|Operating bases||Spaceport America|
|Parent company||Virgin Group|
|Key people||Richard Branson (Chairman)
George Whitesides (CEO)
Virgin Galactic is a spaceflight company within the Virgin Group. It is developing commercial spacecraft and aims to provide suborbital spaceflights to space tourists, suborbital launches for space science missions, and orbital launches of small satellites. Further in the future, Virgin Galactic plans to provide orbital human spaceflights as well. The company also hopes to develop an orbital launch vehicle. SpaceShipTwo, Virgin Galactic's suborbital spacecraft, is air launched from beneath a carrier airplane known as White Knight Two.
Virgin Galactic's founder, Sir Richard Branson, had initially suggested that he hoped to see a maiden flight by the end of 2009, but this date has been delayed on a number of occasions, most recently by the October 2014 in-flight loss of SpaceShipTwo.
- 1 History and operations
- 2 Investors
- 3 Collaborations
- 4 Operational aspects
- 5 Competition
- 6 Criticism
- 7 See also
- 8 References
- 9 External links
History and operations
Formation and early activities
|This section requires expansion. (November 2014)|
Virgin Galactic was founded in 2004 by British entrepreneur Sir Richard Branson, who had previously founded Virgin Atlantic airline and the Virgin Group, and who had a long personal history of balloon and surface record-breaking activities.
The Spaceship Company
The Spaceship Company (TSC) is a wholly owned subsidiary aerospace production company of Virgin Galactic. It was originally founded by Branson through Virgin Group (which owned 70%), and aerospace engineer Burt Rutan through Scaled Composites (which owned 30%), to build commercial spaceships and launch aircraft for space travel. From the time of TSC’s formation in 2005, the launch customer was Virgin Galactic, which contracted to purchase five SpaceShipTwos and two WhiteKnightTwos; Scaled Composites was contracted to develop and build the initial prototypes of WK2 and SS2, and then TSC began production of the follow-on vehicles beginning in 2008. By July 2014, TSC was only halfway through the completion of a second SpaceShipTwo, and had commenced construction of a second WhiteKnightTwo. In 2012, Virgin Galactic acquired the 30% stake still owned by Scaled Composites, making TSC a subsidiary.
Commencement of sub-space test flights
In July 2008 Richard Branson predicted the maiden space voyage would take place within 18 months. In October 2009, Virgin Galactic announced that initial flights would take place from Spaceport America "within two years." Later that year, Scaled Composite announced that White Knight Two's first SpaceShipTwo captive flights would be in early 2010. Both aircraft did fly together in March 2010. The credibility of the earlier promises of launch dates by Virgin Galactic were brought into question in October 2014 by its chief executive, George Whitesides, when he told The Guardian: “We’ve changed dramatically as a company. When I joined in 2010 we were mostly a marketing organisation. Right now we can design, build, test and fly a rocket motor all by ourselves and all in Mojave, which I don’t think is done anywhere else on the planet”.
On December 7, 2009, SpaceShipTwo was unveiled at the Mojave Spaceport. Branson told the 300 people attending, each of whom had booked rides at $200,000 each, that flights would begin “in 2011”. However, in April 2011, Branson announced further delays, saying “I hope 18 months from now, we’ll be sitting in our spaceship and heading off into space”. By February 2012, SpaceShipTwo had completed 15 test flights attached to White Knight Two, and an additional 16 glide tests, the last of which took place in September 2011. A rocket-powered test flight of SpaceShipTwo finally took place on April 29, 2013, with an engine burn of 16 seconds duration. The brief flight began at an altitude of 47,000 feet, and reached a maximum altitude of 55,000 feet. While the SS2 achieved a speed of Mach 1.2 (920 mph), this was less than half the 2,000 mph speed predicted by Richard Branson. SpaceShipTwo’s second supersonic flight achieved a speed of 1,100 mph for 20 seconds; while this was an improvement, it fell far short of the 2,500 mph for 70 seconds required to carry six passengers into space. However, Branson still announced his spaceship would be capable of "launching 100 satellites every day".
On May 14, 2013, Richard Branson stated on Virgin Radio Dubai's Kris Fade Morning Show that he would be aboard the first public flight of SpaceShipTwo, which had again been re-scheduled, this time to December 25, 2013. "Maybe I’ll dress up as Father Christmas", Branson said. The third rocket powered test flight of SpaceShipTwo took place on January 10, 2014 and successfully tested the spaceship’s Reaction Control System (RCS) and the newly installed thermal protection coating on the vehicle’s tail booms. Virgin Galactic CEO George Whitesides said “We are progressively closer to our target of starting commercial service in 2014". Interviewed by The Observer at the time of her 90th birthday in July 2014, Branson’s mother, Eve, told reporter Elizabeth Day of her intention of going to space herself. Asked when that might be, she replied: “I think it’s the end of the year”, adding after a pause, “It’s always ‘the end of the year’ ”.
In September 2014, Richard Branson described the intended date for the first commercial flight as February or March of 2015; by the time of this announcement, a new plastic-based fuel had yet to be ignited in-flight. To date, the three test flights of the SS2 have only reached an altitude of around 71,000 ft, approximately 13 miles; in order to receive a Federal Aviation Administration licence to carry passengers, the craft needs to complete test missions at full speed and 62-mile height. Following the announcement of further delays, UK newspaper The Sunday Times reported that Branson faced a backlash from those who had booked flights with Virgin Galactic, with the company having received $80 million in fares and deposits. Tom Bower, author of Branson: The Man behind the Mask, told the Sunday Times: "They spent 10 years trying to perfect one engine and failed. They are now trying to use a different engine and get into space in six months. It's just not feasible." BBC science editor David Shukman commented in October 2014, that "[Branson's] enthusiasm and determination [are] undoubted. But his most recent promises of launching the first passenger trip by the end of this year had already started to look unrealistic some months ago.”
October 2014 in-flight loss of VSS Enterprise
At 10.51am PST 31 October 2014, the fourth rocket powered test flight of one of the company's SpaceShipTwo craft, VSS Enterprise, ended in disaster, as it broke apart in midair, with the debris falling into the Mojave desert in California, shortly after being released from the mothership. Initial reports attributed the loss to an as-yet unidentified "in-flight anomaly". The flight was the first test of SpaceShipTwo with new plastic-based fuel, replacing the original—a rubber-based solid fuel that had not met expectations. 39-year-old co-pilot Michael Alsbury was killed and 43-year-old pilot Peter Siebold was seriously injured.
Investigation and media comment
Initial investigations found that the engine and propellant tanks were intact, showing that there had not been a fuel explosion. Telemetry data and cockpit video showed that instead, the air braking system appeared to have deployed incorrectly and too early, for unknown reasons, and that the craft had violently broken apart in midair seconds later.
U.S. National Transportation Safety Board Chairman Christopher Hart said on 2 November 2014 that investigators had determined SpaceShipTwo's tail system was supposed to have been released for deployment as the craft was traveling about 1.4 times the speed of sound; instead, the tail section began pivoting when the vehicle was flying at Mach 1, the speed of sound. "I'm not stating that this is the cause of the mishap. We have months and months of investigation to determine what the cause was." Asked if pilot error was a possible factor, Hart said: "We are looking at all of these issues to determine what was the root cause of this mishap." He noted that it was also unclear how the tail mechanism began to rotate once it was unlocked, since that maneuver requires a separate pilot command that was never given, and whether the craft's position in the air and its speed somehow enabled the tail section to swing free on its own.
In November 2014, Branson and Virgin Galactic came under criticism for their attempts to distance the company from the disaster by referring to the test pilots as Scaled Composites employees. Virgin Galactic’s official statement on 31 October 2014 said: “Virgin Galactic’s partner Scaled Composites conducted a powered test flight of SpaceShipTwo earlier today. [...] Local authorities have confirmed that one of the two Scaled Composites pilots died during the accident”. This was in strong contrast to public communications previously released concerning the group's successful flights, which had routinely presented pilots, craft, and projects within the same organizational structures, as being "Virgin Galactic" flights or activities of "the Galactic team". The BBC's David Shukman commented that: “Even as details emerge of what went wrong, this is clearly a massive setback to a company hoping to pioneer a new industry of space tourism. Confidence is everything and this will not encourage the long list of celebrity and millionaire customers waiting for their first flight".
At a hearing in Washington D.C. on 28 July 2015, and a press release on the same day the NTSB cited inadequate design safeguards, poor pilot training, lack of rigorous FAA oversight and a potentially anxious co-pilot without recent flight experience as important factors in the 2014 crash. They determined that the co-pilot, who died in the accident, prematurely unlocked a movable tail section some ten seconds after SpaceShip Two fired its rocket engine and was breaking the sound barrier, resulting in the craft breaking apart. But the Board also found that the Scaled Composites unit of Northrop Grumman, which designed and flew the prototype space tourism vehicle, didn’t properly prepare for potential human slip-ups by providing a fail-safe system that could have guarded against such premature deployment. “A single-point human failure has to be anticipated,” board member Robert Sumwalt said. Instead, Scaled Composites “put all their eggs in the basket of the pilots doing it correctly.”
NTSB Chairman Christopher Hart emphasized that consideration of human factors, which was not emphasized in the design, safety assessment, and operation of SpaceShipTwo’s feather system, is critical to safe manned spaceflight to mitigate the potential consequences of human error. “Manned commercial spaceflight is a new frontier, with many unknown risks and hazards. In such an environment, safety margins around known hazards must be rigorously established and, where possible, expanded. For commercial spaceflight to successfully mature, we must meticulously seek out and mitigate known hazards, as a prerequisite to identifying and mitigating new hazards.” In its submission to the NTSB, Virgin Galactic reports that the second SS2, currently nearing completion, has been modified with an automatic mechanical inhibit device to prevent locking or unlocking of the feather during safety-critical phases. An explicit warning about the dangers of premature unlocking has also been added to the checklist and operating handbook, and a formalized crew resource management (CRM) approach, already used by Virgin for its WK2 operations, is being adopted for SS2. However, despite CRM issues being cited as a likely contributing cause, Virgin confirmed that it would not modify the cockpit display system.
2015 pivot to smallsat launcher development
While Virgin has been pursuing the development of a smallsat launch vehicle since 2012, the company began in 2015 to make the smallsat launch business a larger part of Virgin's core business plan, as the Virgin human spaceflight program has experienced multiple delays.
After a claimed investment by Virgin Group of US$100 million, in 2010 the sovereign wealth fund of Abu Dhabi, Aabar Investments group, acquired a 31.8% stake in Virgin Galactic for US$280 million, receiving exclusive regional rights to launch tourism and scientific research space flights from the United Arab Emirates capital. In July 2011, Aabar invested a further US$100 million to develop a program to launch small satellites into low Earth orbit, raising their equity share to 37.8%. Virgin announced in June 2014 that they were in talks with Google about the injection of capital to fund both development and operations. The New Mexico government has invested approaching $200m (£121m) in the Spaceport America facility, for which Virgin Galactic is the anchor tenant; other commercial space companies also use the site.
Potential collaboration with NASA
In February 2007, Virgin announced that they had signed a memorandum of understanding with NASA to explore the potential for collaboration, but, to date, this has produced only a relatively small contract in 2011 of up to $4.5 million for research flights.
OneWeb satellite Internet access provider
Virgin Group in January 2015, announced an investment into the OneWeb satellite constellation providing world Internet access service of WorldVu. Virgin Galactic will take a share of the launch contracts to launch the satellites into their 1200 km orbits. The prospective launches would use the under-design LauncherOne system.
Aircraft and spacecraft
The White Knight Two is a special airplane built as the mother ship and launch-platform for the spacecraft SpaceShipTwo and the unmanned launch vehicle LauncherOne. The mother ship is a large fixed-wing aircraft with two hulls linked together by a central wing. Two aircraft are planned - VMS Eve and VMS Spirit of Steve Fossett
Richard Branson unveiled the rocket plane on December 7, 2009 announcing that, after testing, the plane would carry fare-paying passengers ticketed for short duration journeys just above the atmosphere. Virgin Group would initially launch from a base in New Mexico before extending operations around the globe. Built from lightweight carbon composite materials and powered by a hybrid rocket motor, SS2 is based on the Ansari X PRIZE-winning SpaceShipOne concept - a rocket plane that is lifted initially by a carrier aircraft before independent launch. SS1 became the world's first private spaceship with a series of high-altitude flights in 2004.
The programme was delayed after three Scaled Composites employees - Todd Ivens, Eric Blackwell and Charles May - were killed in an accident in Mojave on 26 July 2007, where the detonation of a tank of nitrous oxide destroyed a test stand. They had been observing the test from behind a chain link fence that offered no protection from the shrapnel and debris when the tank exploded. Three other employees were injured in the blast and the company was fined for breaches of health and safety rules. The cause of the accident has never been made public.
Its successor is twice as large, measuring 18 m (60 ft) in length; whereas SpaceShipOne could carry a single pilot and two passengers, SS2 will have a crew of two and room for six passengers. By August 2013, 640 customers had signed up for a flight, initially at a ticket price of $200,000 per person, but raised to $250,000 in May 2013. Tickets are available from more than 140 "space agents" worldwide. Passengers who have already submitted their deposit include Stephen Hawking, Tom Hanks, Ashton Kutcher, Katy Perry, Brad Pitt, Angelina Jolie, scientist and entrepreneur Alan Finkel and Australian science journalist Wilson da Silva.
SpaceShipTwo's projected performance
SpaceShipTwo is projected to fly to a height of 110 km, going beyond the defined boundary of space (100 km) and lengthening the experience of weightlessness for its passengers. The spacecraft would reach a top speed of 4000 km/h (2485 mph). On 23 May 2014, Virgin Galactic announced that they had abandoned use of the Sierra Nevada Corporation (SNC) nitrous oxide-rubber motor for SpaceShipTwo; on 24 July 2014, SNC confirmed that they had also abandoned use of this motor for its Dream Chaser space shuttle. Future testing will see SpaceShipTwo powered by a polyamide grain powered motor.
In honor of the science fiction series Star Trek, the first two ships are named after the fictional starships Enterprise and Voyager. To reenter the atmosphere, SpaceShipTwo folds its wings up and then returns them to their original position for an unpowered descent flight back onto the runway. The craft has a very limited cross-range capability, and until other planned spaceports are built worldwide, it has to land in the area where it started. Further spaceports are planned in Abu Dhabi and elsewhere, with the intention that the spaceline will have a worldwide availability and commodity in the future.
Overview of the SS2 spacecraft flights
SpaceShipTwo's planned trajectory would achieve a suborbital journey with a short period of weightlessness. Carried to about 16 kilometers, or 52000 ft, underneath a carrier aircraft, White Knight II, after separation the vehicle would continue to over 100 km (the Kármán line, a common definition of where "space" begins). The time from liftoff of the White Knight booster carrying SpaceShipTwo until the touchdown of the spacecraft after the suborbital flight would be about 2.5 hours. The suborbital flight itself would only be a small fraction of that time, with weightlessness lasting approximately 6 minutes. Passengers will be able to release themselves from their seats during these 6 minutes and float around the cabin. In addition to the suborbital passenger business, Virgin Galactic will market SpaceShipTwo for suborbital space science missions and market White Knight Two for "small satellite" launch services. It had planned to initiate RFPs for the satellite business in early 2010, but flights had not materialized as of 2014. In February 2014, cracks in WhiteKnightTwo, where the spars connect with the fuselage, were discovered during an inspection conducted after Virgin Galactic took possession of the aircraft from builder Scaled Composites.
LauncherOne is an orbital launch vehicle that was publicly announced by Virgin Galactic in July 2012. It is being designed to launch "smallsat" payloads of 200 kilograms (440 lb) into Earth orbit, with launches projected to begin in 2016. Several commercial customers have already contracted for launches, including GeoOptics, Skybox Imaging, Spaceflight Services, and Planetary Resources. Both Surrey Satellite Technology and Sierra Nevada Space Systems are developing satellite buses "optimized to the design of LauncherOne."
In October 2012, Virgin announced that LauncherOne could place 200 kg (440 lb) in Sun-synchronous orbit. Virgin plans to market the 200 kg (440 lb) payload delivery to Sun-synchronous orbit for under US$10,000,000 per mission, while the maximum payload for LEO missions is 230 kg (500 lb).
Virgin Galactic has been working on the LauncherOne concept since at least late 2008, and the technical specifications were first described in some detail in late 2009. The LauncherOne configuration is proposed to be an expendable, two-stage, liquid-fueled rocket air-launched from a White Knight Two. This would make it a similar configuration to that used by Orbital Sciences' Pegasus, or a smaller version of the StratoLaunch.
In 2015, Virgin Galactic established a 150,000-sq.ft. research, development and manufacturing center for LauncherOne at the Long Beach Airport. The company reported in March 2015 that they are on schedule to begin test flights of LauncherOne with its Newton 3 engine by the end of 2016. On 25 June 2015, the company signed a contract with OneWeb Ltd. for 39 satellite launches for its satellite constellation with an option for an additional 100 launches.
LauncherOne will be a two-stage air-launched vehicle using Newton engines, RP-1/LOX liquid rocket engines. The second stage will be powered by NewtonOne, a 16 kilonewtons (3,500 lbf) thrust engine. It was originally intended that the first stage will be powered by a scaled-up design of the same basic technology as NewtonOne, called NewtonTwo, with 211 kilonewtons (47,500 lbf) of thrust. Both engines have been designed, and as of January 2014[update] first articles have been built. NewtonOne was tested up to a full-duration burn of five minutes. NewtonTwo made several short-duration firings by early 2014.
NewtonThree is a 260–335-kilonewton (58,000–75,000 lbf)-thrust engine, and has only recently begun hot-fire tests as of March 2015[update]. More recent reports suggest that a NewtonThree will power the first stage of LauncherOne.
News reports in September 2015 indicate that the higher payload is to be achieved by longer fuel tanks and the NewtonThree engine but this will mean that White Knight Two will no longer be able to lift it to launch altitude. Details of the carrier aircraft are not yet available.
Commercial spaceflight locations
In 2008 it was announced that test launches for its fleet of two White Knight Two mother ships and five or more SpaceShipTwo tourist suborbital spacecraft would take place from the Mojave Spaceport, where Scaled Composites was constructing the spacecraft.[dated info] An international architectural competition for the design of Virgin Galactic's operating base, Spaceport America in New Mexico, saw the contract awarded to URS and Foster + Partners architects. In the same year Virgin Galactic announced that it would eventually operate in Europe out of Spaceport Sweden[dated info] or even from RAF Lossiemouth in Scotland.
While the original plan called for flight operations to transfer from the California desert to the new spaceport upon completion of the spaceport, Virgin Galactic has yet to complete the development and test program of SpaceShipTwo. In October 2010, the 3,000 m (10,000 ft) runway at Spaceport America was opened, with SpaceShipTwo "VSS Enterprise" shipped to the site carried underneath the fuselage of Virgin Galactic's Mother Ship Eve.
Amongst other organizations actively exploring reusable crewed suborbital and orbital spaceplanes are Sierra Nevada Corporation, XCOR Aerospace and SpaceX. Sierra Nevada's current plans for the Dream Chaser aircraft has it designed to carry five passengers and be launched from the Stratolaunch carrier aircraft. Unlike the SpaceShipTwo, the Dream Chaser would land on any conventional runway that could handle commercial traffic, conferring very significant operational, cost and safety advantages over the Virgin Galactic aircraft. XCOR's Lynx suborbital vehicle would takeoff under its own power horizontally from a runway. Upon takeoff, it would pitch up and climb to over 100 km. With the engines shut down, it would then glide back and land on the runway. The Lynx will be capable of flying four full flights per day. On 16 September 2014, SpaceX was awarded a $2.6 billion contract to supply NASA with a crew transport capsule; with the first crewed Dragon spacecraft/Falcon 9 flight scheduled for 2016, the company will become the first private company to launch astronauts into space.
There have been a series of delays to the SS2 flight test vehicle becoming operational, amidst repeated assurances from Virgin Galactic marketing that operational flights were only a year or two out. The Wall Street Journal reported in November 2014 that there has been "tension between Mr. Branson’s upbeat projections and the persistent hurdles that challenged the company’s hundreds of technical experts." The company has responded that "the company and its contractors 'have internal milestones, such as schedule estimates and goals, but the companies are driven by safety and the completion of the flight test program before moving into commercial service.' Virgin Galactic’s schedules have always been consistent with internal schedules of its contractors and changes have 'never impacted flight safety'."
- "Sir Richard Branson plans orbital spaceships for Virgin Galactic, 2014 trips to space". foxnews.com.
- http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/sci/tech/7529978.stm | work=BBC News | title=Branson unveils space tourism jett | date=July 28, 2008 | accessdate=March 7, 2014
- "Richard Branson and Burt Rutan Form Spacecraft Building Company". SPACE.com. July 27, 2005. Retrieved October 17, 2009.
- [dead link]
- Scaled Composites: Projects - FirebirdBiPodSpaceShipTwo Test SummariesWhiteKnightTwo Flight Test SummariesRocketMotorTwo Hot-Fire Test SummariesProjects - Main Landing Page Te...
- "Virgin Galactic Acquires Full Ownership of The Spaceship Company". Yahoo Finance. 2012-10-05. Retrieved 2012-10-06.
- Will Whitehorn (October 27, 2009). International Astronautical Congress 2009: Civilian Access to Space (video, comments at c. 22:00). Daejeon, Korea: Flightglobal Hyperbola, Rob Coppinger.
- PICTURES: WhiteKnight Two's spoilers get holes
- News – VSS Enterprise's first 'captive carry' flight! | Virgin Galactic
- Garside, Juliette (9 October 2014). "Still looking up: former Nasa chief who now nurtures Virgin’s spaceflight hopes". The Guardian (London). Retrieved 12 November 2014.
- Allen, Nick (December 8, 2009). "Richard Branson unveils Virgin Galactic's spaceship Enterprise". The Daily Telegraph (London). Retrieved May 27, 2010.
- Batey, Angus (June 5, 2010). "Your flight is now departing from space terminal 1: The amazing story behind Branson's Virgin Galactic project". London, UK: Daily Mail. Retrieved July 28, 2010.
- Private Eye (September 2014). “Beam us up, Beardie!”, Private Eye, No. 1374, 05 Sept. – 18 Sept. 2014, pg 8. Retrieved 02 October 2014.
- Klotz, Irene (February 28, 2012). "UPDATE 1-Virgin Galactic aims to test fly ship in space this year". Reuters. Retrieved February 28, 2012.
- "VIRGIN GALACTIC BREAKS SPEED OF SOUND IN FIRST ROCKET-POWERED FLIGHT OF SPACESHIPTWO". Virgin Galactic. May 14, 2013. Retrieved April 29, 2013.
- "Lost in Space". Sunday Times. January 26, 2014. Retrieved January 26, 2014.
- Croucher, Martin (May 14, 2013). "UPDATE 1-Virgin Galactic aims to test fly ship in space this year". The National. Retrieved May 14, 2013.
- "New Heights in Third Supersonic Test Flight". Virgin Galactic. Jan 10, 2014. Retrieved Mar 21, 2014.
- Day, Elizabeth (20 July 2014). "Eve Branson: ‘I was not saved by Kate Winslet!’". The Observer (London). Retrieved 12 November 2014.
- Villagran, Laura (11 September 2014). "Virgin Galactic: More delays". Albuquerque Journal. Retrieved 11 September 2014.
- Ungoed-Thomas, Jon (September 2014). “The $80m Virginauts stranded on Earth”, The Sunday Times, 14 September 2014. Retrieved 02 October 2014.
- Porter, Tom (September 2014). “Doubts About Feasibility of Virgin Space Flights, as Branson Announces New Delays”, International Business Times, 14 September 2014. Retrieved 02 October 2014.
- Shukman, David (31 October 2014). "Virgin Galactic spacecraft crash kills one". BBC News. Retrieved 31 October 2014.
- Chang, Kenneth; Schwartz, John (31 October 2014). "Virgin Galactic’s SpaceShipTwo Crashes in New Setback for Commercial Spaceflight". New York Times. Retrieved 1 November 2014.
- "Virgin Galactic's SpaceShipTwo Crashes During Flight Test". October 31, 2014.
- "Virgin Galactic Makes a Switch in SpaceShipTwo's Rocket Motor". 23 May 2014.
- "Pilot actions examined in U.S. crash of Virgin Galactic spacecraft". Reuters. 4 November 2014.
- "Watch this space". Private Eye (London). 14 November 2014. p. 7.
- "Statement from Virgin Galactic 31.10.14". www.virgingalactic.com. 31 October 2014. Retrieved 12 November 2014.
- Rose, Greg. "Virgin Galactic test flight success". virgin.com accessdate=13 November 2014.
- Branson, Richard. "How to Train to be an Astronaut". www.virgin.com date=15 September 2014. Retrieved 13 November 2014.
- "One pilot dead as Virgin Galactic spaceship crashes during test flight". Daily Telegraph. 31 October 2014. Retrieved 31 October 2014.
- "Investigators Cite Inadequate Design Safeguards in SpaceShip Two Crash: NTSB staff questions if pilots fully aware of flight hazards". The Wall Street Journal. 28 July 2015. Retrieved 28 July 2015.
- "Pilot Training Fell Short in Virgin Galactic Crash, Investigators Say". The New York Times. 28 July 2015. Retrieved 28 July 2015.
- "Lack of Consideration for Human Factors Led to In-Flight Breakup of SpaceShipTwo". NTSB. 28 July 2015. Retrieved 29 July 2015.
- "Lack of Consideration for Human Factors Led to In-Flight Breakup of SpaceShipTwo". NTSB. 28 July 2015. Retrieved 29 July 2015.
- "NTSB Report Cites Probable Cause Of SpaceShip2 Crash". Aviation Week. 29 July 2015. Retrieved 29 July 2015.
- Burn-Callander, Rebecca (22 August 2015). "Virgin Galactic boldly goes into small satellites, telling future astronauts 'you have to wait'". UK Telegraph. Retrieved 2015-08-24.
- Schreck, Adam. "Abu Dhabi partners with Virgin Galactic spaceship firm". ABC News. Retrieved 2014-06-16.
- "Abu Dhabi's Aabar boosts Virgin Galactic stake". Market Watch. 2011-10-19. Retrieved 2014-06-16.
- Kleinman, Mark (2014-06-12). "Google In Talks To Take Virgin Galactic Stake". SkyNews. Retrieved 2014-06-16.
- Memorandum of Understanding Between Virgin Galactic, LLC and National Aeronautics and Space Administration Ames Research Center. www.nasa.gov.
- NASA Provides Additional Information on Agreement With Virgin Galactic (With MOU Text) | SpaceRef - Your Space Reference
- "NASA Buys Flights on Virgin Galactic's Private Spaceship". Fox News. Retrieved October 14, 2011.
- Peter B. de Selding (15 January 2015). "Virgin, Qualcomm Invest in OneWeb Satellite Internet Venture". SpaceNews.
- Steve Dent (17 January 2015). "Virgin wants to launch 'world's largest' array of internet satellites". engadget.
- The Telegraph (London), "How one boy's dream of space flight looks like coming true", Philip Sherwell, July 2, 2011
- Coventry Telegraph, "Spaceship pilot to visit Coventry University", June 13, 2011
- In Year of Firsts, Virgin Galactic Names Alum as President. Alum.mit.edu (2013-07-12). Retrieved on 2013-08-27.
- "Spaceship Company unveils design of SpaceShipTwo". Pravda Online. January 23, 2008. Retrieved January 25, 2008.
- Branson, Richard (October 10, 2007). "My Friend, Steve Fossett". Time. Retrieved October 31, 2007.
- Burack, Ari (October 10, 2007). "Sir Richard Branson, black robed as Father Richard for zany party inaugurating Virgin American flight from San Francisco to Las Vegas". San Francisco Sentinel. Retrieved February 28, 2008.
- Nizza, Mike (October 11, 2007). "The Legend of Steve Fossett Takes Root". New York Times. Retrieved December 20, 2007.
- "SpaceShipOne rockets to success". BBC.co.uk. October 7, 2005. Retrieved February 2, 2011.
- "New Branson bio examines delays and other problems with Virgin Galactic". Retrieved January 26, 2014.
- "'Don't let more die', Richard Branson told". London Daily Telegraph. Retrieved November 8, 2014.
- Carrington, Daisy (August 16, 2013). "What does a $250,000 ticket to space with Virgin Galactic actually buy you?". CNN.com. Retrieved August 17, 2013.
- Wall, Mike (April 30, 2013). "Ticket Price for Private Spaceflights on Virgin Galactic's SpaceShipTwo Going Up". Space.com. Retrieved August 17, 2013.
- Forgione, Mary (May 2, 2013). "Want a ticket to space? Virgin Galactic agents are standing". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved September 3, 2013.
- Alan Boyle (March 19, 2012). "Ashton Kutcher set for space trip". msnbc.com. Retrieved March 19, 2012.
- Baldwin, Brook, Branson, Richard (May 22, 2012). "Richard Branson talks SpaceX launch". cnn.com. Retrieved May 26, 2012.
- "Virgin Galactic Rocket Motor Milestone". Retrieved May 23, 2014.
- "SNC abandons own hybrid motors on Dream Chaser". Retrieved August 19, 2014.
- "Captain Kirk signs on for Virgin Galactic Space Ride". soultek.com. Retrieved February 14, 2008.
- "Cracks discovered in WhiteKnightTwo’s wings". Retrieved May 11, 2014.
- "Virgin Galactic relaunches its smallsat launch business". NewSpace Journal. July 12, 2012. Retrieved July 11, 2012.
- Amos, Jonathan (July 11, 2012). "Richard Branson's Virgin Galactic to launch small satellites". BBC News. Retrieved July 13, 2012.
- Lindsey, Clark (October 18, 2012). "ISPCS 2012: Thurs Afternoon session". NewSpace Watch. Archived from the original on February 8, 2013.
- Boyle, Alan (2014-01-23). "Hello, Newton: Virgin Galactic unveils its 'other' rocket engine". NBC News. Retrieved 2015-09-10.
- EXCLUSIVE: Virgin Galactic unveils LauncherOne name!, Rob Coppinger, Flightglobal Hyperbola, December 9, 2008
- Amos, Jonathan (November 10, 2009). "LauncherOne: Virgin Galactic's other project". BBC News. Retrieved July 13, 2012.
- Rob Coppinger (July 11, 2012). "Virgin Galactic Unveils LauncherOne Rocket for Private Satellite Launches". Space.com.
- "Virgin Galactic Opens New Design and Manufacturing Facility for LauncherOne". Space Daily. 18 February 2015.
- Foust, Jeff (2015-03-16). "Virgin Galactic’s LauncherOne on Schedule for 2016 First Launch". Space News. Retrieved 24 March 2015.
- "Virgin Galactic Signs Contract with OneWeb to Perform 39 Satellite Launches" (Press release). Long Beach, California: Virgin Galactic. 25 June 2015. Retrieved 25 June 2015.
- "Virgin boosts rocket capability". 2015-09-15.
- "Virgin Galactic FAQ: Where Will I Fly From?". Retrieved June 26, 2008.
- "Foster + Partners". fosterandpartners.com. Retrieved February 17, 2008.
- "News Release 03.04.2008 / Spaceport Sweden and Virgin Galactic". Retrieved June 26, 2008.
- "Will Whitehorn (Virgin Galactic) and Heather MacRae (Venture Thinking) at the RAeS". space.co.uk. Retrieved July 26, 2008.
- "Runway Opens at world's first spaceport". BBC News. October 23, 2010. Retrieved October 22, 2010.
- "NASA Selects SpaceX To Be Part Of America's Human Spaceflight Program". SpaceX. 16 September 2014.
- Pasztor, Andy (2014-11-13). "Problems Plagued Virgin Galactic Rocket Ship Long Before Crash". Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 2014-11-14. (subscription required (. ))
- Virgin Galactic
- The Spaceship Company
- Virgin Galactic’s SpaceShipTwo Mothership Makes Maiden Flight
- Virgin Galactic:Let the Journey Begin (Video)
- Branson And Rutan Launch New Spaceship Manufacturing Company
- U.S. Okays Virgin Galactic Spaceship Plans
- New Mexico Spaceport Bills Signed
- Lloyds Eyes Covering Virgin Spaceflights
- Virgin Galactic Rolls Out Mothership "Eve“
- An interview on www.astrotalkuk.org with Nigel Henbest who has booked and is due to fly in about 2013