Jump to content

Virginia Beach, Virginia

Coordinates: 36°51′00″N 75°58′40″W / 36.85000°N 75.97778°W / 36.85000; -75.97778
This is a good article. Click here for more information.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Virginia Beach
Flag of Virginia Beach
Official seal of Virginia Beach
Official logo of Virginia Beach
"The Resort City", VA Beach
Landmarks of Our Nation's Beginning
Interactive map of Virginia Beach
Virginia Beach is located in Virginia
Virginia Beach
Virginia Beach
Virginia Beach is located in the United States
Virginia Beach
Virginia Beach
Coordinates: 36°51′00″N 75°58′40″W / 36.85000°N 75.97778°W / 36.85000; -75.97778
CountryUnited States
Incorporated (town)1906 (1906)
Incorporated (city)1952 (1952)
 • TypeMayor–council–manager
 • BodyVirginia Beach City Council
 • MayorBobby Dyer (R)
 • Independent city497.50 sq mi (1,288.52 km2)
 • Land244.72 sq mi (633.83 km2)
 • Water252.78 sq mi (654.69 km2)
10 ft (3 m)
 • Independent city457,672
 • RankUS: 43rd
VA: 1st
 • Density1,877.53/sq mi (724.92/km2)
 • Urban
1,451,578 (US: 36th)
 • Urban density3,013.6/sq mi (1,163.6/km2)
 • Metro1,799,674 (US: 37th)
Time zoneUTC−05:00 (EST)
 • Summer (DST)UTC−04:00 (EDT)
ZIP Codes
23450-23467, 23471, 23479
Area code(s)757, 948
FIPS code51-82000[4]
GNIS feature ID1500261[5]
WebsiteOfficial website Edit this at Wikidata

Virginia Beach, officially the City of Virginia Beach, is the most populous city in the Commonwealth of Virginia in the United States. The population was 459,470 at the 2020 census.[2] Located on the southeastern coast of Virginia, it is the fifth-most populous city in the Mid-Atlantic and the 43rd-most populous city in the U.S. Located on the Atlantic Ocean at the mouth of the Chesapeake Bay, Virginia Beach is a principal city in the Hampton Roads metropolitan area which has more than 1.8 million inhabitants and is the 37th-largest metropolitan area in the U.S.[6]

Virginia Beach is a resort city with miles of beaches and hundreds of hotels, motels, and restaurants along its oceanfront. Near the point where the Chesapeake Bay and the Atlantic Ocean meet, Cape Henry was the site of the first landing of the English colonists who eventually settled in Jamestown; modern Virginia Beach was established in 1906. It is home to several state parks, protected beaches, and military bases. Virginia Wesleyan University, Regent University, Christian Broadcasting Network, the U.S. headquarters of Stihl, and the Association for Research and Enlightenment are based in Virginia Beach. It also hosts the annual East Coast Surfing Championships and Neptune Festival.

The city is listed in the Guinness Book of Records as having the longest pleasure beach in the world.[7] It is located at the southern end of the Chesapeake Bay Bridge-Tunnel, which was the world's longest bridge-tunnel complex[8] until the Hong Kong-Zhuhai-Macau Bridge opened in 2018.[9]


A Chesepian home

The Chesepian were the historic indigenous people of the area now known as Tidewater in Virginia at the time of European encounter. Little is known about them[10] but archeological evidence suggests they may have been related to the Carolina Algonquian, or Pamlico people. They would have spoken one of the Algonquian languages. These were common among the numerous tribes of the coastal area, who made up the loose Powhatan Confederacy, numbering in the tens of thousands in population. The Chesepian occupied an area which is now defined as the independent cities of Norfolk, Portsmouth, Chesapeake, and Virginia Beach.[11]

Princess Anne County (1691–1963), now defunct, with Virginia Beach from 1895 Virginia map

In 1607, after a voyage of 144 days, three ships headed by Captain Christopher Newport, and carrying 105 men and boys, made their first landfall in the New World on the mainland, where the southern mouth of the Chesapeake Bay meets the Atlantic Ocean. They named it Cape Henry, after Henry Frederick, Prince of Wales, the eldest son of King James I of England. These English colonists of the Virginia Company of London moved on from this area, as they were under orders to seek a site further inland, which would be more sheltered from ships of competing European countries. They created their first permanent settlement on the north side of the James River at Jamestown.[12]

Adam Thoroughgood (1604–1640) of King's Lynn, Norfolk, England is one of the earliest Englishmen to settle in this area, which was developed as Virginia Beach. At the age of 18, he had contracted as an indentured servant to pay for passage to the Virginia Colony in the hopes of bettering his life. He earned his freedom after several years and became a leading citizen of the area. In 1629, he was elected to the House of Burgesses for Elizabeth Cittie [sic], one of four "cities" (or incorporations) which were subdivided areas established in 1619.[13]

In 1634, the Colony was divided into the original eight shires of Virginia, soon renamed as counties. Thoroughgood is credited with using the name of his home in England when helping name "New Norfolk County" in 1637. The following year, New Norfolk County was split into Upper Norfolk County (soon renamed Nansemond County) and Lower Norfolk County. Thoroughgood resided after 1634 was along the Lynnhaven River, named for his home in England.[14]

Lower Norfolk County was large when first organized, defined as from the Atlantic Ocean west past the Elizabeth River, encompassing the entire area now within the modern cities of Portsmouth, Norfolk, Chesapeake, and Virginia Beach.[13] It attracted many entrepreneurs, including William Moseley with his family in 1648. Belonging to the Merchant Adventurers Guild of London, he immigrated from Rotterdam of the Netherlands, where he had been in international trade. He settled on land on the north side of the Elizabeth River, east of what developed as Norfolk.

Following the increased settlement, in 1691 Lower Norfolk County was divided to form Norfolk and Princess Anne counties. Princess Anne, the easternmost county in South Hampton Roads, extended from Cape Henry at the mouth of the Chesapeake Bay, south to what became the border of the North Carolina colony. It included all of the area fronting the Atlantic Ocean. Princess Anne County was known as a jurisdiction from 1691 to 1963, over 250 years.[15]

In the early centuries, this area was rural and developed for plantation agriculture. In the late 19th century, the small resort area of Virginia Beach developed in Princess Anne County after the 1883 arrival of rail service to the coast. The Virginia Beach Hotel was opened and operated by the Norfolk and Virginia Beach Railroad and Improvement Company at the oceanfront, near the tiny community of Seatack. The hotel was foreclosed and the railroad was reorganized in 1887. The hotel was upgraded and reopened in 1888 as the Princess Anne Hotel.[16]

In 1891, guests at the new hotel watched the wreck and rescue efforts of the United States Life-Saving Service for the Norwegian barque Dictator. The ship's figurehead, which washed up on the beach several days later, was erected as a monument to the victims and rescuers. It stood along the oceanfront for more than 50 years. In the 21st century, it inspired the pair of matching Norwegian Lady Monuments, sculpted by Ørnulf Bast and installed in Virginia Beach and Moss, Norway.[17]

The resort initially depended on railroad and electric trolley service. The completion of Virginia Beach Boulevard in 1922, which extended from Norfolk to the oceanfront, opened the route for automobiles, buses, and trucks. The passenger rail service to the oceanfront was eventually discontinued as traffic increased by vehicles. The growing resort of Virginia Beach became an incorporated town in 1906. Over the next 45 years, Virginia Beach continued to grow in popularity as a seasonal vacation spot. The casinos were replaced by amusement parks and family-oriented attractions. In 1927 The Cavalier Hotel opened and became a popular vacation spot.[18][19]

Virginia Beach gained status as an independent city in 1952, although ties remained between it and Princess Anne County. In 1963, after voters in the two jurisdictions passed a supporting referendum, and with the approval of the Virginia General Assembly, the two political subdivisions were consolidated as a new, much larger independent city, retaining the better-known name of the Virginia Beach resort.[20]

The Alan B. Shepard Civic Center ("The Dome"), a significant building in the city's history because of the many famous musical acts played there,[21] was constructed in 1958,[22] and was dedicated to the career of former Virginia Beach resident and astronaut Alan Shepard.[23] As the area changed, the Dome was frequently used as a bingo hall. The building was razed in 1994[22] to make room for a municipal parking lot and potential future development.

Recent history[edit]

Boardwalk in Virginia Beach

Real estate, defense, and tourism are major sectors of the Virginia Beach economy. Many local public and private groups have maintained a vested interest in real-estate redevelopment, resulting in a number of joint public-private projects, such as commercial parks. Examples of the public-private development include the Virginia Beach Convention Center, the Oceanfront Hilton Hotel, and the Virginia Beach Town Center. The city assisted in financing the project through the use of tax increment financing: creating special tax districts and constructing associated street and infrastructure to support the developments. The Town Center opened in 2003, with related construction continuing.[24][25][26] The Convention Center opened in 2005.[27][28]

The city has begun to run out of clear land available for new construction north of the Green Line, an urban growth boundary dividing the urban northern and rural southern sections of the city.[29] Infill and development of residential neighborhoods has placed a number of operating constraints on Naval Air Station Oceana, a major fighter jet base for the U.S. Navy. While the airbase enjoys wide support from Virginia Beach at large, the Pentagon Base Realignment and Closure commission has proposed closure of Oceana within the next decade.[30] In 2012 a Navy jet that took off from Oceana experienced engine failure and crashed into an apartment complex.[31]

This land crunch led to floodplain development. During Hurricane Matthew, the heavy rainfall flooded over 2000 homes and left some neighborhoods with standing water for days.[32] Given the rising risks of flooding due to climate change and the impetus of the hurricane damage, the city rejected several further development proposals. This rejection was significant from two perspectives. First, cities reject building very rarely, demonstrating the shift in public perception. Second, these rejections led to lawsuits by the developers. The rejection of these lawsuits in the courts provides precedent for other sorts of local climate change adaptation efforts in the future. Discussing the matter, Mayor Dyer noted, "It's a confrontation with reality. Not everybody's going to be happy."[33]

On May 31, 2019, a shooting occurred at a municipal government building in Virginia Beach. A former employee entered the building and shot indiscriminately, killing 12 people and injuring four others before dying from a gunshot wound fired by responding officers.[34][35][36]


Hotels along Atlantic Avenue, facing north
Overlooking the Atlantic Ocean.

Virginia Beach is located at 36°51′02″N 75°58′40″W / 36.8506°N 75.9779°W / 36.8506; -75.9779 (Virginia Beach).[37]

According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 497 square miles (1,290 km2), of which 249 square miles (640 km2) is land and 248 square miles (640 km2) (49.9%) is water.[37] It is the largest city in Virginia by total area and third-largest city by land area. The average elevation is 12 feet (3.7 m) above sea level. A major portion of the city drains to the Chesapeake Bay by way of the Lynnhaven River and its tributaries.

The city is located at the southeastern corner of Virginia in the Hampton Roads area bordering the Atlantic Ocean.[38] The Hampton Roads Metropolitan Statistical Area (officially known as the Virginia Beach-Norfolk-Newport News, VA-NC MSA) is the 37th largest in the United States, with a total population of 1,707,639. The area includes the Virginia cities of Norfolk,[39] Virginia Beach, Chesapeake,[40] Hampton,[41] Newport News,[42] Poquoson,[43] Portsmouth,[44] Suffolk,[45] Williamsburg,[46] and the counties of Gloucester, Isle of Wight, James City, Mathews, Surry, and York, as well as the North Carolina county of Currituck. While Virginia Beach is the most populated city within the MSA, it actually currently functions more as a suburb. The city of Norfolk is recognized as the central business district, while the Virginia Beach oceanside resort district and Williamsburg are primarily centers of tourism.

Additionally, Virginia Beach is 19 miles (31 km) east of Norfolk,[47] 24 miles (39 km) northeast of Chesapeake,[48] 208 miles (335 km) southeast of Washington DC, 107 miles (172 km) southeast of Richmond, the state capitol,[49] and 200 miles (320 km) northeast of Raleigh, North Carolina[50]


Lago Mar

When the modern city of Virginia Beach was created in 1963, by the consolidation of the 253 square miles (660 km2) Princess Anne County with the 2 square miles (5.2 km2) City of Virginia Beach, the newly larger city was divided into seven boroughs: Bayside, Blackwater, Kempsville, Lynnhaven, Princess Anne, Pungo, and Virginia Beach.[51]

Virginia Beach has many distinctive communities and neighborhoods within its boundaries, including: Alanton,[52] Aragona Village, the largest sub-division in Tidewater when completed,[53] Bay Colony,[54] Bayside,[55] Cape Henry,[56] Chesapeake Beach,[57] Croatan Beach, Great Neck Point, Green Run, Kempsville, Lago Mar, Larkspur, London Bridge, Lynnhaven, Newtown, The North End, Oceana, Ocean Park, Pembroke Manor, Princess Anne, Pungo, Red Mill Commons, Sandbridge, Shadowlawn, Thalia, and Thoroughgood.[58]


Virginia Beach, VA[59]
Climate chart (explanation)
Average max. and min. temperatures in °F
Precipitation totals in inches
Metric conversion
Average max. and min. temperatures in °C
Precipitation totals in mm

The climate of Virginia Beach is humid subtropical (Köppen: Cfa). For the Trewartha climate classification the climate is the northern limit of Cf (subtropical).[60][61]

Much of the year in Virginia Beach is mild to warm. The long summer season from late May through late September is often hot and humid, with frequent (but brief) late day thundershowers. Winters are cool with little frozen precipitation, and snowfall is light. The official weather statistics are recorded at Norfolk International Airport on the extreme northwestern border of Virginia Beach. The mean annual temperature is 59.6 °F (15.3 °C), with an average annual snowfall of 5.8 inches (150 mm) at the airport to around 3.0 inches (76 mm) in the southeastern corner around Back Bay.[62] Average annual precipitation (the large majority rainfall) is high, ranging between 47 inches (1,200 mm) at the airport to over 50 inches (1,300 mm) per year at Back Bay. The wettest season is summer, specifically July to early September, with August the single wettest month, averaging over 5.5 inches of rain. From October to June, average monthly precipitation is remarkably consistent, ranging between 3.1 and 3.7 inches. Virginia Beach averages 2200 hours of sunshine annually, higher than the USA average.

The highest recorded temperature to date was 105 °F (41 °C) in July 2010, and the lowest recorded temperature was −3 °F (−19 °C) in January 1985, both being recorded at Norfolk International Airport.[63] The coldest daily maximum on record was 12 °F (−11 °C) in December 1917, whereas the 1991–2020 normals had a coldest maximum average of 29 °F (−2 °C).[63] This means that in spite of the mild normals, most years record at least one ice day, with rare exceptions. Summer nights are sometimes really hot. The all-time record low is 84 °F (29 °C) from July 1942, while a normal year's warmest night averages 80 °F (27 °C).[63]

Additionally, the geographic location of the city, with respect to the principal storm tracks, is especially favorable which is why it has earned the reputation as a vacation destination. It is south of the average path of storms originating in the higher latitudes, and north of the usual tracks of hurricanes and other major tropical storms, with the exception of Hurricane Isabel in 2003.[64] Because of the moderating effects of the Chesapeake Bay and the Atlantic Ocean, Virginia Beach is the northernmost location on the east coast in which many species of plants (both subtropical and tropical) will reliably grow. Spanish moss, for example is near the northernmost limit of its natural range at First Landing State Park, and is the most northerly location where it is widespread. Other plants like the Windmill Palm, Sabal palmetto, Butia odorata (in protected locations), and Oleander are successfully grown here while they succumb to the colder winter temperatures to the north and inland to the west. The hardiness zone is 8b along the coast and in Urban areas, and 8a inland and to the northwest.

On April 30, 2023, an EF-3 tornado struck the Great Neck neighborhood in the northeastern section of the city. It was on the ground from 5:48 to 5:53 PM EST. Miraculously, no one was killed nor injured. It is the strongest tornado on record to hit the city.[65][66][67]

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °F (°C) 84
Mean maximum °F (°C) 72.4
Mean daily maximum °F (°C) 50.7
Daily mean °F (°C) 42.2
Mean daily minimum °F (°C) 33.6
Mean minimum °F (°C) 18.7
Record low °F (°C) −3
Average precipitation inches (mm) 3.41
Average snowfall inches (cm) 3.2
Average precipitation days (≥ 0.01 in) 10.7 9.2 10.9 10.0 11.2 9.7 10.6 10.2 9.4 7.7 8.9 9.9 118.4
Average snowy days (≥ 0.1 in) 1.7 1.3 0.5 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.5 4.0
Average relative humidity (%) 66.3 65.6 64.6 62.8 68.8 70.6 73.3 75.2 74.4 72.1 68.5 67.0 69.1
Average dew point °F (°C) 27.9
Mean monthly sunshine hours 171.5 175.2 229.3 252.8 271.7 280.1 278.3 260.4 231.4 208.3 175.7 160.4 2,695.1
Percent possible sunshine 56 58 62 64 62 64 62 62 62 60 57 53 61
Average ultraviolet index 2 4 5 7 8 10 9 9 7 5 3 2 6
Source 1: NOAA (relative humidity and sun 1961–1990)[63][68][69]
Source 2: Weather Atlas (UV)[70]


Historical population
U.S. Decennial Census[71]
1790–1960[72] 1900–1990[73]
1990–2000[74] 2010–2020[2]

2022 American Community Survey[edit]

As of the 2022 American Community Survey estimates, there were 455,618 people and 179,752 households.[75][76] The population density was 1,861.8 inhabitants per square mile (718.8/km2). There were 191,169 housing units at an average density of 781.2 per square mile (301.6/km2).[77][78][76] The racial makeup of the city was 60.3% White, 18.8% Black or African American, 7.2% Asian, 2.9% some other race, 0.3% Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander, and 0.3% Native American or Alaskan Native, with 10.3% from two or more races.[76] Hispanics or Latinos of any race were 9.0% of the population.[76]

Of the 179,752 households, 30.0% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 29.2% had seniors 65 years or older living with them, 46.8% were married couples living together, 7.1% were couples cohabitating, 18.0% had a male householder with no partner present, and 28.1% had a female householder with no partner present.[75] The median household size was 2.49 and the median family size was 3.08.[75]

The age distribution was 21.7% under 18, 8.7% from 18 to 24, 29.6% from 25 to 44, 24.0% from 45 to 64, and 16.1% who were 65 or older. The median age was 37.8 years.[79]

The median income for a household was $83,245, with family households having a median income of $103,451 and non-family households $54,258. The per capita income was $44,287.[80][81] Out of the 447,930 people with a determined poverty status, 10.0% were below the poverty line. Further, 14.4% of minors and 8.8% of seniors were below the poverty line.[82]

In the survey, residents self-identified with various ethnic ancestries. People of English descent made up 11.7% of the population of the town, followed by German at 10.6%, Irish at 9.6%, American at 6.8%, Italian at 5.1%, Sub-Saharan African at 2.4%, Polish at 2.3%, French at 1.9%, Scottish at 1.9%, Scotch-Irish at 0.9%, Caribbean (excluding Hispanics) at 0.8%, Dutch at 0.7%, Swedish at 0.6%, Norwegian at 0.6%, Welsh at 0.5%, Czech at 0.5%, Ukrainian at 0.5%, and Greek at 0.5%.[75]

2020 census[edit]

Virginia Beach city, Virginia – Racial and ethnic composition
Note: the US Census treats Hispanic/Latino as an ethnic category. This table excludes Latinos from the racial categories and assigns them to a separate category. Hispanics/Latinos may be of any race.
Race / Ethnicity (NH = Non-Hispanic) Pop 2000[83] Pop 2010[84] Pop 2020[85] % 2000 % 2010 % 2020
White alone (NH) 295,402 282,470 269,566 69.46% 64.49% 58.67%
Black or African American alone (NH) 79,092 83,210 82,583 18.60% 19.00% 17.97%
Native American or Alaska Native alone (NH) 1,448 1,349 1,184 0.34% 0.31% 0.26%
Asian alone (NH) 20,618 26,312 33,756 4.85% 6.01% 7.35%
Pacific Islander alone (NH) 356 602 671 0.08% 0.14% 0.15%
Some Other Race alone (NH) 913 863 2,599 0.21% 0.20% 0.57%
Mixed Race or Multi-Racial (NH) 9,658 14,201 28,707 2.27% 3.24% 6.25%
Hispanic or Latino (any race) 17,770 28,987 40,404 4.18% 6.62% 8.79%
Total 425,257 437,994 459,470 100.00% 100.00% 100.00%
Ethnic origins in Virginia Beach

2010 census[edit]

Map of racial distribution in Virginia Beach, 2010 U.S. Census. Each dot is 25 people:  White  Black  Asian  Hispanic  Other
Historical racial composition 2010[86] 1990[87] 1970[87] 1950[87]
White 67.7% 80.5% 90.0% 95.5%
Non-Hispanic Whites 64.5% 78.8% 88.9%[c] n/a
Black or African American 19.6% 13.9% 9.1% 4.5%
Hispanic or Latino (of any race) 6.6% 3.1% 1.3%[c] (X)
Asian 6.1% 4.3% 0.7%

According to the 2010 Census, the racial composition of Virginia Beach was as follows:[86]

As of the 2000 Census,[4] there were 425,257 people, 154,455 households, and 110,898 families residing in the city. The population density was 1,712.7 inhabitants per square mile (661.3/km2). There were 162,277 housing units at an average density of 653.6 units per square mile (252.4 units/km2).

There were 154,455 households, out of which 38.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 55.7% were married couples living together, 12.4% had a female householder with no husband present, and 28.2% were non-families. 20.4% of all households were made up of individuals, and 5.5% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.70 and the average family size was 3.14.

The age distribution was 27.5% under the age of 18, 10.0% from 18 to 24, 34.3% from 25 to 44, 19.8% from 45 to 64, and 8.4% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 33 years. For every 100 females, there were 98.0 males. For every 100 females aged 18 and over, there were 95.8 males.

The median income for a household in the city was $48,705, and the median income for a family was $53,242. Virginia Beach had the 5th highest median family income among large cities in 2003.[88] The per capita income for the city was $22,365. About 5.1% of families and 8.2%[89][90] of the population were below the poverty line, including 8.6% of those under age 18 and 4.7% of those age 65 or over.

7.1% of the people under the age of 65 years are disabled while 8.6% people don't have health insurance.[90]

The city of Virginia Beach has a lower crime rate than the other regional cities of Hampton Roads, Newport News, Norfolk, and Portsmouth, which all exceed national average crime rates.[91] In 1999 Virginia Beach experienced 12 murders giving the city a murder rate of 2.7 per 100,000 people. For 2007, Virginia Beach had 16 murders, for a murder rate of 3.7 per 100,000 people. That was lower than the national average that year of 6.9. The city's total crime index rate for 2007 was 221.2 per 100,000 people, lower than the national average of 320.9.[92] According to the Congressional Quarterly Press '2008 City Crime Rankings: Crime in Metropolitan America, Virginia Beach, Virginia ranks 311th in violent crime among 385 cities containing more than 75,000 inhabitants.[93]

Violent crimes per 100,000 citizens
Crime Virginia Beach (2009) National Average
Murder 3.7 6.9
Rape 20.2 32.2
Robbery 127.3 195.4
Assault 98.6 340.1
Burglary 495.2 814.5
Automobile Theft 134.4 526.5


Star of the Sea Catholic Church

34.4% of the city's population is affiliated with religious congregations, compared to the 50.2% nationwide figure. There are 146,402 adherents and 184 different religious congregations in the city:[94]

  • 28% Catholic Church
  • 14% Southern Baptist Convention
  • 13% United Methodist Church
  • 12% Charismatic Churches Independent
  • 33% Other

Ethnic groups[edit]


Beach along the Atlantic Ocean in Virginia Beach

Virginia Beach is composed of a variety of industries, including national and international corporate headquarters, advanced manufacturers, defense contractors and locally owned businesses.[95] The city's location and business climate have made it a hub of international commerce, as nearly 200 foreign firms have established a presence, an office location or their North American headquarters in Hampton Roads. Twenty internationally based firms have their U.S. or North American headquarters in Virginia Beach, including companies like Stihl, Busch Vacuum Solutions, IMS Gear, and Sanjo Corte Fino.[96] Other major companies headquartered in Virginia Beach include Amerigroup, the Christian Broadcasting Network and Operation Blessing International.[97][98] Other major employers include GEICO, VT and Navy Exchange Service Command.[99][100] In addition, Virginia Beach is home to a number of small, innovative companies, such as Morphix Technologies, who cater for military industry.[101] In September 2023, it was announced that Amazon will build 2 new operational delivery facilities in Virginia Beach.[102] Virginia Beach was ranked at number 45 on Forbes list of best places for business and careers.

Tourism produces a large share of Virginia Beach's economy.[103][104][105] With an estimated $857 million spent in tourism related industries, 14,900 jobs cater to 2.75 million visitors. City coffers benefit as visitors provide $73 million in revenue. Virginia Beach opened a Convention Center in 2005 which caters to large group meetings and events. Hotels not only line the oceanfront but also cluster around Virginia Beach Town Center and other parts of the city. Restaurants and entertainment industries also directly benefit from Virginia Beach's tourism.[99][106][107]

Virginia Beach has a large agribusiness sector which produces $80 million for the city economy. One hundred-seventy-two farms exist in Virginia Beach, mostly below the greenline in the southern portion of the city. Farmers are able to sell their goods and products at the city's Farmer's Market.[108][109]

A VF-41 F-4J over NAS Oceana in the late 1960s

Virginia Beach is home to several United States Military bases.[110][111] These include the United States Navy's NAS Oceana and Training Support Center Hampton Roads, and the Joint Expeditionary Base East located at Cape Henry.[112][113] Additionally, NAB Little Creek is located mostly within the city of Virginia Beach but carries a Norfolk address.[114]

NAS Oceana is the largest employer in Virginia Beach; it was decreed by the 2005 BRAC Commission that NAS Oceana must close unless the city of Virginia Beach condemns houses in areas designated as "Accident Potential Zones." This action has never been the position of the United States Navy; indeed, the Navy had not recommended NAS Oceana to the BRAC Commission for potential closure.[30]

Both NAS Oceana and Training Support Center Hampton Roads are considered to be the largest of their respective kind in the world. Furthermore, located in nearby Norfolk is the central hub of the United States Navy's Atlantic Fleet, Naval Station Norfolk.[115][116]

54% of the 171,000 people working in Virginia Beach live in the city, 12% live in Chesapeake, and 10% live in Norfolk. An additional 99,600 people commute from Virginia Beach, with 35% going to Norfolk and 23% going to Chesapeake. Unemployment has been cut almost in half over the past two years going from a high of 4.2% in January 2017 to 2.8% in June 2019.[117][verification needed]


Adam Thoroughgood House, before 1957 restoration
The Sandler Center located in Town Center, features performing arts, concerts, forums, and many other events.

The city is home to several points of interest in the historical, scientific, and visual/performing arts areas, and has become a popular tourist destination in recent years. The Virginia Museum of Contemporary Art features regularly changing exhibitions in a variety of media. Exhibitions feature painting, sculpture, photography, glass, video and other visual media from internationally acclaimed artists as well as artists of national and regional renown. MOCA was born from the annual Boardwalk Art Show, which began in 1952 and is now the museum's largest fundraiser.[118]

The Virginia Aquarium & Marine Science Center (formerly the Virginia Marine Science Museum) is a popular aquarium near the oceanfront that features various sharks, sting rays, sea turtles, jellyfish, and octopuses.[119][120]

One of the world's largest collections of World War I and World War II aircraft is located at the Military Aviation Museum in the Pungo area of Virginia Beach.[121]

The Veterans United Home Loans Amphitheater at Virginia Beach, built in 1996, features a wide variety of popular shows and concerts. The Sandler Center, a 1200-seat performing arts theatre, opened in the Virginia Beach Town Center in November 2007.[122]

Virginia Beach is home to many sites of historical importance and has 18 sites on the National Register of Historic Places. Such sites include the Adam Thoroughgood House (one of the oldest surviving colonial homes in Virginia), the Francis Land House (a 200-year-old plantation), the Cape Henry Lights and nearby Cape Henry Light Station (a second tower), De Witt Cottage, Adam Keeling House, and others.[123][124][125][126][127]

The Edgar Cayce Hospital for Research and Enlightenment was established in Virginia Beach in 1928 with 60 beds. The 67th street facility features a large private library of books on psychic matters and is open to the public. The traditional beach-architecture headquarters building features massage therapy by appointment. Cayce opened Atlantic University in 1930; it closed two years later but was re-opened in 1985. Atlantic University was originally intended for study of Cayce's readings and research on spiritual subjects.[128]

King Neptune statue in 2020

The city's largest festival, the Neptune Festival, attracts 500,000 visitors to the oceanfront and 350,000 visitors to the air show at NAS Oceana.[129][130] Celebrating the city's heritage link with Norway, events are held in September in the oceanfront and Town Center areas.[131][132] Every Labor Day Weekend, the American Music Festival provides festival attendees with live music performed on stages all over the oceanfront, including the beach on Fifth Street. The festival formerly ended with the Rock 'n' Roll Half Marathon, but no longer since the cancelation of the event in the city.[133] Last Night On The Town is an annual New Year's Eve celebration that takes place every December 31.[134][135]


Virginia Beach Sportsplex
Club League Venue Established
Virginia Beach United FC USL League Two Soccer Virginia Beach Sportsplex 2019[136]

Since Norfolk contains the central business district of Hampton Roads, most of the major spectator sports are located there. While the Hampton Roads area has been recently considered as a viable prospect for major-league professional sports, and regional leaders have attempted to obtain Major League Baseball, NBA and NHL franchises in the recent past, no team has yet relocated to the area.[137][138] Hampton Roads is the largest metropolitan area in the United States without a club in a major professional sports league.

The Norfolk Admirals won the AHL Calder Cup in 2012.[139]

The Virginia Destroyers, a UFL franchise, played at the Virginia Beach Sportsplex until the league's collapse in 2012.[140] Virginia Beach Professional Baseball, LLC, was awarded an Atlantic League franchise in April 2013. Known as the Virginia Beach Neptunes, they have yet to play a game due to delays in building Wheeler Field.[141] Two soccer teams, the Virginia Beach Piranhas, a men's team in the USL Premier Development League, and the Hampton Roads Piranhas, a women's team in the W-League play at the Virginia Beach Sportsplex. The Virginia Beach Sportsplex contains the central training site for the U.S. women's national field hockey team.[142]

The city is also home to the East Coast Surfing Championships, an annual contest of more than 100 of the world's top professional surfers and an estimated 400 amateur surfers. This is North America's oldest surfing contest.[143]

There are eleven golf courses open to the public in the city, as well as four country club layouts and 36 military holes at NAS Oceana's Aeropines course. Among the best-known public courses are Hell's Point Golf Club and Virginia Beach National, the latter of which hosted the Virginia Beach Open, a Nationwide Tour event from 2000 to 2006.[144] Also, the Kingsmill Resort in nearby Williamsburg hosts the Kingsmill Championship, an annual LPGA Tour tournament.

Virginia Beach is host to a Rock 'n' Roll Half Marathon each year on Labor Day weekend in conjunction with the American Music Festival. It is one of the largest Half Marathons in the world. The final 3 miles (4.8 km) are on the boardwalk.[145] Virginia Beach also hosts the Yuengling Shamrock Marathon, founded in 1973 with over 24,000 participants. It is an annual race over St. Patrick's Day weekend and was recognized by Runner's World as one of the Top 20 marathons in the country in 1992.[146]

Parks and recreation[edit]

Virginia Beach is home to 210 city parks, encompassing over 4,000 acres (1,600 ha), including neighborhood parks, community parks, district parks, and other open spaces.[147]

Mount Trashmore Park is clearly visible from I-264 when traveling to the oceanfront. The hill measures 60 ft (18 m) high and is the highest point in Virginia Beach.[148][149][150]

A Japanese-style moon bridge in the Miyazaki Japanese Garden, Red Wing Park

One of the major parks is Red Wing Park, a 97 acres (39 ha) park in east-central part of the city, very close to Oceana Naval Air Station. This land became a park in 1966. A unique feature of this park is the Miyazaki Japanese Garden, which is a result of its interactions with its sister city Miyazaki, Japan.[151]

People riding a rental surrey on the boardwalk

The Back Bay National Wildlife Refuge, established in 1938, is an 8,000-acre (32 km2) freshwater refuge that borders the Atlantic Ocean on the east and Back Bay on the west. It is managed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.[152]

First Landing State Park and False Cape State Park are both located in coastal areas within the city's corporate limits as well.[153][154]

Munden Point Park is a rural park located in the deep southern end of the city,[155] right on The North Landing River.[156]

Local law prohibits the use of profanity along the boardwalk. This sign along Atlantic Avenue indicates this law.[157]

Pleasure House Point is a 118 acres (48 hectares) park of undeveloped land on the shore of the Lynnhaven River. It is also the location of the Brock Environmental Center.[158]

Virginia Beach's extensive park system is recognized as one of the best in the United States. In its 2013 ParkScore ranking, The Trust for Public Land reported that Virginia Beach had the 8th best park system among the 50 most populous U.S. cities.[159]


Virginia Beach old City Hall building

Historically, Virginia Beach had been more conservative than other large independent cities in Virginia.[160][161] It consistently backed Republican Party presidential candidates from 1968 to 2016, and in all but two elections from 1952 to 2016. However, the Republican edge in the city has diminished in recent years. John McCain and Donald Trump only managed to win a plurality of the city's votes in 2008 and 2016, winning the city despite losing statewide. In 2020,[162] Joe Biden became the first Democrat to carry Virginia Beach since 1964, and only the third to do so since Virginia Beach became an independent city. Biden became the first presidential candidate to win at least 51% of the vote in Virginia Beach since President George W. Bush in 2004.[163][164]

United States presidential election results for Virginia Beach, Virginia[165]
Year Republican Democratic Third party
No.  % No.  % No.  %
2020 105,087 46.18% 117,393 51.59% 5,081 2.23%
2016 98,224 48.38% 91,032 44.84% 13,763 6.78%
2012 99,291 50.49% 94,299 47.95% 3,051 1.55%
2008 100,319 49.85% 98,885 49.14% 2,045 1.02%
2004 103,752 59.06% 70,666 40.22% 1,269 0.72%
2000 83,674 55.87% 62,268 41.58% 3,829 2.56%
1996 63,741 50.61% 52,142 41.40% 10,060 7.99%
1992 68,936 50.03% 44,294 32.15% 24,555 17.82%
1988 76,481 68.89% 33,780 30.43% 757 0.68%
1984 72,571 74.36% 24,703 25.31% 320 0.33%
1980 47,936 60.50% 24,895 31.42% 6,404 8.08%
1976 34,593 54.46% 25,824 40.66% 3,101 4.88%
1972 38,074 76.56% 10,373 20.86% 1,286 2.59%
1968 16,316 43.23% 10,101 26.76% 11,325 30.01%
1964 10,529 44.92% 12,892 55.00% 21 0.09%
1960 986 42.48% 1,301 56.05% 34 1.46%
1956 1,355 53.28% 1,111 43.69% 77 3.03%
1952 1,310 59.79% 881 40.21% 0 0.00%

Virginia Beach was chartered as a municipal corporation by the General Assembly of Virginia on January 1, 1963. The city currently operates under the council–manager form of government.[166] The city does not fall under the jurisdiction of a county government, due to state law. Rather, it functions as an independent city and operates as a political subdivision of the state.

The city's legislative body consists of an eleven-member city council. The city manager is appointed by the council and acts as the chief executive officer. Through his staff, he implements policies established by the council.[167]

Members of the city council normally serve four-year terms and are elected on a staggered basis in non-partisan elections. Beginning in 2008, general elections are held the first Tuesday in November in even-numbered years. In previous years, elections were held the first Tuesday in May in even-numbered years. All registered voters are eligible to vote for all council members. Three council members and the mayor serve on an at-large basis. All others are elected by district (and must live in the district they represent): Bayside, Beach, Centerville, Kempsville, Lynnhaven, Princess Anne, and Rose Hall.[166]

The mayor is elected to a four-year term through direct election. The mayor presides over city council meetings and serves as the ceremonial head and spokesperson of the city. A vice mayor is also elected by the city council at the first meeting following a council election.[167]

Citizens of Virginia Beach also elect five constitutional officers, and candidates for these offices are permitted to run with an affiliated political party. Three of these offices deal substantially with public safety and justice: the sheriff, commonwealth's attorney, and the clerk of the circuit court. The two other offices are concerned with fiscal policy: the city treasurer and the commissioner of the revenue.[168][169] The city provides law enforcement through the Virginia Beach Police Department and emergency services through the Virginia Beach Fire Department.[170][171]

Virginia Beach is located entirely in Virginia's 2nd congressional district, served by Republican Jen Kiggans.[172]


The current building of Frank W. Cox High School

According to the U.S. Census, 28.1% of the population over twenty-five (vs. a national average of 24%) hold a bachelor's degree or higher, and 90.4% (vs. 80% nationally) have a high school diploma or equivalent.

Prior to 1969, separate schools were maintained for black and white students. Before 1938, black students who wished to attend school past seventh grade had to travel to Norfolk and pay tuition to attend Booker T. Washington High School. In 1938, the first high school for blacks, the Princess Anne County Training School was built. In 1961, in order to avoid the stigma of the term "training school", the school was renamed Union Kempsville High School at the request of the black community. When the public schools integrated in 1969, Union Kempsville was closed.[173][174][175]

The city of Virginia Beach is home to Virginia Beach City Public Schools, one of the largest school systems in the state (based on student enrollment). Virginia Beach City Public Schools currently serves 69,735 students, and includes 56 elementary schools, 14 middle schools, 12 high schools which include Landstown,[176] Princess Anne,[177] Green Run,[178] Green Run Collegiate,[179] Cox,[180] Tallwood,[181] Salem,[182] First Colonial,[183] Kellam,[184] Kempsville,[185] Bayside,[186] and Ocean Lakes High Schools[187] as well as a number of secondary/post-secondary specialty schools and centers such as the Advanced Technology Center (ATC).[188]

There are also a number of private, independent schools in the city, including Chesapeake Bay Academy[189] and Tidewater Collegiate Academy (both on the campus of Virginia Wesleyan University), Our Lady of Mount Carmel Catholic School and Parish, Strelitz International Academy (formerly the Hebrew Academy of Tidewater), Cape Henry Collegiate School,[190] Catholic High School (formerly Bishop Sullivan Catholic and, before that, Norfolk Catholic),[191] Baylake Pines School, (closed in 2014),[192] and Virginia Beach Friends School.[193]

Association for Research and Enlightenment
Meyera E. Oberndorf Central Library, Virginia Beach Public Library System

Virginia Beach is home to three universities and branch centers for several other universities. Atlantic University a for-profit holistic learning institution is located in Virginia Beach and was founded in 1930.[128] Regent University, a private university founded by Christian evangelist and leader Pat Robertson, has historically focused on graduate education but has recently established an undergraduate program as well.[194] Virginia Wesleyan University is a private university in Virginia Beach, Virginia, that was founded in 1961 by Methodist minister Joseph Shackford Johnston.[195]

Old Dominion University and Norfolk State University are in nearby Norfolk but operate a joint Center in Virginia Beach. Both the University of Virginia and Virginia Tech operate satellite campuses in Virginia Beach.[196][197][198] Tidewater Community College, a major junior college, also has its largest campus located in the city.[199] ECPI University, a for-profit career college, has its headquarters in Virginia Beach. Additional institutions of higher education are located in other communities of greater Hampton Roads.[200]

The Virginia Beach Public Library System provides free access to accurate and current information and materials to all individuals and promotes reading as a critical life skill. The library system has a collection of more than 1 million items including special subject collections.[201]


The Virginian-Pilot, based in Norfolk, is the daily newspaper for Virginia Beach. Other papers include Veer and the New Journal and Guide. Inside Business focuses on local business news.[202][203]

The Hampton Roads/Norfolk/Portsmouth/Virginia Beach area is served by a variety of radio stations on the AM and FM bands, with towers located around the Hampton Roads area.[204]

Virginia Beach is also served by several television stations. The Norfolk-Portsmouth-Newport News designated market area (DMA) is the 42nd largest in the U.S. with 712,790 homes (0.64% of the total U.S.).[205] The major network television affiliates are WTKR 3 (CBS),[206] WAVY-TV 10 (NBC),[207] WVEC 13 (ABC),[208] WTPC-TV 21 (Trinity Broadcasting Network), WGNT 27 (CW), WTVZ-TV 33 (MyNetworkTV),[209] WVBT 43 (Fox),[210] and WPXV 49 (ION Television). The Public Broadcasting Service station is WHRO-TV 15. Virginia Beach residents also can receive independent station WSKY broadcasting on channel 4 from Camden County, North Carolina. Some can also receive PBS affiliate WUND 2 (UNC-TV), Home Shopping Network affiliate W14DC-D from Portsmouth, Daystar Network religious television station WVAD-LD TV 25 from Chesapeake and RTV affiliate WGBS-LD broadcasting on channel 7 from Hampton. Virginia Beach is served by Cox Cable. DirecTV and Dish Network are also popular as an alternative to cable television in Virginia Beach.[211][212] In addition a large portion of the city is served by Verizon FIOS.[213]

Virginia Beach serves as the headquarters for the Christian Broadcasting Network, located adjacent to Regent University. CBN's most notable program, The 700 Club originates from the Virginia Beach studios.[214][215] In 2008, Virginia Beach became the home to the Reel Dreams Film Festival.[citation needed]



A Hampton Roads Transit bus on Atlantic Avenue in Virginia Beach.
Norfolk International Airport in nearby Norfolk serves the city of Virginia Beach and the surrounding Hampton Roads area.

Virginia Beach is primarily served by the Norfolk International Airport (IATA: ORF, ICAO: KORF, FAA LID: ORF), which is now the region's major commercial airport. The airport is located near Chesapeake Bay, along the city limits straddling neighboring Norfolk.[216] Newport News/Williamsburg International Airport also provides commercial air service for the Hampton Roads area.[217] The Chesapeake Regional Airport provides general aviation services and is located five miles (8.0 km) outside the city limits.[218]

Virginia Beach Airport is a small, grass runway facility catering to private aircraft owners.[219]

Rail-wise, Virginia Beach is served by Amtrak through the Norfolk and Newport News stations, via connecting buses. A high-speed rail connection at Richmond to both the Northeast Corridor and the Southeast High Speed Rail Corridor are also under study.[220]

Greyhound/Trailways provides service from a central bus terminal in adjacent Norfolk. The Greyhound station in Virginia Beach is located on Laskin Road, about a mile west of the oceanfront. Bus services to New York City via the Chinatown bus, Today's Bus, is located on Newtown Road.[221]

The city is connected to I-64 via I-264, which runs from the oceanfront, intersects with I-64 on the east side of Norfolk, and continues through downtown Norfolk and Portsmouth until rejoining I-64 at the terminus of both roads in Chesapeake where Interstate 664 completes the loop which forms the Hampton Roads Beltway.[222] Other major roads include Virginia Beach Boulevard (U.S. Route 58), Shore Drive (U.S. Route 60), which connects to Atlantic Avenue at the oceanfront, Northampton Blvd (U.S. Route 13), Princess Anne Road (State Route 165), Indian River Road (former State Route 603), Lynnhaven Parkway, Independence Boulevard, General Booth Boulevard, and Nimmo Parkway.

The city is also connected to Virginia's Eastern Shore region via the Chesapeake Bay Bridge-Tunnel (CBBT), which is the longest bridge-tunnel complex in the world and known as one of the Seven Engineering Wonders of the Modern World. The CBBT, a tolled facility, carries U.S. Route 13.[223][224][225]

Transportation within the city, as well as the rest of Hampton Roads is served by a regional bus service, Hampton Roads Transit.[226] An extension of The Tide light rail system from Norfolk to the oceanfront is currently being studied.[227]


A 2011 study by Walk Score ranked Virginia Beach 39th most walkable of fifty largest U.S. cities.[228] A 2021 study by Walk Score ranked Virginia beach as 45th most walkable large city in the United States.[229]


Water and sewer services are provided by the City's Department of Utilities. Virginia Beach receives its electricity from Dominion Virginia Power which has local sources including the Chesapeake Energy Center (a gas power plant), coal-fired plants in Chesapeake and Southampton County, and the Surry Nuclear Power Plant. Norfolk headquartered Virginia Natural Gas, a subsidiary of AGL Resources, distributes natural gas to the city from storage plants in James City County and Chesapeake.[230]

Currently, water for the Tidewater area is pumped from Lake Gaston, which straddles the Virginia-North Carolina border along with the Blackwater and Nottoway rivers.[231][232][233]

The city provides wastewater services for residents and transports wastewater to the regional Hampton Roads Sanitation District treatment plants.[234]

Broadband internet service is provided by Cox Communications throughout the majority of the city. Verizon also provides its Fios internet service, but in limited areas as of 2021.


Sentara Virginia Beach General Hospital

Virginia Beach is served by Sentara Virginia Beach General Hospital and Sentara Princess Anne Hospital.[235][236] The former Sentara Bayside Hospital, now known as Sentara Independence, has been modified to a stand alone Emergency Department and outpatient treatment center. Sentara Leigh Hospital is just across the city line in Norfolk.[237] Beach Health clinic offers basic medical services for uninsured residents of Virginia Beach.[238]

Sister cities[edit]

Virginia Beach's sister Cities are:[239]

Friendly cities[edit]

Virginia Beach has friendly relations with:[239]

Notable people[edit]

In popular culture[edit]

The Monopoly Here and Now: The US edition (2015) of the game, released in honor of the game's 80th birthday, included Virginia Beach as a property that could be bought, sold and traded. The city was included after Hasbro held an online vote in order to determine which cities would make it into an updated version of the game. Virginia Beach received the fourth highest number of votes in the online contest, earning it a green spot on the board. The top Boardwalk spot went to Pierre, South Dakota.[315]

In the television series, The Man in the High Castle (2015–2019), which is set in an alternate 1960s, Virginia Beach is mentioned as being the site of a D-Day style invasion by Nazi Germany, which led to the defeat of the United States and its occupation.[316][317]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Mean monthly maxima and minima (i.e. the expected highest and lowest temperature readings at any point during the year or given month) calculated based on data at said location from 1991 to 2020.
  2. ^ Official records for Norfolk kept January 1874 to December 1945 at the Weather Bureau Office in downtown, and at Norfolk Int'l since January 1946. For more information, see Threadex.
  3. ^ a b From 15% sample


  1. ^ "2019 U.S. Gazetteer Files". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved August 7, 2020.
  2. ^ a b c "QuickFacts: Virginia Beach city, Virginia". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved September 1, 2021.
  3. ^ "2020 Population and Housing State Data". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved August 22, 2021.
  4. ^ a b "U.S. Census website". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved January 31, 2008.
  5. ^ "US Board on Geographic Names". United States Geological Survey. October 25, 2007. Retrieved January 31, 2008.
  6. ^ "Hampton Roads". Virginia.org. Retrieved August 7, 2016.
  7. ^ "Virginia Beach also the world's longest stretch of pleasure Beach". September 12, 2012. Retrieved September 12, 2012.
  8. ^ Melissa Jones (March 15, 2005). Superlatives USA: The Largest, Smallest, Longest, Shortest, and Wackiest Sites in America. Capital Books. pp. 137–. ISBN 978-1-931868-85-3. Retrieved October 12, 2012.
  9. ^ BBC. "World's longest sea crossing: Hong Kong-Zhuhai bridge opens". Retrieved October 23, 2018.
  10. ^ "Virginia Beach History Timeline". Princess Anne County/Virginia Beach Historical Society. Retrieved March 19, 2008.
  11. ^ "Cape Henry Memorial". U.S. National Park System. Retrieved March 19, 2008.
  12. ^ Moon, Shep. "400 Years of Change". Virginia Department of Environmental Quality. Archived from the original on July 3, 2009. Retrieved March 19, 2008.
  13. ^ a b "The Origins of Norfolk's Name". Norfolk Historical Society. Archived from the original on August 18, 2001. Retrieved October 9, 2007.
  14. ^ Harper, Scott (April 26, 2010). "What's in a name?: Lynnhaven River, Virginia Beach". The Virginian-Pilot. Retrieved April 26, 2010.
  15. ^ "Norfolk Becomes a Borough". Norfolk Historical Society. Archived from the original on April 21, 2001. Retrieved October 9, 2007.
  16. ^ Jonathan Mark Souther, "Twixt Ocean and Pines: The Seaside Resort at Virginia Beach, 1880-1930." M.A. thesis, University of Richmond, 1996.
  17. ^ Foss, William O., The Norwegian Lady and the Wreck of the Dictator. Virginia Beach, Virginia: Noreg Books, 2002. ISBN 0-9721989-0-3
  18. ^ Hays, Jakon (April 4, 2017). "1927: The grand opening of the Cavalier Hotel". The Virginian-Pilot. Retrieved April 4, 2017.
  19. ^ Griset, Rich (April 29, 2021). "Cavalier Resort takes shape in Virginia Beach". Virginiabusiness.com. Retrieved April 29, 2021.
  20. ^ "Virginia Beach History". VirginiaBeach.com. Retrieved March 21, 2008.
  21. ^ "Flashback: What exactly was 'The Dome' that once stood at the Virginia Beach Oceanfront?". 13newsnow.com. November 12, 2019. Retrieved January 20, 2023.
  22. ^ a b "Va. Beach getting serious again about Dome site development". HamptonRoads. Hampton Roads.com, Bill Reed, November 14, 2007. Archived from the original on December 4, 2008.
  23. ^ "Dome's memory will linger as a monument several activities are planned to honor the beach's now-razed former civic center". The Virginian-Pilot. Retrieved February 23, 2008 – via scholar.lib.vt.edu.
  24. ^ "New Development Going up in Virginia Beach Town Center". Our Community Now. October 25, 2017. Retrieved February 12, 2023.
  25. ^ Skelton, Alissa (April 22, 2021). "An Armada Hoffler company has 3 more years to develop plans to build a high rise in Town Center". The Virginian-Pilot. Retrieved February 12, 2023.
  26. ^ "Nike Rethinks Retail With Divaris Real Estate At Virginia Beach Town Center". Hampton Roads Chamber. January 22, 2022. Retrieved April 11, 2023.
  27. ^ "Town Center". City of Virginia Beach. Archived from the original on November 20, 2007. Retrieved March 8, 2007.
  28. ^ Barbara L. Brewer. "Phase I of Virginia Beach Convention Center Set to Open in June". Meetingsnet. Archived from the original on December 6, 2008. Retrieved March 21, 2008.
  29. ^ "Virginia Beach's Green Line: Should the Line Hold?". The Virginian-Pilot. Retrieved March 21, 2008 – via scholar.lib.vt.edu.
  30. ^ a b Fernandes, Deirdre (January 9, 2008). "Beach council tightens rules on building around Oceana". The Virginian-Pilot. Virginia Beach – via PilotOnline.com.
  31. ^ Branglin, William (April 6, 2012). "Navy jet crashes in Virginia Beach neighborhood". The Washington Post. Retrieved November 8, 2021.
  32. ^ Duggan, Paul (October 9, 2016). "Matthew leads to 1 death, power outages in southeast Virginia". The Washington Post. Retrieved October 9, 2016.
  33. ^ Flavelle, Christopher; Schwartz, John (November 19, 2019). "As Climate Risk Grows, Cities Test a Tough Strategy: Saying 'No' to Developers". New York Times. Retrieved December 12, 2019.
  34. ^ "At least 12 dead after disgruntled employee opens fire at Virginia Beach municipal center". CNN. May 31, 2019. Retrieved May 31, 2019.
  35. ^ Jamison, Peter (June 10, 2021). "Virginia Beach mass shooter motivated by 'perceived workplace grievances, 'FBI finds". The Washington Post. Retrieved June 10, 2021.
  36. ^ Finley, Ben (January 3, 2023). "Lawmaker: Laptop of 2019 mass shooter is found". ABC News. Retrieved April 11, 2023.
  37. ^ a b "US Gazetteer files: 2010, 2000, and 1990". United States Census Bureau. February 12, 2011. Retrieved April 23, 2011.
  38. ^ "About the City – City of Virginia Beach". vbgov.com. Retrieved November 8, 2021.
  39. ^ "Distance between Norfolk, VA & Virginia Beach, VA". distance-cities.com. Retrieved November 8, 2021.
  40. ^ "Distance between Chesapeake, VA & Virginia Beach, VA". distance-cities.com. Retrieved November 8, 2021.
  41. ^ "Distance between Hampton, VA & Virginia Beach, VA". distance-cities.com. Retrieved November 8, 2021.
  42. ^ "Distance between Newport News, VA & Virginia Beach, VA". distance-cities.com. Retrieved November 8, 2021.
  43. ^ "Distance between Poquoson, VA & Virginia Beach, VA". Distance-cities.com. Retrieved November 8, 2021.
  44. ^ "Distance between Portsmouth, VA & Virginia Beach, VA". distance-cities.com. Retrieved November 8, 2021.
  45. ^ "Distance between Suffolk, VA & Virginia Beach, VA". distance-cities.com. Retrieved November 8, 2021.
  46. ^ "Distance between Williamsburg, VA & Virginia Beach, VA". distance-cities.com. Retrieved November 8, 2021.
  47. ^ "Distance between Richmond, VA and Virginia Beach, VA". distance-cities.com. Retrieved October 26, 2022.
  48. ^ "Distance between Chesapeake, VA and Virginia Beach, VA". distance-cities.com. Retrieved October 26, 2022.
  49. ^ "Distance between Richmond, VA and Virginia Beach, VA". distance-cities.com. Retrieved October 26, 2022.
  50. ^ "Distance between Raleigh, NC and Virginia Beach, VA". distance-cities.com. Retrieved February 5, 2023.
  51. ^ "The History of Princess Anne County & Virginia Beach". VirginiaBeach.com. June 16, 2021. Retrieved November 8, 2021.
  52. ^ Pennecke, Sandra (March 8, 2016). "Neighborhood Closeup: Alanton". The Virginian-Pilot. Retrieved October 26, 2022.
  53. ^ "Aragona Village Virginia Beach, VA 23462, Neighborhood Profile". Neighborhood Scout. Retrieved October 26, 2022.
  54. ^ "Bay Colony, The Best Neighborhoods in Virginia Beach". Layton Realty Group. Retrieved October 26, 2022.
  55. ^ "Bayside Virginia Beach, VA 23455, Neighborhood Profile". Neighborhood Scout. Retrieved October 29, 2022.
  56. ^ "Cape Henry Towers, Virginia Beach, VA Real Estate & Homes for Sale". Remax.com. Retrieved October 29, 2022.
  57. ^ "Chesapeake Beach Virginia Beach, VA 23455, Neighborhood Profile". Neighborhood Scout. Retrieved October 29, 2022.
  58. ^ Virginia Beach Neighborhood History [1] Archived March 17, 2008, at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved on March 20, 2008.
  59. ^ "Virginia Beach City County, VA Weather - USA.com™". www.usa.com.
  60. ^ "Trewartha maps". kkh.ltrr.arizona.edu. Retrieved January 30, 2019.
  61. ^ "Chapter 47. Global mapping". www.fao.org. Retrieved January 30, 2019.
  62. ^ "Climate Summary".
  63. ^ a b c d "NowData – NOAA Online Weather Data". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved May 18, 2021.
  64. ^ Information from NOAA.
  65. ^ Alonso, Melissa (May 1, 2023). "Up to 100 homes damaged and schools closed after tornado strikes Virginia Beach". CNN. Retrieved May 2, 2023.
  66. ^ Wertz-Alvarez, Jane (May 1, 2023). "VB Tornado damages estimated at nearly $10 million". WAVY.com. Retrieved May 2, 2023.
  67. ^ Miller, Madeline (May 1, 2023). "Virginia Beach EF-3 tornado spanned over 4.5 miles in 5 minutes damaging about 115 homes: NWS". WTKR.com. Retrieved May 2, 2023.
  68. ^ "Station: NORFOLK INTL AP, VA". U.S. Climate Normals 2020: U.S. Monthly Climate Normals (1991–2020). National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved May 18, 2021.
  69. ^ "WMO Climate Normals for NORFOLK/INTL, VA 1961–1990". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved July 29, 2020.
  70. ^ "Norfolk, Virginia, USA - Monthly weather forecast and Climate data". Weather Atlas. Retrieved July 3, 2019.
  71. ^ "Census of Population and Housing from 1790". US Census Bureau. Retrieved January 24, 2022.
  72. ^ "Historical Census Browser". University of Virginia Library. Retrieved January 2, 2014.
  73. ^ "Population of Counties by Decennial Census: 1900 to 1990". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved January 2, 2014.
  74. ^ "Census 2000 PHC-T-4. Ranking Tables for Counties: 1990 and 2000" (PDF). United States Census Bureau. Retrieved January 2, 2014.
  75. ^ a b c d "2022 American Community Survey 1 Year Estimate: Selected Social Characteristics in the United States for Virginia Beach city, VA". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved June 19, 2024.
  76. ^ a b c d "2022 American Community Survey 1 Year Estimate: Demographic and Housing Estimates for Virginia Beach city, VA". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved June 19, 2024.
  77. ^ "2022 American Community Survey 1 Year Estimate: Housing Units for Virginia Beach city, VA". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved June 19, 2024.
  78. ^ To calculate density we use the land area figure from the places file in "The 2023 U.S. Gazetteer Files".
  79. ^ "2022 American Community Survey 1 Year Estimate: Age and Sex for Virginia Beach city, VA". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved June 19, 2024.
  80. ^ "2022 American Community Survey 1 Year Estimate: Income in the Past 12 Months (in 2022 Inflation-Adjusted Dollars) for Virginia Beach city, VA". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved June 19, 2024.
  81. ^ "2022 American Community Survey 1 Year Estimate: Mean Income in the Past 12 Months (in 2022 Inflation-Adjusted Dollars) for Virginia Beach city, VA". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved June 19, 2024.
  82. ^ "2022 American Community Survey 1 Year Estimate: Poverty Status in the Past 12 Months for Virginia Beach city, VA". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved June 19, 2024.
  83. ^ "P004: Hispanic or Latino, and Not Hispanic or Latino by Race – 2000: DEC Summary File 1 – Virginia Beach city, Virginia". United States Census Bureau.
  84. ^ "P2 Hispanic or Latino, and Not Hispanic or Latino by Race – Virginia Beach city, Virginia". United States Census Bureau.
  85. ^ "P2 Hispanic or Latino, and Not Hispanic or Latino by Race – 2020: DEC Redistricting Data (PL 94-171) - Virginia Beach city, Virginia". United States Census Bureau.
  86. ^ a b "U.S. Census website". United States Census Bureau. U.S. Department of Commerce.
  87. ^ a b c "Virginia – Race and Hispanic Origin for Selected Cities and Other Places: Earliest Census to 1990". U.S. Census Bureau. Archived from the original on August 12, 2012. Retrieved May 4, 2012.
  88. ^ "Median Family Income (In 2003 Inflation-adjusted Dollars)". Census.gov. Archived from the original on October 13, 2004. Retrieved July 2, 2010.
  89. ^ Bureau, U.S. Census. "U.S. Census website". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved September 25, 2018.
  90. ^ a b "U.S. Census Bureau QuickFacts: Virginia Beach city, Virginia (County)". Census Bureau QuickFacts. Retrieved September 25, 2018.
  91. ^ Herriot, Arianna (July 11, 2021). "Study ranks Virginia Beach as #1 safest large city in America". wtkr.com. Retrieved September 28, 2022.
  92. ^ "Virginia Beach, Virginia (VA) profile". City-data.com. Retrieved July 2, 2010.
  93. ^ "CQ Press: City Crime Rankings 2008". Os.cqpress.com. Archived from the original on June 7, 2010. Retrieved July 2, 2010.
  94. ^ "Virginia Beach city, Virginia". City-data.com. Retrieved July 2, 2010.
  95. ^ "Key Industries". Virginia Beach Economic Development. Retrieved October 29, 2022.
  96. ^ "About Stihl USA – Corporate Information". Stihl. Retrieved May 27, 2022.
  97. ^ "Amerigroup – Contact Us". Retrieved March 22, 2022.
  98. ^ "About CBN". Christian Broadcasting Network. Retrieved March 22, 2022.
  99. ^ a b "Economic Profile". Virginia Beach Economic Development Community. Retrieved March 8, 2007.
  100. ^ "Virginia Beach – Geico Careers". GEICO. Retrieved November 21, 2021.
  101. ^ "Morphix Technologies Virginia Beach". The Virginian-Pilot. August 12, 2011. Retrieved August 29, 2022.
  102. ^ Morales, Cianna (September 25, 2023). "Amazon to build 2 new facilities in Virginia Beach, bringing more than 1,000 jobs". The Virginian-Pilot. Retrieved November 22, 2023.
  103. ^ Patterson, Erin (June 20, 2017). "VA Beach heavily relies on tourism: city increased ad spending". 13Newsnow.com. Retrieved June 20, 2017.
  104. ^ Metcalfe, Trevor (July 25, 2018). "Virginia Beach attracted 19 million tourist in 2017". The Virginian-Pilot. Retrieved November 23, 2021.
  105. ^ "Virginia Beach draws tourism, and it seems to be growing". Retrieved November 23, 2021.
  106. ^ Miller, Erin (June 1, 2022). "How tourism impacts hotels, Airbnb rentals at Virginia Beach Oceanfront". WTKR.com. Retrieved July 8, 2023.
  107. ^ Ponton, Brendan (June 2, 2022). "Back to the Beach: Busy tourism season expected in Virginia Beach". WTKR.com. Retrieved July 8, 2023.
  108. ^ "Agribusiness". Virginia Beach Economic Development Community. Retrieved March 8, 2007.
  109. ^ "Farmers Market". City of Virginia Beach. Archived from the original on September 16, 2007. Retrieved March 8, 2007.
  110. ^ Carter, Clint (June 1, 2017). "Virginia Beach: America's True Navy Town". Rolling Stone. Retrieved January 29, 2023.
  111. ^ Kelly, Victoria (January 21, 2020). "10 things to do when you're stationed at Virginia Beach". Sandboxx.us. Retrieved January 29, 2023.
  112. ^ "History – Naval Air Station Oceana". cnic.navy.mil. Retrieved November 23, 2021.
  113. ^ "Training Support Center Home – NETC". NETC.navy.mil. Retrieved November 23, 2021.
  114. ^ "Economic Profile — Military". Virginia Beach Economic Development Community. Archived from the original on December 5, 2008. Retrieved March 8, 2007.
  115. ^ Worldwide Space – A Travel Handbook and RV, Camping Guide: CONUS and Abroad (14 ed.). Spaceatravel.com. 2004. ISBN 1-881341-14-3. ISBN 978-1-881341-14-7
  116. ^ "Welcome to Joint Expeditionary Base Little Creek-Fort Story". CNIC. Retrieved May 14, 2018.
  117. ^ "Virginia Beach city" (PDF). Virginia Employment Commission. May 12, 2018. Archived from the original (PDF) on November 17, 2017. Retrieved November 16, 2017.
  118. ^ "About us – Virginia Museum of Contemporary Art". virginiamoca.org. Retrieved May 25, 2022.
  119. ^ "Virginia Aquarium & Marine Science Center". Retrieved March 18, 2008.
  120. ^ Parker, Stacy (July 27, 2021). "Virginia Aquarium lands $4.5 million shuttered venue grant from federal government". The Virginian-Pilot. Retrieved July 27, 2021.
  121. ^ "Military Aviation Museum – Historic WWI & WWII Hangars, Aircraft, Airshows, and Adventure!". militaryaviationmuseum.org. Retrieved February 26, 2018.
  122. ^ "Sandler Center for the Performing Arts". Retrieved March 18, 2008.
  123. ^ "National Register of Historic Places – Virginia Beach". Retrieved March 18, 2008.
  124. ^ "Thoroughgood House". Virginia Beach History Museums. Retrieved April 11, 2023.
  125. ^ "Francis Land House". Virginia Beach History Museums. Retrieved April 11, 2023.
  126. ^ "Cape Henry Lighthouse". Preservation Virginia. Retrieved April 11, 2023.
  127. ^ "The Historic de Whitt Cottage". thedewhittcottage.org. Retrieved April 11, 2023.
  128. ^ a b "Atlantic University". Archived from the original on February 7, 2011. Retrieved March 7, 2008.
  129. ^ "Virginia Beach Neptune Festival celebrates 47th annual Boardwalk Weekend". WTKR.com. September 18, 2021. Retrieved September 18, 2021.
  130. ^ Davis, Symone (September 24, 2021). "Virginia Beach Neptune Festival kicks off this weekend". Wavy.com. Retrieved September 24, 2021.
  131. ^ "The Neptune Festival". The Neptune Festival. June 25, 2010. Retrieved July 2, 2010.
  132. ^ Nicholson, David (September 15, 2021). "VA Beach Set For Another Neptune Fest". Daily Press. Retrieved April 12, 2023.
  133. ^ "The end of an era: Rock 'n' Roll Running Series Virginia Beach". WAVY.com. September 4, 2021. Retrieved March 25, 2023.
  134. ^ "The Official website of Last Night On The Town: Virginia Beach's premier New Years Eve event". lastnightonthetown.com. Retrieved April 11, 2023.
  135. ^ Sabella, Anthony (December 30, 2021). "Last Night on the Town NYE event returns to Virginia Beach Town Center". WTKR.com. Retrieved April 11, 2023.
  136. ^ "Virginia Beach United FC Team Homepage". vabeachunited.com. Retrieved October 25, 2022.
  137. ^ Minium, Harry (March 11, 2007). "Big-league sports not on the horizon for Norfolk". The Virginian-Pilot. Retrieved June 22, 2019 – via PilotOnline.com.
  138. ^ "NBA franchise wouldn't be impossible; but team would cost $1 billion+". The Virginian-Pilot. March 14, 2017. Retrieved March 14, 2017.
  139. ^ "Norfolk Admirals win 2012 Calder Cup". ESPN. Associated Press. June 9, 2012. Retrieved March 20, 2022.
  140. ^ "Official Site Of The Virginia Beach Destroyers". Virginia Beach destroyers.com. Retrieved April 10, 2023.
  141. ^ "Neptunes chosen as VA Beach baseball team's name". The Virginian-Pilot. April 2, 2014. Retrieved April 10, 2023.
  142. ^ "Virginia Beach Sportsplex". Retrieved November 21, 2021.
  143. ^ "About us – Coastal Edge East Coast Surfing Championships". surfecsc.com. Retrieved November 21, 2021.
  144. ^ "Virginia Beach Golf Courses". Thegolfcourses.net. Retrieved March 12, 2008.
  145. ^ "Rock and Roll Half Marathon". Elite Racing. Archived from the original on April 9, 2008. Retrieved August 6, 2007.
  146. ^ "Shamrock Marathon". shamrockmarathon.com. Retrieved October 8, 2019.
  147. ^ "Virginia Beach Parks". Virginia Beach Department of Parks and Recreation. Archived from the original on September 28, 2007. Retrieved October 5, 2007.
  148. ^ "Mt. Trashmore Park". Virginia Beach Department of Parks and Recreation. Archived from the original on January 1, 2007. Retrieved October 5, 2007.
  149. ^ Hodies, Eric (January 16, 2018). "Mount Trashmore getting new staircases, an outdoor stage and an observation deck". The Virginian-Pilot. Retrieved January 16, 2018.
  150. ^ Mordas, Laura (December 20, 2017). "8 Incredible Parks Created from Landfills". Smart Growth Voice. Retrieved April 11, 2023.
  151. ^ "Red Wing Park". City of Virginia Beach. Retrieved May 29, 2017.
  152. ^ "Back Bay National Wildlife Refuge". U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service, Back Bay National Wildlife Refuge. Archived from the original on December 16, 2005. Retrieved March 20, 2008.
  153. ^ "First Landing State Park". First Landing State Park. Retrieved March 20, 2008.
  154. ^ "False Cape State Park". False Cape State Park. Retrieved March 20, 2008.
  155. ^ "Munden Point". Virginia Birding and Wildlife Trail. Archived from the original on April 6, 2008. Retrieved March 20, 2008.
  156. ^ "Munden Point Park". City of Virginia Beach. Retrieved May 14, 2018.
  157. ^ Pascale, Jordan (February 19, 2020). "Centuries-Old Law Against Cursing In Public Repealed By Virginia Lawmakers". NPR. Retrieved October 2, 2022.
  158. ^ Hieatt, Kathy (November 15, 2014). "Environmental center opens at Pleasure House Point". The Virginian-Pilot. Retrieved June 22, 2019 – via PilotOnline.com.
  159. ^ "Virginia Beach's Park System Ranks Eighth in the Nation". City of Virginia Beach. June 6, 2013. Retrieved July 18, 2013.
  160. ^ Beck, Jillian (August 8, 2014). "Report: Virginia Beach one of the most conservative cities". The Virginian-Pilot. Retrieved November 23, 2021.
  161. ^ Schneider, Gregory (November 3, 2023). "Path to power in Virginia's elections runs through a handful of suburbs". The Washington Post. Retrieved April 19, 2024.
  162. ^ "2020 November General". results.elections.virginia.gov. Retrieved November 14, 2020.
  163. ^ Skelton, Alissa (November 7, 2020). "Virginia Beach voted for a Democratic presidential candidate for the first time since 1964, here's why". The Virginian-Pilot. Retrieved October 8, 2021.
  164. ^ Cain, Andrew (November 7, 2020). "Biden wins in Chesterfield, Virginia Beach extend Democrats dominance in population centers". Richmond Times-Dispatch. Retrieved May 2, 2023.
  165. ^ "United States presidential election results". David Leip. 2016.
  166. ^ a b "Virginia Beach City Manager: Form of Government". Virginia Beach City Manager. September 30, 2007. Archived from the original on January 2, 2007. Retrieved March 7, 2008.
  167. ^ a b "Virginia Beach City Council: About Us". Virginia Beach City Council. September 30, 2007. Archived from the original on January 2, 2007. Retrieved March 7, 2008.
  168. ^ "Welcome to the Office of the City Treasurer". Virginiabeach.gov. Retrieved July 9, 2023.
  169. ^ "The Office of the Commissioner of Revenue". Virginiabeach.gov. Retrieved July 9, 2023.
  170. ^ "Virginia Beach Police Department". City of Virginia Beach. Retrieved February 8, 2024.
  171. ^ "Virginia Beach Fire Department". City of Virginia Beach. Retrieved February 8, 2024.
  172. ^ "District Profile: US Representative District 2 Hampton Roads". vpap.org. Retrieved May 2, 2023.
  173. ^ Harki, Gary A (September 22, 2018). "Eighty years later, students from Virginia Beach's first black high school remember". The Virginian-Pilot. Archived from the original on September 22, 2018. Retrieved December 20, 2018.
  174. ^ Lucas, Joanne Harris (April 27, 2013). The History of Princess Anne County Training School and Union Kempsville High School Princess Anne County/Virginia Beach, Virginia 1925-1969 (PhD). hdl:10919/19367. Retrieved December 20, 2018.
  175. ^ "princess anne county training school union kempsville high school alumni and friends association, inc". Retrieved December 20, 2018.
  176. ^ "Landstown High School – Virginia Beach City Public Schools". landstownhs.vbschools.com. Retrieved November 29, 2021.
  177. ^ "Princess Anne High School – Virginia Beach City Public Schools". princessannehs.vbsschools.com. Retrieved November 29, 2021.
  178. ^ "Green Run High – Virginia Beach City Public Schools". Retrieved November 29, 2021.
  179. ^ "Green Run Collegiate". Retrieved November 29, 2021.
  180. ^ "Frank W. Cox High – Virginia Beach City Public Schools". Retrieved November 29, 2021.
  181. ^ "Tallwood High – Virginia Beach City Public Schools". Retrieved November 29, 2021.
  182. ^ "Salem High School – Virginia Beach City Public Schools". Retrieved November 29, 2021.
  183. ^ "First Colonial High School – Virginia Beach City Public Schools". Retrieved November 29, 2021.
  184. ^ "Kellam High School – Virginia Beach City Public Schools". Retrieved November 29, 2021.
  185. ^ "Kempsville High – Virginia Beach City Public Schools". Retrieved November 29, 2021.
  186. ^ "Bayside High School – Virginia Beach City Public Schools". Retrieved November 29, 2021.
  187. ^ "Ocean Lakes High – Virginia Beach City Public Schools". Retrieved November 29, 2021.
  188. ^ "Virginia Beach City Public Schools homepage". vbschools.com. Retrieved October 31, 2021.
  189. ^ "Chesapeake Bay Academy website". Retrieved May 25, 2022.
  190. ^ "Cape Henry Collegiate: Homepage". September 24, 2021. Retrieved November 29, 2021.
  191. ^ "Catholic High School website". Retrieved November 29, 2021.
  192. ^ Bowers, Irene (August 24, 2014). "Baylake Pines School closes after 60 years". The Virginian-Pilot. Retrieved November 29, 2021.
  193. ^ "State Recognized Accredited Schools". Virginia Council for Private Education. September 30, 2007. Archived from the original on December 23, 2007. Retrieved March 7, 2008.
  194. ^ "About Regent University". Regent University. Retrieved December 11, 2007.
  195. ^ "About Virginia Wesleyan". Archived from the original on April 4, 2008. Retrieved March 7, 2008.
  196. ^ "About Norfolk State". Archived from the original on December 30, 2007. Retrieved January 12, 2008.
  197. ^ "About Old Dominion". Retrieved January 12, 2008.
  198. ^ "UVa. Hampton Roads Center". Archived from the original on January 2, 2008. Retrieved January 12, 2008.
  199. ^ "Tidewater Community College". Retrieved January 12, 2008.
  200. ^ "About ECPI". Retrieved March 7, 2008.
  201. ^ "Virginia Beach Public Library". Retrieved June 18, 2008.
  202. ^ Hays, Jakon (November 21, 2019). "Happy birthday! Today The Virginian-Pilot turns 154". The Virginian-Pilot. Retrieved October 7, 2020.
  203. ^ Holmes, Gary (September 23, 2006). "Nielsen Reports 1.1% increase in U.S. Television Households for the 2006–2007 Season". Nielsen Media Research. Archived from the original on July 5, 2009. Retrieved September 28, 2007.
  204. ^ "Hampton Roads, Northeast North Carolina News, Weather, and Sports". wtkr.com. Retrieved August 7, 2022.
  205. ^ "Wavy 10 News Homepage". wavy.com. Retrieved August 7, 2022.
  206. ^ "13News Now". 13newsnow.com. Retrieved August 7, 2022.
  207. ^ "WTVZ: Hampton Roads News, Weather, Sports, Breaking News". mytvz.com. Retrieved October 16, 2022.
  208. ^ "Fox 43 TV - Wavy.com". wavy.com. Retrieved October 16, 2022.
  209. ^ "DirecTV Virginia Beach, Virginia TV Provider". DirecTV. Retrieved October 16, 2022.
  210. ^ "DISH Satellite TV in Virginia Beach, VA". Dish Network. Retrieved October 16, 2022.
  211. ^ "Virginia Beach, VA TV & Internet Service Provider – Verizon FIOS". Verizon.com. Retrieved October 31, 2021.
  212. ^ "About The 700 Club". Christian Broadcasting Network. July 30, 2014. Retrieved July 1, 2019.
  213. ^ "Titles with locations including Virginia Beach, Virginia, USA." IMDb. Retrieved on March 7, 2008.
  214. ^ "Norfolk International Airport Mission and History". Norfolk International Airport. Archived from the original on September 28, 2007. Retrieved October 2, 2007.
  215. ^ "Newport News/Williamsburg International Airport". Newport News/Williamsburg International Airport. Archived from the original on December 4, 2000. Retrieved February 25, 2008.
  216. ^ "Chesapeake Regional Airport". Retrieved January 12, 2008.
  217. ^ "Welcome to the Virginia Beach Airport". vbairport.com. Retrieved November 8, 2021.
  218. ^ "Southeast High Speed Rail". Southeast High Speed Rail. Archived from the original on May 15, 2013. Retrieved October 15, 2007.
  219. ^ "Today's Bus". Today's Bus. Archived from the original on October 8, 2007. Retrieved October 10, 2007.
  220. ^ Clayton, Cindy (November 22, 2012). "I-64: Where east is south and west is north". The Virginian-Pilot. Retrieved April 9, 2023.
  221. ^ "Chesapeake Bay Bridge-Tunnel Facts". Chesapeake Bay Bridge and Tunnel Commission. Archived from the original on April 28, 2015. Retrieved November 23, 2006.
  222. ^ "The Longest Tunnel in Virginia Has A Truly Fascinating Backstory". Only In Your State. May 11, 2022. Retrieved January 29, 2023.
  223. ^ Kimberlin, Joanne (February 10, 2017). ""17 miles of scary": Chesapeake Bay Bridge Tunnel is notorious among truckers". The Virginian-Pilot. Retrieved January 29, 2023.
  224. ^ "Hampton Roads Transit". Hrtransit.org. Archived from the original on January 23, 2000. Retrieved July 2, 2010.
  225. ^ "Virginia Beach Transit Extension Study | Hampton Roads Transit". Gohrt.com. Archived from the original on July 3, 2010. Retrieved July 2, 2010.
  226. ^ "2011 City and Neighborhood Rankings". Walk Score. 2011. Retrieved August 28, 2011.
  227. ^ "Virginia Beach neighborhoods on Walk Score". Walk Score. Retrieved March 9, 2021.
  228. ^ "Public Utilities". vbgov.com. Retrieved November 23, 2021.
  229. ^ Christie, Jordan (June 15, 2021). "Tapping Gaston: "Breathes New Life" Into Virginia Beach". whro.org. Retrieved November 8, 2021.
  230. ^ Davis, Marc (November 5, 2007). "Water supply helped Virginia Beach to flourish". The Virginian-Pilot. Retrieved July 7, 2023.
  231. ^ "Lake Gaston Water Supply Pipeline". pu.virginiabeach.gov. Retrieved July 7, 2023.
  232. ^ "Hampton Roads Sanitation District". Hampton Roads Sanitation District. Archived from the original on December 12, 1998. Retrieved March 8, 2008.
  233. ^ "Sentara Virginia Beach General Hospital Homepage". sentara.com. Retrieved July 7, 2023.
  234. ^ "Sentara Princess Anne Hospital Homepage". sentara.com. Retrieved July 7, 2023.
  235. ^ "Virginia Hospitals and Medical Centers". The Agape Center. Retrieved August 6, 2007.
  236. ^ "Beach Health Clinic homepage". beachhealthclinic.org. Retrieved November 8, 2021.
  237. ^ a b "Home: Our Sister Cities". vbsca.org. Sister Cities Association of Virginia Beach. Retrieved September 28, 2021.
  238. ^ "Miyazaki City Celebrate's 90th Anniversary". July 2014. Retrieved July 1, 2014.
  239. ^ "Moss, Norway – Sister Cities Association of Virginia Beach". Retrieved November 30, 2021.
  240. ^ "Olongapo, Philippines – Sister Cities Association of Virginia Beach". Retrieved November 30, 2021.
    General, Ryan (July 10, 2023). "Filipinos hold pageant, parade at Virginia Beach as city celebrates 46th Fil-Am Friendship day". news.yahoo.com. Retrieved July 11, 2023.
    Glenn, Sophia (September 6, 2021). "Filipino Naval History Receives Recognition in Virginia". Asian Matters for America. East-West Center. Retrieved October 12, 2023. Today, the Hampton Roads region has two sister city connections with the Philippines: both Norfolk, Virginia with Cagayan de Oro, Philippines and Virginia Beach, Virginia with Olongapo, Philippines—where the US Navy base at Subic Bay stands.
  241. ^ "Waiblingen, Germany – Sister Cities Association of Virginia Beach". Retrieved November 30, 2021.
  242. ^ Robinson, Tom (November 29, 2012). "Far from Va. Beach, Ashe stands out in MLS". The Virginian-Pilot. Retrieved September 28, 2022.
  243. ^ Rente, Gabrielle (March 8, 2021). "Women's History Month: Clara Byrd Baker, the pioneering educator". Williamsburg Yorktown Daily. Retrieved February 8, 2024.
  244. ^ "Wade Barrett Player profile". mlssoccer.com. Retrieved July 8, 2023.
  245. ^ Vincent, Mal (March 2, 2009). "Is Felicia Barton our next American Idol?". The Virginian-Pilot. Retrieved October 2, 2022.
  246. ^ "Kharton Belmar Bio". Major League Soccer. Retrieved April 10, 2023.
  247. ^ "Kelli Barrett Biography". m.imdb.com. Retrieved February 8, 2024.
  248. ^ "Plaxico Burress catches game-winner in Super Bowl XLII". New York Giants. 2007. Archived from the original on July 26, 2023. Retrieved August 5, 2023.
  249. ^ Reyes, Josh (November 2, 2019). "Retired Navy Seal "Survivor" legend Rudy Boesch has died". The Virginian-Pilot. Retrieved April 11, 2023.
  250. ^ Woods Rene, Charlotte (June 22, 2021). "Charlottesville-based New York Times columnist Jamelle Bouie discusses the past, present and politics". cvilletomorrow.org. Retrieved January 20, 2023.
  251. ^ http://www.thebaseballcube.com/players/profile.asp?ID=41288. The Baseball Cube. Retrieved November 16, 2018.
  252. ^ Tolliver, Lee (June 26, 2013). "Whatever happened to martial-arts standout Curtis Bush". The Virginian-Pilot. Retrieved October 16, 2022.
  253. ^ "Rebecca Cardon Biography". m.imdb.com. Retrieved February 8, 2024.
  254. ^ Carlson, Chris (August 3, 2012). "Gabby Douglas cheered at old gym in Virginia Beach". The Virginian-Pilot. Retrieved September 29, 2022.
  255. ^ "Mural for Gabby Douglas created in Virginia Beach". Boston Globe. August 12, 2012. Retrieved September 29, 2022.
  256. ^ "Gabby Douglas' friends and family in Hampton Roads beaming with pride". 13newsnow.com. August 1, 2012. Retrieved April 11, 2023.
  257. ^ Smith, Brian (April 18, 2019). "Former 2-sport pro star Dozier is now an author". 13Newsnow.com. Retrieved November 22, 2022.
  258. ^ http://www.thebaseballcube.com/players/profile.asp?ID=5178. The Baseball Cube. Retrieved November 16, 2018.
  259. ^ Jahnke, James (August 30, 2016). "Report: Detroit Pistons sign guard Trey Freeman". Detroit Free Press. Retrieved February 8, 2024.
  260. ^ "Percy Harvin". Pro-Football-Reference.com. Retrieved October 11, 2022.
  261. ^ Hanson, Logan (August 8, 2022). "Percy Harvin, Plaxico Burress among Virginia Beach NFL stars". bvmsports.com. Retrieved October 11, 2022.
  262. ^ "Devon Hall Bio – Virginia Cavaliers men's Basketball". Virginia Cavaliers. April 28, 2020. Retrieved May 2, 2023.
  263. ^ "Olimpia Milano And Devon Hall Extend The Relationship: I'm Super Excited and Grateful". Olimpia Milano. July 15, 2022. Retrieved May 2, 2023.
  264. ^ http://www.thebaseballcube.com/players/profile.asp?ID=124152. The Baseball Cube. Retrieved November 16, 2018.
  265. ^ https://thesundevils.com/news/2013/4/17/208248340.aspx. Arizona State University Official Athletic Site. Retrieved November 16, 2018.
  266. ^ "EJ Manuel". Pro-Football-Reference.com. Retrieved October 1, 2022.
  267. ^ "Virginia Beach's EJ Manuel retires from NFL". The Virginian-Pilot. May 19, 2019. Retrieved October 1, 2022.
  268. ^ Holtzclaw, Mike (September 5, 2015). "Evan Marriott's life interrupted by unexpected TV stardom on 'Joe Millionaire'". Daily Press. Retrieved June 8, 2017.
  269. ^ "Governor Robert F. McDonnell's bio". Governor.virginia.gov. Archived from the original on March 4, 2010. Retrieved March 4, 2010.
  270. ^ "Session 2005; McDonnell, Robert F. (Bob)". Virginia House of Delegates. Retrieved November 26, 2008.
  271. ^ "Session 2003; McDonnell, Robert F. (Bob)". Virginia House of Delegates. Retrieved November 26, 2008.
  272. ^ Harper, Jane (January 21, 2021). "Jason Miyares, Virginia's new sheriff has had a busy first week, he's not done". The Virginian-Pilot. Retrieved October 29, 2022.
  273. ^ Darrah, Nicole (August 21, 2017). "Who is Miss USA Kára McCullough". Fox News. Retrieved October 1, 2022.
  274. ^ Yahr, Emily (May 14, 2017). "Miss D.C. Kára McCullough, a 25-year-old scientist, wins Miss USA". The Washington Post. Retrieved April 11, 2023.
  275. ^ http://www.thebaseballcube.com/players/profile.asp?ID=165391. The Baseball Cube. retrieved November 16, 2018.
  276. ^ "Lenda Murray - Facebook". Facebook.
  277. ^ "Jamia Nash Biography". tv.apple.com. Retrieved January 29, 2023.
  278. ^ Focke, Cindy (October 13, 2017). "Class of 1967:Juice Newton and integration; but no girls in pants at First Colonial High School". The Virginian-Pilot. Retrieved October 11, 2022.
  279. ^ Roberts, Frank (October 21, 2014). "Juice Newton: What the doctor ordered". Suffolk News Herald. Retrieved October 11, 2022.
  280. ^ "Derrick Nnadi". Pro-Football-Reference.com. Retrieved November 22, 2022.
  281. ^ Wilson, Patrick (July 15, 2016). "He's gay, but this Virginia Beach man is outspoken in his support for Donald Trump and the GOP". The Virginian-Pilot. Archived from the original on April 7, 2023. Retrieved April 7, 2023.
  282. ^ Poulter, Amy (October 14, 2020). "Pusha T talks love and strategy for helping his hometown become a music hotbed". The Virginian-Pilot. Retrieved May 18, 2021.
  283. ^ Reese, Brian (August 29, 2022). "Here are Pusha T's favorite spots in Hampton Roads". Wavy.com. Retrieved March 6, 2023.
  284. ^ Wilbon, Michael (December 11, 1984). "Navy Center stands Tall". The Washington Post. Retrieved May 19, 2021.
  285. ^ "Interview: Teddy Riley on His Virginia Years". Red Bull Music Academy. Retrieved October 26, 2022.
  286. ^ Davis, Marc (February 2, 2008). "Hit music producer's studio for sale in Virginia Beach". The Virginian-Pilot. Retrieved October 26, 2022.
  287. ^ http://www.thebaseballcube.com/players/profile.asp?ID=128933. The Baseball Cube. Retrieved November 16, 2018.
  288. ^ Hamilton, Tom (January 4, 1986). "Top Of His Class: Virginia Beach High School Superstar J.R. Reid Is Nobody's Junior These Days". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved September 26, 2022.
  289. ^ "J.R. Reid". Basketball-Reference.com. Retrieved October 11, 2022.
  290. ^ Reyes, Josh (October 1, 2021). "Pat Robertson to step down as host of the 700 Club". The Virginian-Pilot. Retrieved October 26, 2022.
  291. ^ Bonko, Larry (April 25, 2018). "Kimmel's show includes Mark Ruffalo, "Avengers", Virginia Beach and sex on a golf course". The Virginian-Pilot. Retrieved October 29, 2022.
  292. ^ "Mark Ruffalo's intimate encounter in Virginia Beach revealed on Jimmy Kimmel Live!". 13newsnow.com. April 25, 2018. Retrieved May 2, 2023.
  293. ^ "Herbert Scott". Pro-Football-Reference.com. Retrieved October 11, 2022.
  294. ^ Considine, Austin (July 9, 2022). "Rhea Seehorn Is Getting Away With It". The New York Times. Retrieved July 1, 2023.
  295. ^ "Scott Sizemore Stats". Baseball Almanac. Retrieved December 10, 2012.
  296. ^ Staton, Zach (November 13, 2022). "Virginia Beach native and Dodger's Chris Taylor giving back to local baseball and community". WTKR.com. Retrieved July 1, 2023.
  297. ^ http://www.thebaseballcube.com/players/profile.asp?ID=144094. The Baseball Cube. Retrieved November 16, 2018.
  298. ^ "Timbaland's visit includes grant for Beach school". The Virginian-Pilot. May 30, 2008. Archived from the original on June 1, 2008. Retrieved January 11, 2013.
  299. ^ Jr Landrum, Jonathan (September 27, 2021). "Virginia Beach-grown hitmaker Timbaland creates best-selling marketplace amid 'Verzuz' series success". The Virginian-Pilot. Retrieved November 22, 2022.
  300. ^ Marcus, Ezra. "Lil Tracy's Third Life". The Fader. Retrieved October 1, 2022.
  301. ^ Pennecke, Sandra (February 23, 2010). "A Virginia Beach evening with an Apprentice winner". The Virginian-Pilot. Retrieved October 29, 2022.
  302. ^ Alvarado, Nicole (September 19, 2015). "Virginia Beach native Travis Wall wins Emmy for chorography". The Virginian-Pilot. Retrieved October 29, 2022.
  303. ^ "Elizabeth Williams". GoDuke.com. Duke Blue Devils. Retrieved December 6, 2018.
  304. ^ Ebanks, Jared (June 22, 2022). "How Mystics' Elizabeth and NBA Draft Prospect Mark Williams are Turning Basketball into a Family Business". Slam. Retrieved October 1, 2022.
  305. ^ "Mark Williams Bio – Duke University". Duke Blue Devils. Retrieved January 29, 2023.
  306. ^ Philips, Jacob (June 23, 2022). "Virginia Beach Native Mark Williams selected by Hornets with 15th pick in NBA Draft". Wavy.com. Retrieved January 29, 2023.
  307. ^ http://www.thebaseballcube.com/players/profile.asp?ID=19720. The Baseball Cube. Retrieved November 16, 2018.
  308. ^ Yang, Maya (October 6, 2021). "Pharrell Williams pulls festival from Virginia Beach over cousin's killing". The Guardian. Retrieved September 29, 2022.
  309. ^ "Pharrell meets with Virginia Beach officials to discuss how to move city forward". WTKR.com. WTKR. August 22, 2022. Retrieved September 29, 2022.
  310. ^ "Governor Glenn Youngkin bio". governor.virginia.gov. Retrieved March 6, 2023.
  311. ^ "Ryan Zimmerman Stats". Baseball Almanac. Retrieved December 10, 2012.
  312. ^ Kilgore, Adam (June 18, 2022). "Ryan Zimmerman lived his childhood dream, Nats fans are lucky for it". The Washington Post. Retrieved October 22, 2022.
  313. ^ "Monopoly – Here & Now". BuzzFeed, Inc. 2015. Archived from the original on December 30, 2015.
  314. ^ Roddy, Michael (November 12, 2015). "America is the loser in Amazon's 'The Man in the High Castle'". Reuters. Retrieved October 13, 2022.
  315. ^ Gross, Ed (December 12, 2016). "The Man in the High Castle: 10 Season 2 behind the scenes reveals". empire online.com. Retrieved October 13, 2022.

External links[edit]