Fragaria virginiana

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Fragaria virginiana
Fragaria virginiana 2427.JPG
In Deception Pass State Park, Washington (state)
Scientific classification edit
Kingdom: Plantae
Clade: Tracheophytes
Clade: Angiosperms
Clade: Eudicots
Clade: Rosids
Order: Rosales
Family: Rosaceae
Genus: Fragaria
Species:
F. virginiana
Binomial name
Fragaria virginiana
Synonyms

Fragaria ovalis (Lehm.) Rydb.

Fragaria virginiana, known as Virginia strawberry, wild strawberry, common strawberry, or mountain strawberry, is a North American strawberry that grows across much of the United States and southern Canada.[1][2] It is one of two species of wild strawberry that were hybridized to create the modern domesticated strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa).[citation needed]

Subspecies[edit]

There are four recognized subspecies:[citation needed]

  • Fragaria virginiana subsp. glauca (formerly known as F. ovalis)
  • Fragaria virginiana subsp. grayana
  • Fragaria virginiana subsp. platypetala
  • Fragaria virginiana subsp. virginiana

Cytology[edit]

Fragaria virginiana var. platypetala usually has dense and spreading pubescence on flower and leaf stalks as illustrated by this individual.
The fruit is a reddish, fleshy aggregate dotted with "seeds" (achenes) up to 1 cm.

All strawberries have a base haploid count of 7 chromosomes. Fragaria virginiana is octoploid, having eight sets of these chromosomes for a total of 56. These eight genomes pair as four distinct sets, of two different types, with little or no pairing between sets. The genome composition of the octoploid strawberry species has generally been indicated as AAA'A'BBB'B'. The A-type genomes were likely contributed by diploid ancestors related to Fragaria vesca or similar species, while the B-type genomes seem to descend from a close relative of Fragaria iinumae. The exact process of hybridization and speciation which resulted in the octoploid species is still unknown, but it appears that the genome compositions of both Fragaria chiloensis and Fragaria virginiana (and by extension the cultivated octoploid strawberry as well) are identical.[3]

Description[edit]

Fragaria virginiana can grow up to 4 inches tall. The plant typically bears numerous trifoliate leaves that are green on top, pale green on the lower surface. Each leaflet is about 3 inches long and 1.5 inches wide. The leaflet is oval shaped and has coarse teeth along the edge except near the bottom. This plant has a five-petaled white flower with numerous pistils, surrounded by yellow-anthered stamens. There are ten small green sepals under the petals. The seeds of this plant are developed from the pistils in the centre of the flower which will become dark-coloured fruit (achenes) on the strawberry.[4] The fruit of the wild strawberry is smaller than that of the garden strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa). Botanically, the fruit is classified as an aggregate accessory fruit, but it is commonly called a berry.[5][1] A study showed that F. virginiana can reproduce asexually and sexually.[6]

Taxonomy[edit]

Fragaria virginiana Mill. is considered to be the valid name for this plant by a number of authorities[7][8] (and was described by Philip Miller in 1768[9] in the eighth edition of The Gardeners Dictionary).[8] According to the International Plant Names Index the name, Fragaria virginiana Duchesne, published by Antoine Nicolas Duchesne in 1766,[10] is an invalid name.[8] However, other authorities consider the valid name to be Fragaria virginiana Duchesne.[11][12]

Cultivation[edit]

A popular type called "Little Scarlet" is grown in Great Britain, having been imported from the United States in the early 1900s.[citation needed]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "Fragaria virginiana (common strawberry)". Go Botany. New England Wildflower Society. Retrieved 28 March 2018.
  2. ^ Jepson Manual Treatment
  3. ^ Morphological and molecular variation among populations of octoploid Fragaria virginiana and F. chiloensis (Rosaceae) from North America. Harrison R, Luby J, Furnier G, Hancock J., Am J Bot. 1997 May;84(5):612., pp. 612–620.
  4. ^ Wendy Deng and Charlie Marshall, Characteristic point, "Fragaria virginiana (Wild Strawberry) Rosaceae", Retrieved 28 March 2018.
  5. ^ "Fragaria virginiana". Plant Finder. Missouri Botanical Garden. Retrieved 28 March 2018.
  6. ^ Wilk, J., A. T. Kramer and M. V. Ashley. 2009. High variation in clonal vs. sexual reproduction in populations of the wild strawberry, Fragaria virginiana Mill. (Rosaceae). Annals of Botany 114: 1413-1419.
  7. ^ "Tropicos | Name - !Fragaria virginiana Mill". legacy.tropicos.org. Retrieved 2020-06-28.
  8. ^ a b c "International Plant Names Index: Fragaria virginiana". www.ipni.org. Retrieved 2020-06-28.
  9. ^ The Gardeners Dictionary (8 ed.). 1768.
  10. ^ Histoire Naturelle des Fraisiers. Paris. 1766.
  11. ^ "ITIS Standard Report Page: Fragaria virginiana". www.itis.gov. Retrieved 2020-06-28.
  12. ^ "UC/JEPS: Jepson Manual treatment for FRAGARIA virginiana". ucjeps.berkeley.edu. Retrieved 2020-06-28.