Virginia Roberts Giuffre
Virginia Louise Roberts
August 9, 1983
Sacramento, California, U.S.
|Organization||Victims Refuse Silence|
|Known for||Advocate of justice for sex trafficking survivors|
Virginia Louise Giuffre (née Roberts; born August 9, 1983) is an American-Australian advocate of justice for sex trafficking victims. She is one of the most prominent and outspoken survivors of the sex trafficking ring that was operated by convicted sex offender and financier Jeffrey Epstein. She founded the US nonprofit organization Victims Refuse Silence in 2015 and has been widely featured in interviews with American and British media describing her alleged experiences of being trafficked by Epstein and Ghislaine Maxwell, to individuals including Prince Andrew, Alan Dershowitz, and Jean-Luc Brunel.
Giuffre has pursued criminal and civil actions against Epstein and Maxwell and has appealed directly to the public for justice and awareness. She sued Maxwell for defamation in 2015, and the case was settled in Giuffre's favor for an undisclosed sum in 2017. On July 2, 2019, the United States Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit ordered the unsealing of documents from the earlier civil suit by Giuffre against Maxwell. The first batch of documents from Giuffre's suit were released to the public on August 9, 2019, further implicating Epstein, Maxwell, and a number of his associates. The following day, on August 10, 2019, Epstein was found dead in his Manhattan prison cell.
Giuffre described her alleged experiences of being sex trafficked by Epstein to Prince Andrew in an October 2019 interview for the BBC's Panorama which aired on December 2, 2019. She urged "I implore the people in the UK to stand up beside me, to help me fight this fight, to not accept this as being OK." Combined with Prince Andrew's own poorly received Newsnight interview with the BBC that aired in November 2019, Giuffre's direct appeal helped to shift public opinion in favor of plaintiffs.
Virginia Giuffre was born Virginia Louise Roberts in Sacramento, California, on August 9, 1983, to parents Sky and Lynn Roberts. The family relocated to Loxahatchee in Palm Beach County, Florida, when she was four years old. Giuffre has a younger brother. It was reported that she had come from a "troubled home" and, from the age of seven, was molested by a close family friend. Giuffre told the Miami Herald that she went from being in "an abusive situation, to being a runaway, to living in foster homes." She lived on the streets at age 13 before getting abused by a 65-year-old sex trafficker, Ron Eppinger, in Miami. Giuffre lived with Eppinger for approximately 6 months. Eppinger reportedly ran a front business for international sex trafficking known as the modeling agency "Perfect 10". He was raided by the FBI and later pleaded guilty to charges of alien smuggling for prostitution, interstate travel for prostitution, and money laundering.
At the age of 14 Giuffre reunited with her father and returned to live with him. Her father worked as a maintenance manager at the Mar-a-Lago property owned by Donald Trump, and also helped Giuffre obtain a job there.
Association with Epstein (2000–2002)
In the summer of 2000, Giuffre first met Ghislaine Maxwell when working as a spa attendant at Donald Trump's private Mar-a-Lago club while reading a book about massage therapy. Maxwell, a British socialite and daughter of the late media tycoon Robert Maxwell, approached Giuffre, noted the book that she was reading, inquired about her interest in massage, and offered her a potential job working for Epstein as a traveling masseuse with the assurance that no experience was necessary. Giuffre has stated that after Maxwell introduced her to Jeffrey Epstein, the two quickly began grooming her to provide sexual services under the guise that she was to be trained as a professional massage therapist.
Between 2000 and 2002, Giuffre was closely associated with Epstein and Maxwell, traveling between Epstein's residences in Palm Beach and Manhattan (at the Herbert N. Straus House), with additional trips to Epstein's Zorro ranch in New Mexico and private island Little Saint James. In the Miami Herald's award-winning investigative journalism series "Perversion of Justice", Giuffre describes her experiences of being trafficked by Epstein to provide massages and sexual services for him and a number of his business associates over a two-and-a-half-year period.
Of the instance in March 2001 that Giuffre was allegedly trafficked to Prince Andrew, she stated in an interview that it was a "wicked" and "really scary time" in her life and that she "couldn't comprehend how in the highest level of the government powerful people were allowing this to happen. Not just allowing but participating in it." In court documents from a civil suit that were released from seal in 2019, Giuffre named several others that she claims Epstein and Maxwell instructed her to have sex with, including hedge fund manager Glenn Dubin, attorney Alan Dershowitz, politician Bill Richardson, the late MIT scientist Marvin Minsky, lawyer George J. Mitchell, and MC2 modeling agent Jean-Luc Brunel.
In September 2002, at the age of 19, Giuffre flew to Thailand and attended the International Training Massage School in Chiang Mai. Maxwell provided her with tickets to travel to Thailand, and instructed her to meet with a specific Thai girl to bring her back to the United States for Epstein.
While at the massage school in Thailand in 2002, she met Robert Giuffre, an Australian martial arts trainer, and the two married quickly thereafter. She contacted Epstein and informed him that she would not be returning as planned. She and her husband started a life and family in Australia, and Giuffre broke off contact with Epstein and Maxwell. For five years, Giuffre and her husband lived a quiet life in Australia with their young children.
In March 2005, while Giuffre was still establishing her family in Australia, the Palm Beach Police Department began investigating Epstein after a 14-year-old girl and her parents reported his behavior. The girl described being recruited by a female classmate from her high school to give Epstein a massage at his mansion in exchange for money wherein he subsequently molested her. By October 2005, the police had a growing list of girls with similar claims of sexual abuse, statements from Epstein's butlers corroborating their claims, and a search warrant for his Palm Beach property.
Police detectives noted that the accusers all described a similar pattern where Epstein would ask them to massage him and then sexually assault them during the massage. When police searched through Epstein's trash, they found notes with the telephone numbers of the girls on them. One of the girls was called by Epstein's assistant while being questioned by police.
Giuffre relayed to the Miami Herald that she received a series of phone calls in rapid succession over three days in 2007. The first call was from Maxwell, then one day later a call from Epstein, both of whom asked if she had spoken to authorities, followed by a third call from an FBI agent who stated that Giuffre had been identified as a victim during the first criminal case against Epstein. She resisted speaking at length to the FBI until she was approached again about the matter in person, this time by the Australian Federal Police, six months after being contacted by phone.
First criminal case
This article duplicates the scope of other articles. (May 2021)
In 2006, a year before Giuffre was first contacted by authorities, the Palm Beach Police Department had a growing body of evidence against Epstein, and signed a probable cause affidavit charging him with multiple counts of unlawful sex acts with a minor. Epstein hired a team of powerful lawyers, including Alan Dershowitz, Jack Goldberger, Kenneth Starr, and Jay Lefkowitz, to serve in his defense. As the case progressed, Police Chief Michael Reiter became alarmed at the handling of the case by state prosecutors and then state attorney, Barry Krischer. On May 1, 2006, Reiter asked Krischer to remove himself from the case; when Krischer declined, Police Chief Reiter turned his evidence over to the FBI for federal prosecution. While Reiter was initially hopeful that the FBI would thoroughly investigate and move the matter to a conclusion, in 2007, then South Florida U.S. Attorney Alexander Acosta decided not to prosecute Epstein in federal court and referred the matter back to the local jurisdiction.
Lead police detective Joseph Recarey asserted that the state prosecutors were at first eager to pursue criminal action against Epstein, but that "everything took a turn" when lawyer Alan Dershowitz got involved. Krischer then decided to take the unusual action of turning Epstein's case over to a grand jury, and then presented testimony from only one girl. Epstein's legal team aggressively sought concessions and prolonged the process when negotiating a plea deal with Alex Acosta. Acosta, who described the tactics of Epstein's lawyers as a "year-long assault on the prosecution and prosecutors", eventually agreed to sign a controversial non-prosecution agreement in 2008, which was done without informing the victims, later determined to be in violation of the Crime Victims' Rights Act.
Reiter expressed that the state and federal prosecutors' handling of the Epstein case amounted to "the worst failure of the criminal justice system" in modern times.
Crime Victims' Rights Act lawsuit (2008–2019)
In 2008, a lawsuit (Jane Doe v. United States of America) was filed by Bradley Edwards and Paul G. Cassell that accused the U.S. Justice Department of violating the Crime Victims' Rights Act during the first criminal case against Epstein by failing to allow several of his victims to challenge his plea deal. Epstein sued Bradley Edwards for civil racketeering but later dropped his suit; Edwards countersued for malicious prosecution, with the result that Epstein issued a public apology to the lawyer and settled the case for an undisclosed sum in December 2018. Edwards, who represents several Epstein accusers in addition to Giuffre, reportedly settled in aid of his clients, whose greatest wish was to pursue their larger objective of having their allegations heard in a federal court in order to overturn the non-prosecution agreement. Edwards stated that "They're willing to talk. They want to share their stories. This was part of their healing."
Victims' civil suit
In May 2009, Giuffre filed a lawsuit as Jane Doe 102 against Epstein and accused Maxwell of recruiting her to a life of being sexually trafficked while she was a minor. By late 2009, dozens of Epstein's victims had filed civil lawsuits against him. All suits were settled for undisclosed amounts. The victims also filed for the records of the plea deal to be unsealed and made available to the public.
Decision to speak out publicly
Giuffre credited the birth of her daughter on January 7, 2010, as the date she decided to come forward publicly and begin speaking out about her experiences of sexual abuse and trafficking, despite the risks. Vanity Fair stated that Giuffre's story was first publicized in March 2011 by the Mail on Sunday; the coverage included the photo showing Prince Andrew with his arm around her at Maxwell's house in Belgravia, London. FBI agents again made contact with Giuffre, this time at the US consulate in Sydney in 2011, soon after she went public with allegations against Epstein and Prince Andrew.
In December 2014, Giuffre set up the framework for her organization Victims Refuse Silence. It was registered as a 501(c)(3) non-profit organization in 2015. The objective of Victims Refuse Silence is to "help survivors surmount the shame, silence, and intimidation typically experienced by victims of sexual abuse, and to help others to escape becoming victims of sex trafficking." For her organization Victims Refuse Silence (VRS), Giuffre has utilized imagery of a blue Morpho butterfly to symbolize the transformation and empowerment that occurs when a victim becomes a survivor. Blue is the international color of human trafficking awareness. The United States has designated January as Human Trafficking Awareness Month with January 11 listed as National Wear Blue Day.
Prince Andrew allegations
In a December 2014 Florida court filing, intended for inclusion in the 2008 Crime Victims' Rights Act lawsuit, Giuffre described being trafficked to Prince Andrew, Duke of York, at least three times when she was 17 in 2001. She claims that Epstein and Ghislaine Maxwell took her to Tramp nightclub in London, where she met and danced with Prince Andrew and that later that night, while en route to Maxwell's Belgravia residence, Maxwell instructed Giuffre to "do for (Prince Andrew) what you do for Epstein."
A photo that shows Giuffre, Prince Andrew and Maxwell in Ghislaine's apartment has been widely circulated since 2011. Prince Andrew's role as trade envoy was terminated in July 2011, and he reportedly cut all ties with Epstein.
In court documents, Giuffre claimed that one sexual encounter with Prince Andrew was an orgy on the private island Little Saint James (Virgin Islands) that involved her, several underage girls from Eastern Europe, the Prince, and Jeffrey Epstein himself.
In 2015, Buckingham Palace stated that "any suggestion of impropriety with underage minors is categorically untrue", later repeating the denials. Requests from Giuffre's lawyers for a statement under oath from the Duke about the allegations were returned unanswered.
Giuffre claims that Epstein sex trafficked her to lawyer and Harvard law professor emeritus Alan Dershowitz at least six times, the earliest time when she was aged 16. These claims have been repeatedly denied by Dershowitz, who has pointed to email correspondence between Giuffre and Mail on Sunday reporter Sharon Churcher in late 2011, in which Giuffre asked Churcher to help her remember the names of her abusers following earlier discussions, and Churcher replied, "Don't forget Alan Dershowitz. JE's buddy and lawyer..good name for your pitch as he repped Claus von Bulow and a movie was made about that case...title was Reversal of Fortune. We all suspect Alan is a pedo and tho no proof of that, you probably met him when he was hanging put w JE." Dershowitz, who has a history of associating with Epstein as a friend, represented him in his 2008 criminal conviction and helped to negotiate the controversial non-prosecution agreement that was in defiance of victims' rights.
The claims first appeared in a December 30, 2014, Florida court filing by lawyers Bradley J. Edwards and Paul G. Cassell which alleged that Alan Dershowitz was one of several prominent figures, including Prince Andrew, to have participated in sexual activities with a minor later identified as Giuffre. The affidavit from Giuffre was meant for inclusion as part of the 2008 lawsuit (Jane Doe v. USA) accusing the Justice Department of violating the Crime Victims Rights Act during Epstein's first criminal case. Dershowitz vehemently denied the allegations in Giuffre's statement and sought disbarment of Edwards and Cassell, the lawyers filing the suit. Edwards and Cassell sued Dershowitz for defamation in 2015; he countersued. The two parties settled in 2016 for an undisclosed financial sum.
Following denials by Dershowitz, Giuffre stated, "I'm not going to be bullied back into silence."
In 2014, Giuffre was represented by Stanley Pottinger, whose firm specializes in sex abuse cases involving women and children. Anticipating the challenges that awaited Giuffre in accusing extremely wealthy and powerful individuals, Pottinger looked for another lawyer that could match this. At the request of Pottinger, David Boies and his firm Boies Schiller Flexner began representing Giuffre pro bono in 2014. Boies represents several of Epstein's accusers. In addition to Boies, attorneys for Giuffre include Brad Edwards and Paul Cassell.
In April 2019, Giuffre sued Dershowitz for defamation in New York, with Boies as her lawyer. That June, Dershowitz filed a motion to dismiss Giuffre's suit (which was later denied) and a motion to disqualify Boies' firm from representing her (which was later approved). Giuffre stated in September 2019 that she continued to stand by her claims of misconduct by Dershowitz. Dershowitz accused Boies of pressuring Giuffre to provide false testimony, in response to which Boies sued Dershowitz in November 2019 for defamation.
In October 2019, Charles Cooper took over representation of Giuffre in the defamation suit against Dershowitz after a judge ruled that Boies could not continue as Giuffre's lawyer because Dershowitz's claim that she conspired with her attorneys to make false claims had turned Boies into a potential witness.
In April 2019, Maria Farmer filed an affidavit in support of Giuffre's defamation suit against Dershowitz which stated that while Farmer worked signing in guests at Epstein's front desk in 1995–1996, she had regularly encountered Dershowitz at the New York mansion at the same time underage girls were present.
Virginia Roberts affidavit (2014)
Giuffre filed court papers in Florida in January 2015, stating that Epstein trafficked her to Prince Andrew and Alan Dershowitz. In a sworn affidavit, she claims Maxwell worked as Epstein's madam. In April 2015, a federal judge ruled that Giuffre could not join the federal Crime Victims' Rights Act lawsuit, and her affidavit was stricken from the case.
Virginia Giuffre v. Ghislaine Maxwell (2015)
As a result of Giuffre's allegations and Maxwell's comments about them, Giuffre sued Maxwell for defamation in federal court in New York in September 2015. After much legal confrontation, the case was settled under seal in June 2017 with Maxwell reportedly paying Giuffre "millions".
Virginia Giuffre v. Alan Dershowitz (2019)
Giuffre was first represented by David Boies but Alan Dershowitz successfully had him removed from the case as he claimed that members of the law firm could be called to witness in the trial. She was subsequently represented by lawyer Charles Cooper. Boies filed a separate defamation lawsuit against Dershowitz for implying that Boies had pressured Giuffre into making false claims.
Second criminal case
Jeffrey Epstein was arrested on July 6, 2019, at Teterboro Airport in New Jersey and charged with sex trafficking and sex trafficking conspiracy by prosecutors with the Public Corruption Unit of the Southern District of New York In the indictment, Epstein was accused of soliciting massages from underage girls where the activities became increasingly sexual and then of enlisting the girls to recruit other underage victims for pay. U.S. Attorney Geoffrey Berman of the U.S. District Court for the Southern District of New York appealed for other victims of Epstein to come forward. The federal indictment also listed the key role of Epstein's paid "employees and associates" responsible for scheduling victims.
On August 29, 2019, in the wake of Epstein's death 19 days prior, the case against Epstein was closed after District Judge Richard Berman dismissed all sex trafficking charges. Judge Berman expressed support for Epstein's accusers, stating that he invited them to speak publicly at a hearing on August 27, 2019, out of "respect" for "the difficult decisions victims made to come forward". Giuffre was among the 16 women who spoke publicly at the hearing, which included Anouska De Georgiou, Sarah Ransome, Jennifer Araoz, Chauntae Davies, Courtney Wild, Theresa J. Helm, and Marijke Chartouni. At the hearing, Giuffre stated "The reckoning must not end. It must continue. He did not act alone. We the victims know that." Prosecutors signaled that they would continue an investigation for potential co-conspirators.
Media coverage and appearances
In 2015, ABC News flew Giuffre and her family from Colorado to New York City for an interview with Amy Robach and Jim Hill. Her family was put up at the Ritz-Carlton and she was interviewed about Epstein for over an hour by the network. However, the network later abandoned their plans to broadcast the interview. It emerged that former top Epstein lawyer Alan Dershowitz had contacted the network. Dershowitz confirmed to NPR that he intervened by calling and speaking with producers and a lawyer for NBC after learning that Giuffre had been interviewed, stating "I did not want to see [Giuffre's] credibility enhanced by ABC."
Giuffre appeared on a special edition of Dateline NBC with Savannah Guthrie discussing the Epstein scandal along with victims Anouska De Georgiou, Rachel Benavidez, Jennifer Araoz, Marijke Chartouni and Chauntae Davies. The special, titled "Reckoning", aired on September 20, 2019.
Giuffre was interviewed for the 60 Minutes Australia investigation that aired on November 10, 2019. In the program she describes her experiences of being trafficked by Epstein and Maxwell to have sex with Prince Andrew three times in 2001: the first time being in London at Maxwell's Belgravia residence, the second at Epstein's New York mansion, and the final occurrence (involving multiple girls and the Prince) on Little Saint James.
Giuffre also gave an interview in October 2019 to the BBC, describing her experience of being sex-trafficked by Epstein to Prince Andrew, for a Panorama special, "The Prince and the Epstein Scandal", which aired on December 2, 2019. In the program, Giuffre directly appealed to the public by stating "I implore the people in the UK to stand up beside me, to help me fight this fight, to not accept this as being ok."
BBC reporter Emily Maitlis conducted a Newsnight interview with Prince Andrew, discussing Giuffre's allegations and his friendship with Epstein, which aired on November 16, 2019. The reaction to the Prince's conduct during the interview was one of overwhelming disapproval; this, combined with Giuffre's public appeal, helped lead to a widespread shift in opinion by the British people. The prince resigned from his royal duties on November 20, 2019, as a number of organizations and charities that he was connected to severed ties. Despite the Prince's promises to assist authorities, in January 2020, U.S. attorney Geoffrey Berman stated that Prince Andrew had provided "zero cooperation" after the FBI and the Southern District of New York had requested to interview him as part of the Epstein inquiry.
Giuffre appeared, along with Maria Farmer, in a four-part Netflix series, released in May 2020, titled Jeffrey Epstein: Filthy Rich, directed by Lisa Bryant and based on the earlier book of the same name by James Patterson.
Following her marriage to Robert in 2002, Giuffre lived in the Glenning Valley suburb of New South Wales' Central Coast in Australia for 11 years. The family relocated to the United States in November 2013 and stayed for several years, initially spending time in Florida, and later in Colorado in 2015. In 2019, it was reported that Giuffre lived in Cairns, Australia, with her husband Robert and their three children: two sons and one daughter. In 2020, she moved with her family to Ocean Reef, a suburb of Perth, Western Australia.
- McNeill, Heather (December 15, 2020). "Virginia Giuffre, outspoken survivor of Jeffery Epstein, moves into beachside Perth home". WAtoday. Retrieved March 26, 2021.
Virginia Roberts Giuffre, an outspoken Australian survivor...
- Crawley, Peter. "Virginia Giuffre's heartbreaking, vivid account of being told to have sex with Prince Andrew". The Irish Times. Retrieved January 23, 2020.
- ProPublica, Mike Tigas, Sisi Wei, Ken Schwencke, Brandon Roberts, Alec Glassford. "Victims Refuse Silence Inc - Nonprofit Explorer". ProPublica. Retrieved January 25, 2020.
- Chappell, Bill; Neuman, Scott (July 31, 2020). "Judge Releases Trove Of Sealed Records Related To Lawsuit Against Ghislaine Maxwell". NPR. Retrieved August 2, 2020.
- Wieder, Ben; Hall, Kevin G. (July 31, 2020). "Judge rips into Ghislaine Maxwell as sealed Jeffrey Epstein documents begin to emerge". Tampa Bay Times. Retrieved August 2, 2020.
- "Prince Andrew accuser asks public to 'stand beside her'". BBC News. Retrieved December 7, 2019.
- Brown, Julie K. (March 6, 2019). "Court weighs unsealing records that could reveal new details of Jeffrey Epstein sex abuse". Miami Herald. Retrieved January 24, 2020.
- Naham, Matt (July 3, 2019). "In Major Development, Court Orders Unsealing of Docs Related to Alleged Epstein Sex Trafficking Ring". Law and Crime. Retrieved August 10, 2019.
- Sherman, Gabriel (August 9, 2019). "Powerful Men, Disturbing New Details in Unsealed Epstein Documents". Vanity Fair. Retrieved August 10, 2019.
- Zapotosky, Matt; Barrett, Devlin; Merle, Renae; Leonnig, Carol D. (August 10, 2019). "Jeffrey Epstein dead after apparent suicide in New York jail". The Washington Post. Retrieved August 10, 2019.
- Mansoor, Sanya. "'Only One of Us Is Telling the Truth.' The Biggest Moments From Prince Andrew Accuser Virginia Giuffre's BBC Interview". Time. Retrieved December 13, 2019.
- Davies, Caroline (December 3, 2019). "Prince Andrew scandal: Virginia Giuffre pleads for UK public support". The Guardian. Retrieved December 7, 2019.
- Martin, Guy. "Prince Andrew's Public Relations War With Virginia Roberts Giuffre: Her Direct Appeal To Britain Harries His Retreat". Forbes. Retrieved January 23, 2020.
- Sarnoff, Conchita (2020). "Chapters 5-6". TrafficKing: The Jeffrey Epstein Case. New York: Post Hill Press. ISBN 9781642935325.
- Brown, Julie K.; Blaskey, Sarah (August 9, 2019). "Huge cache of records details how Jeffrey Epstein and madam lured girls into depraved world". Miami Herald. Retrieved January 23, 2020.
- Bicks, Emily (September 20, 2019). "Virginia Roberts Giuffre: 5 Fast Facts You Need to Know". Heavy.com. Retrieved January 22, 2020.
- "How a British teen model was lured into Jeffrey Epstein's web". NBC News. Retrieved January 24, 2020.
- Schwiegershausen, Erica (July 19, 2019). "Will We Ever Know How Many Girls Jeffrey Epstein Abused?". The Cut. Retrieved January 27, 2020.
- Brown, Julie K. (November 28, 2018). "Even from jail, sex abuser manipulated the system. His victims were kept in the dark". Miami Herald. Retrieved February 7, 2020.
- Howard, Dylan; Cronin, Melissa; Robertson, James (2019). "Chapter 7". Epstein: Dead Men Tell No Tales. Simon & Schuster. ISBN 9781510758230.
- Bruck, Connie. "Alan Dershowitz, Devil's Advocate". The New Yorker. Retrieved January 31, 2020.
- Brown, Julie K. (July 5, 2019). "Dershowitz v. Boies: Jeffrey Epstein case unleashes war between two legal Goliaths". Miami Herald. Retrieved January 26, 2020.
- Michot, Emily; Brown, Julie K. (November 26, 2018). "How teen runaway Virginia Roberts became one of Jeffrey Epstein's victims". Miami Herald. Retrieved February 5, 2020.
- Lodi, Marie (July 9, 2019). "What We Know About Jeffrey Epstein's Private Jet the 'Lolita Express'". The Cut. Retrieved February 5, 2020.
- "2019 Hillman Prize for Newspaper Journalism". The Sidney Hillman Foundation. Retrieved February 5, 2020.
- Peterson, Brittany; Michot, Emily (December 18, 2019). "Perversion of Justice: A Miami Herald investigation". Miami Herald. Retrieved February 5, 2020.
- Graham, Ben (December 3, 2019). "Story behind iconic Prince Andrew photo with Virginia Giuffre". NZ Herald. ISSN 1170-0777. Retrieved February 3, 2020.
- Musgrave, Jane. "Jeffrey Epstein victim: He farmed me out to ex-senator, governor for sex". The Palm Beach Post. Retrieved February 25, 2020.
- Sherman, Gabriel (August 9, 2019). "Powerful Men, Disturbing New Details in Unsealed Epstein Documents". Vanity Fair. Retrieved February 25, 2020.
- Collman, Ashley. "Jeffrey Epstein's main accuser described the lavish lifestyle he gave to his alleged victims to keep them by his side". Insider. Retrieved January 24, 2020.
- Swaine, Jon (February 7, 2015). "Jeffrey Epstein accuser: video exists of underage sex with powerful men". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved January 26, 2020.
- Patterson, James; Connolly, John; Malloy, Tim (2016). Filthy Rich. New York: Little Brown and Company. pp. 131–138, 244–249. ISBN 9780316274050.
- Arnold, Amanda (August 9, 2019). "New Disturbing Allegations of Epstein's Encounters With Underage Girls Emerge". The Cut. Retrieved January 24, 2020.
- Brown, Julie K. (November 28, 2018). "For years, Jeffrey Epstein abused teen girls, police say. A timeline of his case". Miami Herald. Retrieved January 26, 2020.
- Fitzpatrick, Sarah; Schapiro, Rich (September 21, 2019). "Ex-Florida police chief: Jeffrey Epstein likely tipped off during 2005 child sex probe". www.msn.com. Retrieved February 2, 2020.
- "How Miami Herald's investigation & Jeffrey Epstein survivors helped blow up a sweetheart deal". Miami Herald. December 19, 2019. Retrieved January 24, 2020.
- "Epstein's Aust accuser "deeply pleased"". 7NEWS.com.au. July 9, 2019. Retrieved January 25, 2020.
- Musgrave, Jane; Pacenti, John; Ramadan, Lulu (November 20, 2019). "Jeffrey Epstein: To the first prosecutors, Epstein's victims were prostitutes". The Palm Beach Post. Retrieved February 2, 2020.
- White, Ken (July 9, 2019). "The Jeffrey Epstein Case Is Like Nothing I've Seen Before". The Atlantic. Retrieved February 5, 2020.
- Fitzpatrick, Sarah; Winter, Tom; Welker, Kristen; Jackson, Hallie; Schapiro, Rich (February 21, 2019). "Judge: Prosecutors broke law in deal with sex offender Jeffrey Epstein". NBC News. Retrieved February 5, 2020.
- Meier, Barry (December 12, 2015). "Alan Dershowitz on the Defense (His Own)". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved January 30, 2020.
- "Influential US predator in court apology". BBC News. December 4, 2018. Retrieved February 4, 2020.
- Cauterucci, Christina (July 11, 2019). "How a Florida Lawyer Kept the Jeffrey Epstein Case Alive". Slate Magazine. Retrieved February 4, 2020.
- Folkenflik, David. "A Dead Cat, A Lawyer's Call And A 5-Figure Donation: How Media Fell Short On Epstein". www.kunc.org. Retrieved January 25, 2020.
- Waller, Allyson (July 13, 2019). "Years later, victims recount impact of Jeffrey Epstein abuse". Miami Herald. Retrieved January 25, 2020.
- Kahn, Mattie (December 10, 2019). "'This Is Not Our Shame': 5 Survivors of Jeffrey Epstein's Abuse Speak Out". Glamour. Retrieved January 25, 2020.
- Klein, Edward (August 2011). "The Trouble with Andrew". archive.vanityfair.com. Vanity Fair. Retrieved December 7, 2019.
- Crime and Justice News (July 30, 2019). "Alan Dershowitz Fighting Lawsuit by Epstein Victim". The Crime Report. Retrieved February 6, 2020.
- "Case 1:19-cv-03377, Giuffre v. Dershowitz" (PDF). Courthouse News. April 16, 2019. Retrieved February 5, 2020.
- "Raise Awareness of Human Trafficking on January 11 with #WearBlueDay". Department of Homeland Security. January 10, 2020. Retrieved February 7, 2020.
encourages the public to wear blue – the international color of human trafficking awareness"
- Hogan, Kendall. "Gov. Abbott declares January Human Trafficking Prevention Month". www.kbtx.com. Retrieved February 7, 2020.
- "Prince Andrew 'was an abuser' - Epstein accuser". BBC News. September 21, 2019. Retrieved February 3, 2020.
- Gibson, Megan (January 6, 2015). "U.S. Lawyer Sues in Prince Andrew Sex Claims Case". Time. Retrieved January 9, 2015.
- Fitzpatrick, Sarah; Schapiro, Rich (January 27, 2020). "Prince Andrew has provided 'zero cooperation' in Epstein probe". NBC News. Retrieved February 3, 2020.
- "Prince Andrew: Envoy career plagued with controversy". BBC News. July 21, 2011. Retrieved June 12, 2013.
- Lewis, Paul; Swaine, Jon (January 10, 2015). "Jeffrey Epstein: inside the decade of scandal entangling Prince Andrew". The Guardian. London. Retrieved January 22, 2016.
- Booth, Robert; Lewis, Paul (January 4, 2015). "Palace takes unusual step to deny Prince Andrew underage sex claims". The Guardian. London. Retrieved January 15, 2015.
- "Prince Andrew set for first public event since sex claim". BBC News. January 22, 2015. Retrieved April 19, 2016.
- Court House News
- North, Anna (July 30, 2019). "Alan Dershowitz helped sex offender Jeffrey Epstein get a plea deal. Now he's tweeting about age of consent laws". Vox. Archived from the original on August 21, 2019. Retrieved August 22, 2019.
- Fitzsimmons, Emma G. (January 4, 2015). "Suit accuses Prince Andrew, Alan Dershowitz of sex with a minor". The New York Times. Archived from the original on January 7, 2015. Retrieved January 7, 2015 – via The Boston Globe.
- Fitzsimmons, Emma G. (January 4, 2015). "Prince Andrew and Alan Dershowitz Are Mentioned in Suit Alleging Sex With Minor". The New York Times. Archived from the original on July 13, 2019. Retrieved July 12, 2019.
- Meier, Barry (April 12, 2016). "Alan Dershowitz and 2 Other Lawyers Settle Suit and Counter Claim". The New York Times. Archived from the original on September 8, 2017. Retrieved September 8, 2017.
- Fitzsimmons, Emma G. (January 3, 2015). "Prince Andrew and Alan Dershowitz Are Mentioned in Suit Alleging Sex With Minor". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved February 2, 2020.
- "Defamation lawsuits involving U.S. lawyer Dershowitz end in settlement". Reuters. April 9, 2016. Retrieved January 26, 2020.
- Jackman, Tom; Paul, Deanna (October 16, 2019). "David Boies thrown out of libel suit he filed against Alan Dershowitz". The Washington Post. Retrieved February 3, 2020.
- Jackman, Tom; Paul, Deanna (November 8, 2019). "Alan Dershowitz countersues accuser in Jeffrey Epstein case, then is sued by David Boies". The Washington Post.
- Bruck, Connie (July 29, 2019). "Alan Dershowitz, Devil's Advocate". The New Yorker. Condé Nast. Archived from the original on July 31, 2019. Retrieved July 31, 2019.
- Brown, Julie K. (September 24, 2019). "In lurid sidelight to Epstein scandal, Alan Dershowitz asks judge to dismiss defamation case". Miami Herald. Retrieved January 31, 2020.
- Voreacos, David; Weinberg, Neil (July 17, 2019). "Epstein's Money Once Silenced Women. This Time Is Different". Bloomberg.
- Brown, Julie K. (April 16, 2019). "New Jeffrey Epstein accuser goes public; defamation lawsuit targets Dershowitz". Miami Herald. Retrieved January 26, 2020.
- Brown, Julie K. (March 1, 2019). "Alan Dershowitz suggests curbing press access to hearing on Jeffrey Epstein sex abuse". Miami Herald. Retrieved March 1, 2019.
- Shamsian, Jakob. "Alan Dershowitz is facing another lawsuit over his denials that he had sex with one of Jeffrey Epstein's victims". insider.com. insider. Retrieved December 7, 2019.
- Brown, Julie K. (July 6, 2019). "Jeffrey Epstein arrested on sex trafficking charges". Miami Herald. Archived from the original on July 7, 2019. Retrieved July 7, 2019.
- Winter, Tom; Ortiz, Erik (July 8, 2019). "Jeffrey Epstein charged with sex trafficking victims as young as 14". NBC News. Retrieved February 6, 2020.
- Rashbaum, William K.; Weiser, Benjamin; Gold, Michael (August 10, 2019). "Jeffrey Epstein Dead in Suicide at Manhattan Jail, Officials Say". The New York Times. Retrieved August 10, 2019.
- Neumeister, Larry (August 29, 2019). "Judge ends case against Epstein, with a nod to the accusers". Associated Press.
- Pierson, Brendan (August 30, 2019). "Case against Jeffrey Epstein dismissed following his death". Reuters.
- Merle, Renae; Zapotosky, Matt (August 27, 2019). "'The reckoning must not end': Epstein's accusers urge prosecutors to pursue his enablers". The Washington Post. Retrieved February 8, 2020.
- "Dateline NBC Exclusive: Virginia Roberts Giuffre, Jeffrey Epstein Accuser, Sits Down with Savannah Guthrie in Her First Television Interview". www.nbcumv.com. September 19, 2019. Retrieved February 3, 2020.
- Vanderhoof, Erin (November 6, 2019). "Prince Andrew's Accuser Repeats Her Allegations on 60 Minutes Australia". Vanity Fair. Retrieved February 2, 2020.
- Taylor, Sammi (November 10, 2019). "'I was trafficked to billionaires, politicians, even royalty'". www.9news.com.au. Retrieved February 2, 2020.
- "Prince Andrew stepping back from royal duties". BBC News. November 20, 2019. Retrieved January 23, 2020.
- Landler, Mark (December 2, 2019). "Prince Andrew's Accuser Takes Her Case to the BBC". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved January 23, 2020.
- "'Zero co-operation' from Prince Andrew over Epstein". BBC News. January 27, 2020. Retrieved February 8, 2020.
- Horton, Adrian (May 27, 2020). "'It's outrageous': inside an infuriating Netflix series on Jeffrey Epstein". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved June 9, 2020.
- "Ghislaine Maxwell could "squeal" on "very well-known names," Epstein accuser Virginia Roberts Giuffre says". CBS News. July 16, 2020. Retrieved July 17, 2020.
- Miller, Julie (August 10, 2020). "How Jeffrey Epstein Ensnared Prince Andrew in His Sex Trafficking Operation". Vanity Fair. Retrieved August 13, 2020.
- Han, Esther (January 5, 2015). "Virginia Roberts' new lease on life after escaping from billionaire sexual predator Jeffrey Epstein". The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved January 25, 2020.
- "Woman at the centre of Prince Andrew interview furore lives low-key life in Cairns". NewsComAu. November 26, 2019. Retrieved January 25, 2020.
- Brown, Julie K. (November 28, 2018). "Even from jail, sex abuser manipulated the system. His victims were kept in the dark". Miami Herald.
- Brown, Julie K. (November 28, 2018). "For years, Jeffrey Epstein abused teen girls, police say. A timeline of his case". Miami Herald.
- Brown, Julie K. (November 28, 2018). "How a future Trump Cabinet member gave a serial sex abuser the deal of a lifetime". Miami Herald.
- Bruck, Connie (August 5, 2019). "Devil's Advocate: Alan Dershowitz's long, controversial career – and the accusations against him". The New Yorker. pp. 32–47.