Virola sebifera

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Virola sebifera
Virola sebifera.jpg
Scientific classification e
Kingdom: Plantae
Clade: Angiosperms
Clade: Magnoliids
Order: Magnoliales
Family: Myristicaceae
Genus: Virola
Species: V. sebifera
Binomial name
Virola sebifera
Aubl.
Synonyms
  • Myristica mocoa[1]
  • Myrica ocuba
  • Myristica panamensis[1]
  • Myristica sebifera (Aubl.) Sw.[2]
  • Virola mocoa[1]
  • Virola panamensis[1]
  • Virola boliviensis[1]
  • Virola uenezuelensis[1]
  • Virola mycetis[1]
  • Virola warburgii[1]

Virola sebifera,also known as Myristica sebifera, common names ucuúba-do-cerrado[3] and red ucuuba,[2] is a type of tree from the family Myristicaceae, from Central and South America[4] (Costa Rica to northern Brazil).[1] It is found in evergreen forests and savannas up to about 1,400 m (4,600 ft) in altitude.[1]

Description[edit]

Virola sebifera is a tall, thin tree which grows 5–30 m (16–98 ft) tall.[1] The leaves are simple and grow up to 30 cm (12 in) long. The small flowers are single-sexed and are found in panicles. The fruit is reddish, oval-shaped, and about 10–15 mm (0.39–0.59 in) long and about 11 mm (0.43 in) in diameter.[1] The individual Virola trees, which include 40 to 60 species, are difficult to differentiate from one another.[5]

Chemical constituents[edit]

The bark of the tree is rich in tannins[4] and also the hallucinogen[6] dimethyltryptamine (DMT), as well as 5-MeO-DMT. The ripe seeds contain fatty acid glycerides, especially laurodimyristin and trimyristin. [7] The bark contains 0.065% to 0.25% alkaloids, most of which are DMT and 5-MeO-DMT.[8] The "juice or gum" of the bark seems to have the highest concentrations of alkaloids (up to 8%).[8]

Uses[edit]

Industrial uses[edit]

Seeds from V. sebifera are processed to obtain the fats, which are yellow and aromatic. They smell like nutmeg.[9] The fats also become rancid quickly. They are used industrially in the production of fats, candles, and soaps. This virola fat possesses properties similar to cocoa butter[7] and shea butter.

The wood of V. sebifera has a density around 0.37 g/cm3 (0.013 lb/cu in).[10]

Traditional medicine[edit]

The smoke of the inner bark of the tree is used by shamans of the indigenous people of Venezuela in cases of fever conditions, or cooked for driving out evil ghosts.[5]

Myristica sebifera (abbreviation: Myris) is derived from the fresh, red juice from the injured bark of the tree. It is especially used for such ailments as abscesses, phlegmon, paronychia, furuncle, anal fissures, infections of the parotid gland, bacterially infected tonsilitis, and others.[4][11][12]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l https://archive.is/20070519184701/http://www.plantes-botanique.be/e2-Myristicaceae-Virola-venosa. Archived from the original on 2007-05-19. Retrieved 2008-04-30.  Missing or empty |title= (help)
  2. ^ a b Virola sebifera | Henriette's Herbal Homepage
  3. ^ Estudos de áreas naturais fragmentadas
  4. ^ a b c Markus Wiesenauer, Suzann Kirschner-Brouns: Homöopathie - Das große Handbuch, Gräfe & Unzer Verlag, 2007, ISBN 978-3-8338-0034-4
  5. ^ a b Christian Rätsch: Enzyklopädie der psychoaktiven Pflanzen. AT Verlag, 2007, 8. Auflage, ISBN 978-3-03800-352-6
  6. ^ Andreas Kelich: Halluzinogene Rauschdrogen: Botanischer Teil: Virola spp.: V. sebifera
  7. ^ a b Karl Hiller, Matthias F. Melzig, Lexikon der Arzneipflanzen und Drogen, 2 Bände, Genehmigte Sonderausgabe für den area verlag, 2006, ISBN 3-89996-682-1
  8. ^ a b COMMITTEE FOR VETERINARY MEDICINAL PRODUCTS VIROLA SEBIFERA SUMMARY REPORT
  9. ^ Talg, vegetabilischer. article in: Meyers Konversations-Lexikon, 4. Aufl. 1888–1890, Bd. 15, S. 499 f.
  10. ^ "PUERTAS". inverhutchinson.com. Retrieved 2008-04-30. 
  11. ^ Homöopathisches Repetorium, Deutsche Homöopathie Union (DHU)
  12. ^ Mohinder Singh Jus, Praktische Materia Medica. Arzneimittellehre von A-Z, Homöosana, 2004, ISBN 3-906407-05-5

Further reading[edit]

  • Christian Rätsch: Enzyklopädie der psychoaktiven Pflanzen. AT Verlag, 2007, 8.te Auflage, ISBN 978-3-03800-352-6
  • Karl Hiller, Matthias F. Melzig, Lexikon der Arzneipflanzen und Drogen, 2 Bände, Genehmigte Sonderausgabe für den area verlag, 2006, ISBN 3-89996-682-1
  • Markus Wiesenauer, Suzann Kirschner-Brouns: Homöopathie - Das große Handbuch, Gräfe & Unzer Verlag, 2007, ISBN 978-3-8338-0034-4

External links[edit]