Virginity test

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A virginity test is the practice and process of determining whether a person, usually a female, is a virgin; i.e., to determine that she has never engaged in, or been subjected to, sexual intercourse. The test typically involves a check for the presence of an intact hymen, on the flawed assumption that it can only be torn as a result of sexual intercourse.

Virginity testing is widely considered controversial, both because of its implications for the tested girls and women and because it is viewed as unethical.[1] In cases of suspected rape or child sexual abuse, a detailed examination of the hymen may be performed, but the condition of the hymen alone is often inconclusive.[2]

Two-finger test[edit]

The process of virginity testing varies by region. In areas where medical doctors are available, the tests would often be given in a doctor's office.[3] However, in countries where doctors are not available, testers will often be older women, or whoever can be trusted to search for a hymen.[4] This is common among African tribes that perform the test. [5]

Another form of virginity testing involves testing for laxity of vaginal muscles with fingers (the "two-finger test"). A doctor performs the test by inserting a finger into the female's vagina to check the level of vaginal laxity, which is used to determine if she is "habituated to sexual intercourse".[6] However, the usefulness of these criteria has been questioned by medical authorities and opponents of virginity testing because vaginal laxity and the absence of a hymen can both be caused by other factors, and the "two-finger test" is based on subjective observation.[7][8] In virginity tests, the presence of a hymen is often used to determine if a woman is a virgin.

Pakistan continues to use the two-finger test as a part of rape trials, including detailed examinations of womens character and sexual histories. The trials often last for several years.[9]

Examinations to test for previous sexual activity used to be performed on rape victims in Bangladesh and India before it was banned[10][11] [12].

Among the Bantu of South Africa, virginity testing or even the suturing of the labia majora (called infibulation) has been commonplace. Traditionally, Kenuzi girls (of the Sudan) are married before puberty[13] by adult men who inspect them manually for virginity.[14]

Example of violence against women[edit]

Even though virginity testing has been proclaimed an example of violence against women by the World Health Organization, it is still conducted in many countries. As virginity testing is a medically unnecessary and invasive genital exam exclusively performed on women and often without their consent, it is thereby grounded in gender and power inequities and undermines women’s decision-making capabilities. The practice of virginity testing is based on social norms that have been used historically to regulate female sexual activity and justify violence against women. In societies around the world, especially patriarchal ones, women are often considered property of their fathers or husbands such that their bodies become objects of male control, and their perceived value becomes measured by their ‘purity.’ This drives the unequal social pressures for women and girls to remain virgins until they marry. These attitudes create a framework for men to assume control over female sexual behaviors, and has led to women's punishment and even death. It is clear how these discriminatory attitudes have led to violence against women.[15] Virginity testing perpetuates these harmful stereotyped beliefs through the discriminatory framework that women are primarily responsible for all sexual activity and misconduct.[15]

In Iran, sixteen in-depth, semi-structured interviews were conducted with participants aged 32 to 60 years to elucidate the perceptions and experiences of Iranian examiners of virginity testing.[15] The perception and experience of examiners were reflected in five main themes. The result of this study indicated that virginity testing is more than a medical examination, considering the cultural factors involved and its overt and covert consequences. In Iran, testing is performed for both formal and informal reasons, and examiners view such testing with ambiguity about the accuracy and certainty of the diagnosis and uncertainty about ethics and reproductive rights. Examiners are affected by the overt and covert consequences of virginity testing, beliefs and cultural values underlying virginity testing, and informal and formal reasons for virginity testing.also used to examine sexual offence.[15]

Reasons[edit]

Some cultures require proof of a bride's virginity prior to her marriage. This has traditionally been tested by the presence of an intact hymen, which was verified by either a physical examination (usually by a physician, who would provide a certificate of virginity[16]) or by a "proof of blood", which refers to vaginal bleeding that results from the tearing of the hymen.[17][18][19] The physical examination would normally be undertaken before the marriage ceremony, while the "proof by blood" involves an inspection for signs of bleeding as part of the consummation of marriage, after the ceremony.

Abuse of women[edit]

Requiring a female to undergo a virginity test is widely seen as harmful, especially when it is performed on behalf of a government. The practice is seen as sexist, perpetuating the notion that sexual intercourse outside of marriage is acceptable for men, but not for women, and suggesting that a women's sexual activity should be subject to public knowledge and criticism, while men's should not.

Egypt military forces performed virginity tests on women detained during the 2011 Egyptian revolution. After Amnesty International protested to the Egyptian government in March 2011,[20] the government claimed the tests were carried out in order to refute claims that the women had been raped while in detention. Amnesty International described the virginity tests as "nothing less than torture".[21] Virginity tests done by the military on detainees were banned in Egypt on 27 December 2011,[22] but in March 2012, the physician who carried out the tests was acquitted of all charges.[23] Samira Ibrahim is the Egyptian woman who filed suit against the government, initiating public discussion of the Egyptian government's use of the testing. She said in response to the physician's acquittal, "A woman's body should not be used as a tool for intimidation, and nobody should have their dignity violated."[24]

Many spouses tend to engage in virginity tests based on the fact the hymen did not bleed after the first intercourse, leading to countless social problems in many middle-eastern countries.

Virginity testing was also used on women entering the United Kingdom on a so-called fiancée visa, when they said they were immigrating to marry their fiancées who were already living in the country.[25] The British government argued that if the women were virgins, they were more likely to be telling the truth about their reason for immigrating to the country.[25] In January 1979, a woman was required by British immigration officers to undergo a virginity test when she arrived in London claiming that she was there to marry. Such a visit did not require a visa, but as proof of her bona fides, she was required to submit to the test.[26] This practice was exposed by The Guardian in 1979[27] and the policy was quickly changed.[25][28][26]

In August 2013, it was announced in Prabumulih district, South Sumatra, Indonesia, by education chief Muhammad Rasyid that female teens attending high school there would be given mandatory annual virginity tests, beginning in 2014.[29] The stated intent is to reduce promiscuity in the district.[30] In 2014 the Human Rights Watch reported that a physical virginity test is routinely performed on female candidates to the Indonesian Police force as part of the job application process.[31]

In Iran, Atena Farghadani was charged with "illicit sexual relations falling short of adultery" for shaking hands with her lawyer in June 2015. She complained that Iranian prison officials and guards have made lewd gestures, sexual slurs and other insults to her, and went on a three-day "dry" hunger strike in September 2015 in protest of this ill-treatment. However, the harassment continued. In a note written by Farghadani leaked from prison, which has been seen by Amnesty International, Farghadani says the judicial authorities took her to a medical center outside the prison on August 12, 2015 and forced her to submit to a virginity test, purportedly for the purpose of investigating the charge against her.[32]

Virginity tests are common in Afghanistan. Some women undergo multiple tests. The tests are often done without the woman's consent. They have drawn widespread condemnation, with critics saying they are inhumane and hurt the dignity of women.[33]

Reliability[edit]

Many researchers state that a broken hymen is not a reliable indicator that a female has been vaginally penetrated because the tearing of the hymen may have been the result of some other event.[17] Furthermore, in rare cases, some girls are born without hymens.[34][35]

The hymen is a ring of fleshy tissue that sits just inside the vaginal opening. Normal variations range from thin and stretchy to thick and somewhat rigid.[34][35] The only variation that may require medical intervention is the imperforate hymen, which either completely prevents the passage of menstrual fluid or slows it significantly. In either case, surgical intervention may be needed to allow menstrual fluid to pass or intercourse to take place at all. It is a misconception that the hymen always tears during first intercourse or that intercourse is required to rupture the hymen.

A female can undergo a surgical procedure, called hymenorrhaphy or hymenoplasty, to repair or replace a torn hymen, to pass a virginity test.[36]

Criticism[edit]

In May 2013, the Supreme Court of India held that the two-finger test on a rape victim violates her right to privacy, and asked the Delhi government to provide better medical procedures to confirm sexual assault.[37][38] In 2003, the Supreme Court of India called TFT "hypothetical" and "opinionative". Most countries have scrapped it as archaic, unscientific and invasive of privacy and dignity.[39] Quebec's Collège des Médecins has banned members from conducting virginity tests after some were found to be doing this, as well as providing virginity certificates.[40]

Reasons for testing[edit]

Prevention of disease and pregnancy[edit]

Preventing the spread of HIV and teenage pregnancy are examples of reasons given by proponents of virginity testing. In 2004, a Zimbabwean village chief, Naboth Makoni, stated that he would adopt a plan to enforce virginity tests as a way of protecting his people against HIV. He explained that he focuses on girls because he believes they are easier to control than boys.[41] In South Africa, where virginity testing is banned, the Zulu tribe believes that the practice prevents the spread of HIV and teenage pregnancy.[4] A woman interviewed by the Washington Post stated that "[Virginity testing] is important so that young girls become scared of boys. Because what happens is first the boy strips you of your virginity, and the next thing you know is you are pregnant and you have HIV."[4]

Royal affirmations[edit]

In Zulu culture, there is a tradition in which girls of a certain age can perform a dance for the king. However, only virgins are allowed to participate.[4] If a girl is tested and declared a virgin, she brings honor to her family. If a girl is found not to be a virgin, her father may have to pay a fine for 'tainting' the community and the girl may be shunned from the 'certified' virgins.[5] Because of the ramifications that being considered impure have for the girls and their families, virginity testing has the potential to be a life-changing event.

In UK royal family it was a rule that only virgins can become bride of the royal family, however this was later removed in the 21st century.[42]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ University of California at Santa Barbara's SexInfo – The Hymen. Retrieved 4 March 2009.
  2. ^ Perlman, Sally E.; Nakajyma, Steven T.; Hertweck, S. Paige (2004). Clinical protocols in pediatric and adolescent gynecology. Parthenon. p. 131. ISBN 1-84214-199-6. 
  3. ^ Amnesty International
  4. ^ a b c d Karin Brulliard (26 September 2008). "Zulus Eagerly Defy Ban on Virginity Test". The Washington Post. NONGOMA, South Africa. Retrieved 4 March 2009. 
  5. ^ a b LeClerc-Madlala, Suzanne (2001). "Virginity Testing: Managing Sexuality in a Maturing HIV/AIDS Epidemic". Medical Anthropology Quarterly. 15 (4): 533–552. doi:10.1525/maq.2001.15.4.533. PMID 11794875. 
  6. ^ McNeil, Jr., Donald G. (13 September 2010). "Rape: Rights Group Calls Test to Determine Sexual Activity a 'Second Assault' in India". New York Times. Retrieved 15 September 2010. 
  7. ^ "Dignity on Trial: India's Need Sound Standards for Conducting and Interpreting Forensic Examinations of Rape Survivors" (Press release). Human Rights Watch. 6 September 2010. Retrieved 15 September 2010. 
  8. ^ "'Crude, degrading' finger-test forced on Mumbai gangrape victim by cops". First Post. 9 October 2013. Retrieved 18 October 2013. 
  9. ^ Malik, Zainab Z. (2017-12-18). "It's time Pakistan banned the two-finger test for decoding consent in rape trials". DAWN.COM. Retrieved 2017-12-28. 
  10. ^ "Two Finger Rape Test – Now Banned in India". 2014-05-08. Retrieved 2017-12-28. 
  11. ^ Malik, Zainab Z. (2017-12-18). "It's time Pakistan banned the two-finger test for decoding consent in rape trials". DAWN.COM. Retrieved 2017-12-28. 
  12. ^ Shaon, Ashif Islam (2018-04-23). "Bangladesh High Court Bans 'two finger test' for Rape". Dhaka Tribune. Retrieved 2018-04-23. 
  13. ^ (Godard, 1867)
  14. ^ (Kenedy, 1970)
  15. ^ a b c d Olson, Rose McKeon; García-Moreno, Claudia (2015-11-18). "Virginity testing: a systematic review". Reproductive Health. 14. doi:10.1186/s12978-017-0319-0. ISSN 1742-4755. PMC 5437416Freely accessible. PMID 28521813.  CC-BY icon.svg Material was copied from this source, which is available under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License.
  16. ^ "Student sells virginity online for £45,000 (but she's keeping her identity a secret in case her parents find out)". Daily Mail. London. 5 May 2011. 
  17. ^ a b Perlman, Sally E.; Nakajyma, Steven T.; Hertweck, S. Paige (2004). Clinical protocols in pediatric and adolescent gynecology. Parthenon. p. 131. ISBN 1-84214-199-6. 
  18. ^ The London medical and physical journal, Volume 51. Harvard University. 1824. Retrieved 8 October 2011. 
  19. ^ Kathleen Coyne Kelly (2000). Performing virginity and testing chastity in the Middle Ages. Volume 2 of Routledge research in medieval studies. Psychology Press. p. 197. ISBN 0-415-22181-1. Retrieved 8 October 2011. 
  20. ^ Amnesty International: Egyptian women protesters forced to take 'virginity tests'
  21. ^ "Watchdog: Egypt Army Acknowledges 'Virginity Tests'". Cairo: Fox News. Associated Press. 27 June 2011. Retrieved 28 June 2011. Amnesty International said Monday that Egypt's military rulers have acknowledged carrying out so-called 'virginity tests' on female protesters – the first time the army has admitted to the much-criticized practice. 
  22. ^ Mohamed Fadel Fahmy (27 December 2011). "Egyptian court rules against virginity tests". CNN. Retrieved 2011-12-27. 
  23. ^ "Egypt unrest: Court clears 'virginity test' doctor". BBC world news. 11 March 2012. Retrieved 2012-08-05. 
  24. ^ Deena Adel (19 March 2012). "Samira Ibrahim, 'Virginity Test' Victim, Fights Egypt's Military Rule". The Daily Beast. Retrieved 2012-08-05. 
  25. ^ a b c "British Virginity Testing of Immigrants Must End". Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA: Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. Associated Press. 3 February 1979 – via Google News. 
  26. ^ a b Travis, Alan (8 May 2011). "Virginity tests for immigrants 'reflected dark age prejudices' of 1970s Britain". The Guardian. London. 
  27. ^ Phillips, Melanie (3 February 2010). "From the archive: Airport virginity tests banned by Rees". The Guardian. London. 
  28. ^ Andy Beckett "The changing face of Melanie Phillips", The Guardian, 7 March 2003
  29. ^ Bachelard, Michael (21 August 2013). "Virginity test for high school girls". World. The Age. Retrieved 21 August 2013. 
  30. ^ Hodal, Kate (21 August 2013). "Female students in Indonesia may be forced to undergo 'virginity tests'". The Guardian. Retrieved 21 August 2013. 
  31. ^ Human Rights Watch (November 18, 2014). "Indonesia: 'Virginity Tests' for Female Police". Retrieved November 19, 2014. 
  32. ^ "Imprisoned cartoonist subjected to forced virginity test in Iran" (Press release). amnestyusa.org. Retrieved 18 June 2016. 
  33. ^ https://www.bbc.com/news/world-asia-42112827
  34. ^ a b Emans, S. Jean. "Physical Examination of the Child and Adolescent" (2000) in Evaluation of the Sexually Abused Child: A Medical Textbook and Photographic Atlas, Second edition, Oxford University Press. 61–65
  35. ^ a b McCann, J; Rosas, A. and Boos, S. (2003) "Child and adolescent sexual assaults (childhood sexual abuse)" in Payne-James, Jason; Busuttil, Anthony and Smock, William (eds). Forensic Medicine: Clinical and Pathological Aspects, Greenwich Medical Media: London, a)p.453, b)p.455 c)p.460.
  36. ^ "Muslim women in France regain virginity in clinics". Reuters. 30 April 2007. 
  37. ^ PTI (2013-05-19). "No two-finger test for rape: SC". The Hindu. Retrieved 2013-10-18. 
  38. ^ "Two-finger test should be stopped with immediate effect: SC". ATimes Of India. 2013-05-20. Retrieved 2013-10-18. 
  39. ^ "Insult After Assault: The two-finger test is not only unscientific but also degrading for the victim. The demand to ban it mounts : NATION". India Today. 2013-02-01. Retrieved 2013-10-18. 
  40. ^ "Virginity tests banned in Quebec". CTV News. 11 October 2013. 
  41. ^ Virginity and HIV Tests Before Marriage, from News From Africa Archived 2 March 2007 at the Wayback Machine., Virginity and HIV Tests Before Marriage, from News From Africa. Retrieved 4 March 2009.
  42. ^ Katz, Gregory (2011-04-08). "UK royal bride's virginity no longer an issue". Washington Post. ISSN 0190-8286. Retrieved 2017-12-28. 

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