rowlands, David J. (2010). "Picornaviruses". Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology. 343: 43–89. doi:10.1007/82_2010_37. ISBN 978-3-642-13331-2. ISSN 0070-217X. PMC 3018333. PMID 20397067.
  13. ^ Stapleford, Kenneth A.; Miller, David J. (2010). "Role of Cellular Lipids in Positive-Sense RNA Virus Replication Complex Assembly and Function". Viruses. 2 (5): 1055–68. doi:10.3390/v2051055. ISSN 1999-4915. PMC 3187604. PMID 21994671.
  14. ^ Cook, S.; Moureau, G.; Harbach, R. E.; Mukwaya, L.; Goodger, K.; Ssenfuka, F.; Gould, E.; Holmes, E. C.; de Lamballerie, X. (2009). "Isolation of a novel species of flavivirus and a new strain of Culex flavivirus (Flaviviridae) from a natural mosquito population in Uganda". Journal of General Virology. 90 (11): 2669–78. doi:10.1099/vir.0.014183-0. ISSN 0022-1317. PMC 2885038. PMID 19656970.
  15. ^ Simon-Loriere, Etienne; Holmes, Edward C. (2011). "Why do RNA viruses recombine?". Nature Reviews Microbiology. 9 (8): 617–26. doi:10.1038/nrmicro2614. ISSN 1740-1526. PMC 3324781. PMID 21725337.
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  22. ^ a b c "Filoviridae". ViralZone. SIB Swiss Institute of Bioinformatics. Retrieved 2015-10-03.
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  27. ^ a b c d "Enterovirus". ViralZone. SIB Swiss Institute of Bioinformatics. Retrieved 2015-10-12.
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  31. ^ a b "Flaviviridae". ViralZone. SIB Swiss Institute of Bioinformatics. Retrieved 2015-10-10.
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  33. ^ a b c d e f "Babies Born with CMV (Congenital CMV Infection)". Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. April 13, 2017. Retrieved June 17, 2017. This article incorporates public domain material from websites or documents of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
  34. ^ a b c d e "Human immunodeficiency virus 1". ViralZone. SIB Swiss Institute of Bioinformatics. Retrieved 2015-10-10.
  35. ^ a b c d "Papillomaviridae". ViralZone. SIB Swiss Institute of Bioinformatics. Retrieved 2015-10-10.
  36. ^ a b c "Togaviridae". ViralZone. SIB Swiss Institute of Bioinformatics. Retrieved 2015-10-10.
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  38. ^ "Viral Fever". Web Health Centre. Retrieved August 15, 2013.

External links[edit]

Classification