Vire from the Place du Château
|• Mayor (2008–2014)||Jean-Yves Cousin|
|Area1||22.50 km2 (8.69 sq mi)|
|• Density||540/km2 (1,400/sq mi)|
|Time zone||CET (UTC+1)|
|• Summer (DST)||CEST (UTC+2)|
|INSEE/Postal code||14762 / 14500|
|Elevation||85–225 m (279–738 ft)
(avg. 134 m or 440 ft)
1 French Land Register data, which excludes lakes, ponds, glaciers > 1 km² (0.386 sq mi or 247 acres) and river estuaries.2 Population without double counting: residents of multiple communes (e.g., students and military personnel) only counted once.
Vire (French: [viʁ]) is a town and a former commune in the Calvados department in the Normandy region in northwestern France. On 1 January 2016, it was merged into the new commune of Vire-Normandie.
The town is located on the river Vire.
In 1123, Henri I Beauclerc, King of England and Duke of Normandy, had a redoubt constructed on a rocky hill top, which was surrounded by the Vire river. The redoubt was stoned square at the bottom to assure the defense of the Duchy of Normandy against any attacks from Brittany or Maine.
This stone work would be later, beginning of the 13th century, on the order of Saint Louis, completed with exterior ramparts. This second precinct however would be finished only at the beginning of the 14th century.:7
At the end of the Middle Ages, the village prospered; first with leather, and then with textiles During the hundred years war, Vire was plundered in 1368 by large military companies, and delivered to the English in 1418. The English occupation would end in 1450 and would be brutal to the inhabitants. The execution of Hugues Vaux, owner of the largest farm of the village, after refusing to give up his farm to the English sergeant Fields, caused grief and concern amongst the population. Some inhabitants nevertheless benefited from the English occupation. Eugène Vergny, who provided Fields with information about the movement of the French troops, received the property of Vaux after his execution.
During the reign of Louis XIII of France, because a number of Fortifications of the Middle Ages served in rebellions by the Huguenots in particular, the castle and its precinct were dismantled on orders of Richelieu.:7
During the 19th century, the village did not respond well to the Industrial Revolution and went into an important recession.
On June 6, 1944 during the Second World War, around 8:00 pm, like many Norman cities and villages, Vire suffered heavily from the British bombings, and 95% of the town was destroyed. One of the two target marking flare groups was out of alignment and much of the bombing fell across the town of Vire. The Master Bomber in charge of the operation identified the problem and issued corrections to the incoming aircraft. Much of the bombing from the first wave of aircraft fell across the town of Vire killing many of the inhabitants. It was a distressing night for many families.
The reconstruction after the second world war began in the 1960s.
|Population of Vire since 1793|
- Andouille, a speciality of Vire.
- Communes of the Calvados department
- Although on June 1944 at around 8pm the quiet town of Vire in the Bocage region of Calvados was bombed relentlessly by the Allied Forces and over 80% of its buildings were destroyed, it made a remarkable recovery. See before and after and learn more about Vire's survival here
- Canadian historian and novelist A.J.B. Johnston re-creates a version of early 18th-century Vire in the early chapters of his novel inspired by Thomas Pichon (1700-1781), Thomas, A Secret Life.
- Arrêté préfectoral 31 December 2015 (French)
- "GASO, la banque du blason - Vire Calvados". Retrieved 8 August 2009.[dead link]
- Buffetaut, Yves (September 2009). "La prise de Vire par les Grandes Compagnies". Itinéraires de Normandie 15: 60–64. ISSN 1950-9324. Archived from the original on July 13, 2011.
- Arcisse de Caumont, Statistique monumentale du Calvados, editeur= Hardel year= 1857 tome= 3 title: Arrondissements de Vire et de Bayeux passage 92
- "Vire-tourisme : Vire et les alentours consulté le". Archived from the original on September 11, 2008. Retrieved 14 October 2009.
- Coulonces.com - 2009 – David FELL.
- INSEE, Commune de Vire
- Décret n° 2014-160 du 17 février 2014 portant délimitation des cantons dans le département du Calvados
- "National Commission for Decentralised cooperation". Délégation pour l’Action Extérieure des Collectivités Territoriales (Ministère des Affaires étrangères) (in French). Retrieved 2013-12-26.[dead link]
- Johnston, A.J.B. (2012). Thomas, A Secret Life. Cape Breton University Press. ISBN 978-1-897009-74-1.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Vire.|
|Wikisource has the text of the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica article Vire.|