|Fragaria virginiana in Deception Pass State Park, Washington (state)|
Fragaria ovalis (Lehm.) Rydb.
The Virginia strawberry, wild strawberry, or common strawberry (Fragaria virginiana) is one of two species of wild strawberry that were hybridized to create the modern domesticated garden strawberry. Its natural range is confined to North America, in the United States (including Alaska) and Canada, although a popular variety called "Little Scarlet" is grown only in Great Britain, having been imported from the United States in the early 1900s.
There are four recognized subspecies:
- Fragaria virginiana subsp. glauca (formerly known as F. ovalis)
- Fragaria virginiana subsp. grayana
- Fragaria virginiana subsp. platypetala
- Fragaria virginiana subsp. virginiana
All strawberries have a base haploid count of 7 chromosomes. Fragaria virginiana is octoploid, having eight sets of these chromosomes for a total of 56. These eight genomes pair as four distinct sets, of two different types, with little or no pairing between sets. The genome composition of the octoploid strawberry species has generally been indicated as AAA'A'BBB'B'. The A-type genomes were likely contributed by diploid ancestors related to Fragaria vesca or similar species, while the B-type genomes seem to descend from a close relative of Fragaria iinumae. The exact process of hybridization and speciation which resulted in the octoploid species is still unknown, but it appears that the genome compositions of both Fragaria chiloensis and Fragaria virginiana (and by extension the cultivated octoploid strawberry as well) are identical.
Fragaria virginiana is also called wild strawberry. It can grow up to 4 inches tall. Its leaf characteristic typically consists of several trifoliate leaves (or has three leaves, as clover) and their leaves are green. Each leaflet is about 3 inches long and 1.5 inches wide. The leaflet is oval shaped and has coarse teeth along the edge except near the bottom. This plant has a five-petaled white flower with numerous yellow-anthered centers. There are ten small green sepals under petals. The seeds of this plant are developed from a pistil in the centre of flower which will become dark-coloured fruit on the strawberry. The fruit of the wild strawberry is smaller than that of the garden strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa). Botanically, the fruit is classified as an aggregate accessory fruit, but it is commonly called a berry. A study showed that F.virginiana can reproduce asexually and sexually.
- Morphological and molecular variation among populations of octoploid Fragaria virginiana and F. chiloensis (Rosaceae) from North America. Harrison R, Luby J, Furnier G, Hancock J., Am J Bot. 1997 May;84(5):612., pp. 612–620.
- Wendy Deng and Charlie Marshall, Characteristic point, "Fragaria virginiana (Wild Strawberry) Rosaceae", Retrieved 28 March 2018.
- "Fragaria virginiana". Plant Finder. Missouri Botanical Garden. Retrieved 28 March 2018.
- "Fragaria virginiana (common strawberry)". Go Botany. New England Wildflower Society. Retrieved 28 March 2018.
- Wilk, J., A. T. Kramer and M. V. Ashley. 2009. High variation in clonal vs. sexual reproduction in populations of the wild strawberry, Fragaria virginiana Mill. (Rosaceae). Annals of Botany 114:1413-1419.