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Virola koschnyi 1zz.jpg
Canopy of Virola koschnyi
Scientific classification e
Kingdom: Plantae
Clade: Angiosperms
Clade: Magnoliids
Order: Magnoliales
Family: Myristicaceae
Genus: Virola

About 67 species, see text.

Virola is a genus of medium-sized trees native to the South American rainforest and closely related to other Myristicaceae, such as nutmeg. Species are known commonly as epená, patricá, or cumala. They have glossy, dark green leaves and clusters of tiny yellow flowers, and may emit a pungent odor.

Traditional use[edit]

Several species of this genus have been used to create hallucinogenic snuff powders.[1]

Chemical constituents[edit]

The tops of Virola oleifera have been shown to produce lignan-7-ols and verrucosin that have antifungal action regarding Cladosporium sphaerospermum in doses as low as 25 micrograms. Lignan-7-ols oleiferin-B and oleiferin-G worked for Cladosporium cladosporioides starting as low as 10 micrograms.[2]


About 76 species, including:[3]


Legal status[edit]

United States[edit]


Except for ornamental purposes, growing, selling or possessing Virola spp. is prohibited by Louisiana State Act 159.

See also[edit]



  1. ^ Torres, C. M., et al. (1991). Snuff powders from pre-Hispanic San Pedro de Atacama: Chemical and contextual analysis. Current Anthropology, 640-649.
  2. ^ Sartorelli, P. : Young, M.C.M. : Kato, M.J., Antifungal lignans from the arils of Virola oleifera. Phytochemistry-Oxford. Oxford : Elsevier Science Ltd. Mar 1998. v. 47 (6) p. 1003-1006.
  3. ^ "Genus Species list for John's species database". Archived from the original on 2005-04-30. Retrieved 2008-04-06.
  4. ^ "Virola calophylla". Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Agricultural Research Service (ARS), United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). Retrieved 2008-04-29.
  5. ^ "Virola macrocarpa A.C. Sm". Retrieved 2008-05-03.
  6. ^ "Virola megacarpa A.H. Gentry". Retrieved 2008-05-03.
  7. ^ "Virola michelii Heckel". Retrieved 2008-05-03.
  8. ^ "Virola multicostata Ducke". Retrieved 2008-05-03.
  9. ^ "Discover Life - Myristicaceae: Virola multiflora (Standl. ) A. C. Sm. - Fruta dorada". Retrieved 2008-05-03.
  10. ^ "Virola surinamensis (Rol. ex Rottb.) Warb". Retrieved 2008-05-03.
  11. ^ "Virola venosa (Benth.) Warb". Retrieved 2008-05-03.

General references[edit]

External links[edit]