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The visa policy of the Schengen Area is a component within the wider area of freedom, security and justice policy of the European Union. It applies to the Schengen Area and to other EU member states except Ireland. The visa policy allows nationals of certain countries to enter the Schengen Area via air, land or sea without a visa for stays of up to 90 days within a 180-day period. Nationals of certain other countries are required to have a visa either upon arrival or in transit.
The Schengen Area consists of 23 EU member states and four non-EU countries that are members of EFTA: Iceland, Liechtenstein, Norway and Switzerland. Bulgaria, Cyprus and Romania, while EU members, are not yet part of the Schengen Area but, nonetheless, have a visa policy that is partially based on the Schengen acquis.
Nationals of EU single market countries are not only visa-exempt but are legally entitled to enter and reside in each other's countries. However, their right to freedom of movement in each other's countries can be limited in a reserved number of situations, as prescribed by EU treaties.
Visa policy map
Freedom of movement
|Rules for freedom of movement|
|Directive 2004/38/EC defines the right of free movement for citizens of the European Economic Area (EEA), which includes the European Union (EU) and three European Free Trade Association (EFTA) members Iceland, Norway and Liechtenstein. Switzerland, which is a member of EFTA but not of the EEA, is not bound by the Directive but rather has a separate multilateral agreement on the free movement with the EU and its member states. Freedom of movement between Switzerland and the other EFTA countries happens in accordance with the EFTA convention. All of these countries comprise the EU single market.
Nationals of all EU single market states holding a valid passport, passport card, or national identity card can enter, reside and work in each other's territory without a visa. If they are unable to present a valid passport or national identity card at the border, they must nonetheless be afforded every reasonable opportunity to obtain the necessary documents or have them brought to them within a reasonable period of time or corroborate or prove by other means that they are covered by the right of free movement.
However, EU single market states can refuse entry to any EU single market national on public policy, public security or public health grounds where the person presents a "genuine, present and sufficiently serious threat affecting one of the fundamental interests of society". If the person has obtained permanent residence in the country where entry is sought (a status which is normally attained after 5 years of residence), the member state can only expel the person on serious grounds of public policy or public security. Where the person has resided for 10 years or is a minor, the member state can only expel the person on imperative grounds of public security (and, in the case of minors, if expulsion is necessary in the best interests of the child, as provided for in the Convention on the Rights of the Child). Expulsion on public health grounds must relate to diseases with 'epidemic potential' which have occurred less than 3 months from the person's date of arrival in the member state where entry is sought.
Nationals of 'Annex II' countries and territories (visa waiver countries)
Since 2001, the European Union has issued a list of countries whose nationals need visas (Annex I) and a list of those who do not (Annex II). The two lists are also adopted by Bulgaria, Cyprus and Romania, even though the three countries are not yet part of the Schengen Area.
Nationals of the following countries and territories holding ordinary passports may enter the Schengen Area, Bulgaria, Cyprus and Romania without a visa, for short stays (usually 90 days within a 180-day period):[a]
|Date of visa changes|
|Rules for Annex II nationals|
|To be able to enter the Schengen Area, Bulgaria, Cyprus or Romania, the above Annex II nationals are required to:
The above Annex II nationals can enter the Schengen Area as a whole for pleasure or for business without the need to apply for a visa for a maximum of 90 days in any 180-day period (which entails considering the 180-day period preceding each day of stay). For nationals of Brazil, Mauritius, and Seychelles, the maximum visa-free stay is defined as 3 months during a 6-month period from the date of first entry, due to visa waiver agreements between the EU and each of these countries using such definition. Any time spent by an Annex II national in the Schengen Area on a long-stay visa or a residence permit does not count towards the visa exemption period limit of 90 days.
All Annex II nationals can also enter Bulgaria, Cyprus and Romania without a visa for a maximum of 90 days in a 180-day period in each of these countries. The visa-free time restrictions for each of these countries is calculated separately (as well as being separate to the Schengen Area visa-free time restriction).
According to a table compiled by the European Commission, some Schengen countries permit certain nationals to work during their visa-free stay:
Residents and holders of visas of Schengen states
Holders of a long-stay visa or residence permit issued by a Schengen state or Monaco may also travel to other Schengen states, without an additional visa, for a stay of up to 90 days in any 180-day period. Short-stay visas issued by a Schengen state are also valid for all other Schengen states unless marked otherwise.
Holders of a visa (even if limited to a specific country) or residence permit issued by a Schengen state, Monaco, Bulgaria, Cyprus or Romania may also travel to Bulgaria, Cyprus and Romania without an additional visa, for a stay of up to 90 days in any 180-day period (except nationals of Turkey and Azerbaijan travelling to Cyprus, who still need a Cypriot visa). However, visas and residence permits issued by Bulgaria, Cyprus or Romania are not valid for travel to the Schengen Area.
Family members of EU single market nationals
Individuals of any nationality who are family members of EU single market nationals and are in possession of a residence card indicating their status are exempt from the requirement to hold a visa when entering the EU single market when they are accompanying their EU single market family member or are seeking to join them.
|Rules for family members of EU single market nationals|
|An individual can enter and stay in each Schengen member state for up to 90 days without a visa if he/she:
Holders of a residence card of a family member of a Union citizen issued by a Schengen member state can travel to another Schengen member state without a visa, regardless of whether they are travelling independently, or accompanying or joining their EU/EEA/Swiss citizen family member. However, holders of a residence card of a family member of a Union citizen issued by Bulgaria, Cyprus and Ireland can travel to the Schengen Area without a visa only if they are accompanying or joining their EU/EEA/Swiss citizen family member.
In theory, a family member of an EU single market national who does not fulfil the above conditions does not have to apply for a visa in advance, and can instead obtain a visa on arrival at the border checkpoint of a Schengen country, Bulgaria, Cyprus or Romania by presenting evidence of the familial relationship.
School pupils resident in the EU single market or Annex II countries and territories
|Rules for school pupils resident in the EU single market|
|A school pupil who is not an EU single market national, but who legally resides in the EU single market, can enter the Schengen Area, Bulgaria, Cyprus and Romania without a visa for a short stay or transit if:
Even though a school pupil fulfilling all of the above conditions is exempt from having to obtain a visa to enter the Schengen Area, Bulgaria, Cyprus and Romania, he or she is nonetheless required to have a valid travel document. However, he or she is exempt from having to carry a valid travel document if:
|Rules for school pupils resident in Annex II countries and territories|
|School pupils travelling in the context of a school excursion as members of a group of school pupils accompanied by a teacher from the school in question who reside in an Annex II country/territory, but hold the nationality of an Annex I country/territory, are granted visa-free entry to Cyprus (a national collective visa is required), Germany, Malta, Poland and Slovakia. In addition, those who reside in the United Kingdom are also granted visa-free entry to Belgium, Denmark, France, Italy, Luxembourg and the Netherlands.
School pupils (of any nationality and resident in any country) who require a visa for the Schengen Area, Bulgaria, Cyprus or Romania and who are visiting for the purpose of study and/or educational training are waived the visa application fee (but are still required to submit the relevant supporting documents).
Refugees and stateless people resident in Ireland or Annex II countries and territories
|Rules for refugees and stateless people|
|According to a table compiled by the European Commission, some Schengen countries grant visa-free entry to refugees or stateless people who reside in Ireland or in an Annex II country/territory:
Holders of local border traffic permits
Currently the local border traffic regulation agreements exist with Belarus (with Latvia since 2011), Moldova (with Romania since 2010), Russia (with Norway since 2012, with Latvia since 2013 and Poland 2012-20161) and Ukraine (with Hungary and Slovakia since 2008, Poland since 2009 and Romania since 2015). Agreement between Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina is pending ratification but is applied on provisional basis.
|Rules for the holders of local border traffic permits|
|Schengen countries are authorised by virtue of the EU regulation no 1931/2006 to conclude bilateral agreements with neighbouring third countries to introduce a local border traffic permit scheme. Such permits are a type of multiple-entry visa in the form of a passport sticker or a card containing the holder's name and photo, as well as a statement that its holder is not authorised to move outside the border area and that any abuse shall be subject to penalties. The border area may include any administrative district within 30 kilometres from the external border (and, if any district extends beyond that limit, the whole district up to 50 kilometres from the border). The applicant for the permit has to show legitimate reasons to frequently cross an external land border under the local border traffic regime. The validity of the permit can be up to five years.
Holders of local border traffic permits are able to spend up to 3 months every time they enter the border area of the Schengen country which has issued the permit (this time limit is far more generous than the '90 days in a 180-day period' normally granted to third-country nationals visiting the Schengen Area).
A local border traffic permit scheme has been implemented in Hungary, Poland, Romania and Slovakia for Ukrainian nationals, is being implemented or negotiated in Poland and Lithuania regarding Belarus and Russia (Kaliningrad area), and has also been implemented in a 30 km border zone between Norway and Russia in 2012. See Schengen Area#Local border traffic at external borders.
There is also a tendency to allow more and more one-year multiple-entry visas to Russians – especially by Finland. There are plans in the EU to allow up to 5 years validity on multiple-entry visas for Russians, partly to relieve the work load at embassies.
Holders of non-ordinary passports
|Visa waivers maintained exclusively for diplomatic, official and service passports|
Holders of diplomatic and official/service passports of Annex II countries (listed above) do not need a visa, except for:
In addition, holders of diplomatic and official/service passports of the following countries do not need a visa for:
In general, a passenger who transits through one single airport in the Schengen Area, Bulgaria, Cyprus and Romania while remaining airside in the international transit area less than one day will not require a visa (transit privilege). This only applies if the transfer is possible without leaving the international transit area, which depends on the connecting flight and airport layout.
However, on 5 April 2010, common visa requirements for airport transit were introduced by the European Union. Nationals of the following 12 countries are required to hold an airport transit visa (ATV) when transiting through any airport in the Schengen Area, Bulgaria, Cyprus or Romania, even if they remain airside:
However, nationals of the above countries are exempt from airport transit visas if they hold a visa or residence permit issued by an EU single market country, Andorra, Canada, Japan, Monaco, San Marino or the United States, are family members of an EU single market national, hold a diplomatic passport, or are flight crew members.
Additionally, individual Schengen countries can impose airport transit visa requirements for nationals of other countries in urgent cases of mass influx of illegal immigrants. For example, nationals of Syria need ATVs for many but not all Schengen countries.
|Additional nationalities (with ordinary passports) required to have an ATV in some Schengen countries|
Schengen visas can be issued by any member state of the Schengen Area. Travellers must apply to the embassy or consulate of the country which they intend to visit. In cases of travellers visiting multiple countries in the Schengen Area, travellers must apply to their main destination's embassy or consulate. If the main destination cannot be determined, the traveller should apply for the visa at the embassy of the Schengen member state of first entry. Often, external service providers are contracted by certain diplomatic missions to process, collect and return visa applications.
Schengen visa applications may not be submitted more than six months prior to the proposed date of entry into the Schengen Area. All countries' embassies may require applicants to provide biometric identifiers (ten fingerprints and a digital photograph) as part of the visa application process to be stored on the Visa Information System (VIS). Biometric identifiers are not collected from children under the age of 12. Travellers applying for a Schengen visa for the first time must apply in person and are subject to an interview by the consular officers. If biometric identifiers have been provided within the past 59 months, the applicant may not be required to provide biometric identifiers again. Providing that the visa application is admissible and there are no issues with the application, a decision must be given within 15 calendar days of the date on which the application was lodged.
The standard application fee for a Schengen visa is EUR 80. There is a reduced application fee of EUR 40 for children aged 6 to 12. The visa application fee may be waived or reduced in order to 'promote cultural or sporting interests, interests in the field of foreign policy, development policy and other areas of vital public interest, or for humanitarian reasons or because of international obligations'. Where an application is submitted to an external service provider, an additional service fee may have to be paid.
Schengen visas are valid for any country in the Schengen Area unless marked otherwise. Bulgaria, Cyprus and Romania also accept Schengen visas (even if limited to a specific country), as well as visas issued by each other, for stays of up to 90 days in a 180-day period (except for nationals of Turkey and Azerbaijan travelling to Cyprus). However, visas issued by Bulgaria, Cyprus or Romania are not valid for travel to the Schengen Area.
The Schengen Convention and Schengen Borders Code permit member states to require third-country nationals to report their presence to a police station within 3 working days of crossing an internal border. This requirement varies by country and can usually be performed by hotels instead.
Since the global loosening of COVID-19 lockdown rules and the rebound in travel demand, Schengen nation embassies have come under immense criticism for long visa processing times and unavailability of visa appointments. The general lack of competition for visa outsourcing contracts, which are dominated by companies such as VFS Global, BLS International and TLScontact, has also been blamed for the poor service.
This has partly spurred the EU to further digitalise the process. It is planning to introduce a unified online visa application platform at the EU and Schengen level, replacing the separated national platforms. The platform will be built by eu-LISA and is scheduled to be introduced in 2026. A transition period for all member states to migrate to the single platform is scheduled to last until 2031. The European Parliament voted on 18 October 2023 to introduce the digital application system and for cryptographically signed visas. In almost all cases, applications for Schengen visas will be made through a single website.
Visa facilitation agreements
The EU has concluded visa facilitation agreements with several countries, which allow facilitated procedures for issuing visas for both EU citizens and nationals of partner countries. The facilitated procedures include faster visa processing times, reduced or no fees, and reduced list of supporting documents. These agreements are also linked to readmission agreements that allow the return of people irregularly residing in the EU.
|Visa facilitation agreements|
|Country||Entry into force|
|Bosnia and Herzegovina||2008|
|Russia||2007 (abandoned in 2022)|
At the border
In exceptional cases, single-entry Schengen visas valid for up to 15 days may be issued on arrival at the border. These visas are reserved for individuals who can prove that they were unable to apply for a visa in advance due to time constraints arising out of 'unforeseeable' and 'imperative' reasons as long as they fulfil the regular criteria for the issuing of a Schengen visa. However, if the individual requesting a Schengen visa at the border falls within a category of people for which it is necessary to consult one or more of the central authorities of other Schengen States, they may only be issued a visa at the border in exceptional cases on humanitarian grounds, on grounds of national interest or on account of international obligations (such as the death or sudden serious illness of a close relative or of another close person). In 2017, about 89,000 Schengen visas were issued to travellers on arrival at the border. People trying this way to travel to the Schengen Area can be denied boarding by the airline because of the carrier's responsibility, which penalises airlines if they carry passengers who do not have the correct documentation.
Visas with limited territorial validity
In exceptional cases, Schengen states may issue visas with limited territorial validity (LTV), either specifically naming the state(s) for which it is valid or, inversely, the state(s) for which it is not valid. Holders of LTV visas are only permitted to travel to Schengen states for which it is valid, as well as to Bulgaria, Cyprus and Romania.
According to the Schengen Visa Code, member states may issue LTV visas when a consulate deems it justifiable to overcome the three-month limitation in six months, when a member state considers it necessary due to pressing circumstances to derogate from entry conditions as set by Schengen Borders Code, to overcome objections of other member states, or in cases of urgency.
Unrecognised travel documents
Schengen visas are only issued on travel documents of UN member states, Kosovo, Palestine, Taiwan, Vatican City, the Order of Malta, and certain international organisations (Council of Europe, EU, NATO, Red Cross, UN). Belgium and France also accept the passport of Somaliland. Passports of Abkhazia, Artsakh, Northern Cyprus, South Ossetia, Transnistria and Western Sahara are not accepted.
This section needs to be updated.(September 2023)
Most Schengen visas were issued to applicants located in the countries listed below (listed if more than 100,000 visas issued in most recent year). Applicants were not necessarily nationals of these countries.
|Visas issued||Refusal rate||Share of multiple-entry visas||Visas issued||Refusal rate||Share of multiple-entry visas||Visas issued||Refusal rate||Share of multiple-entry visas||Visas issued||Refusal rate||Share of multiple-entry visas|
|United Arab Emirates||174,059||17.9%||55.5%||167,685||16.5%||54.3%||172,822||12.1%||57.9%||192,812||12.0%||46.2%|
|Applications||Visas issued||Refusal rate||Applications||Visas issued||Refusal rate||Applications||Visas issued||Refusal rate||Applications||Visas issued||Refusal rate|
- Armenia – In 2018, EU and Armenian officials announced plans for visa liberalisation following the signing of a new Comprehensive and Enhanced Partnership Agreement.
- Bahrain Kuwait Oman Qatar Saudi Arabia – In 2022, the EU Council proposed a visa exemption for nationals of all countries of the Gulf Cooperation Council that were not yet exempt.
- Ecuador – In 2022, the EU Parliament proposed a visa exemption for nationals of Ecuador.
- Guyana – In July 2023, Guyanese president Irfaan Ali stated that at least five EU countries had agreed to sponsor a proposal for a visa exemption for nationals of Guyana.
- Kosovo – In April 2023, the EU approved the visa exemption for nationals of Kosovo, effective from 1 January 2024.
- Vanuatu – A visa waiver agreement between the EU and Vanuatu was suspended on 4 May 2022 and set to resume on 4 August 2024.
|Proposals before 2016|
In 2017, the EU adopted a regulation to establish an Entry/Exit System (EES) to record electronically the entry and exit of third-country nationals to and from the Schengen Area in a central database, replacing the manual stamping of passports. The goals are to increase automation of border control and to identify overstayers. As of February 2023, EES is expected to enter into operation in 2024.
The EU also plans to establish a Registered Traveller Programme that would allow pre-screened travellers easier access.
The European Travel Information and Authorisation System (ETIAS) is a planned electronic authorisation system for visa-exempt visitors to travel to the Schengen Area and to other EU member states, except Ireland, which remains in the Common Travel Area with the United Kingdom and other British Islands.
The implementation of ETIAS has been postponed several times. As of 2023, it is expected to become operational in 2025, with 6-month grace period to allow travellers and staff to become familiar with the new system. Prospective visitors will need to complete an online application and a €7 fee must be paid by those aged 18 to 70. ETIAS is expected to process the vast majority of applications automatically by searching in electronic databases and then provide an immediate response but, in some limited cases, it may take up to 30 days.
Single visa application platform
The European Commission is planning to introduce a single online visa application platform at the EU level, replacing the separated national platforms. The platform will be built by eu-LISA and is scheduled to be introduced in 2026. A transition period for all member states to migrate to the single platform is scheduled to last until 2031. The proposal was approved by the European Parliament Committee on Civil Liberties, Justice and Home Affairs in February 2023 by a margin of 34–5. The Parliament negotiated with the European Council on the final wording and implementation. On 13 June 2023, both parties agreed on a draft regulation, to be agreed by the Member States.
The EU requires that all Annex II countries and territories provide visa-free access for 90 days or longer to nationals of all Schengen states and other EU countries implementing the common visa rules (Bulgaria, Cyprus and Romania, but not Ireland). If an Annex II country is found to not provide full reciprocity, the EU may decide to suspend the visa exemption for certain categories or later all nationals of that country.
Since the adoption of this policy, full reciprocity has been achieved with all Annex II countries except the United States, which, as of 2023[update], requires visas from nationals of Bulgaria, Cyprus and Romania. In November 2014, the Bulgarian government announced that it would not ratify the Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership unless the United States lifted visa requirements for its nationals. Since the United States failed to lift the requirements, on 3 March 2017 the European Parliament approved a non-binding resolution calling on the European Commission to revoke the visa-free travel for US nationals to the Schengen Area.
Some Annex II countries and territories also impose minor restrictions on nationals of EU or Schengen states that are not considered a breach of reciprocity by the EU. Australia, Canada, New Zealand, South Korea and the United States require an electronic authorisation before travel, similar to the EU's own planned ETIAS. Canada also requires a visa from nationals of Romania not holding electronic passports. Israel requires a visa from nationals of Germany born before 1928, which is issued free of charge if they were not involved with the Nazi Party. Montserrat requires an electronic visa from nationals of Croatia. The United States limits the validity of its electronic authorisation for nationals of Hungary to one year and a single use, and requires a visa for those born outside Hungary.
Stays exceeding 90 days
In general, third-country nationals staying more than 90 days in the Schengen Area as a whole or in Bulgaria, Cyprus or Romania require either a long-stay visa for less than a year or a residence permit for longer periods.
Although long-stay visas issued by these countries have a uniform design, the procedures and conditions for issuing them are usually determined by each individual country. For example, some Schengen countries require applications for long-stay visas to be made in the applicant's home country, while other Schengen countries permit them after arrival. Some procedures may vary depending on the applicant's country as well. In some situations, such as for study, the procedures and conditions for long-stay visas have been harmonised among all issuing states. Each country is also free to establish its own conditions for residence permits.
Third-country nationals who are long-term residents of an EU or Schengen state (except Ireland and Denmark) may also acquire the right to move to and settle in another of these states without losing their legal status and social benefits. The Van Der Elst visa rule allows third-country nationals employed in the EU single market to work temporarily in another EU single market country for the same employer under certain conditions.
Bilateral visa waivers
Some third-country nationals are permitted to stay in the Schengen Area for more than 90 days without the need to apply for a long-stay visa. For example, France does not require nationals of the European microstates to apply for a long-stay visa.
Nationals of some 'Annex II' countries (such as Australia, Canada, Malaysia, New Zealand, Singapore and the United States) that had entered into visa waiver agreements with individual Schengen states before they implemented the Schengen agreement are permitted to stay for an additional period of time, above and beyond the typical maximum stay limit of 90 days within 180 days imposed on visa-free 'Annex II' nationals. In such instances, the period of additional stay depends on the specific visa waiver agreement, and only applies if the 'Annex II' national has used up their maximum stay limit as provided for under the Schengen Area.
|Legacy visa waiver agreements for Annex II nationals|
|Australian and New Zealand citizens enjoy a more liberal visa policy, with both governments having signed bilateral visa agreements with individual Schengen countries. Australian citizens can spend up to 90 days in each of Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Iceland, Italy, Luxembourg, The Netherlands, Norway, and Sweden without reference to time spent in other Schengen signatory states. New Zealand citizens can spend up to 90 days in each of Austria, Belgium, Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Iceland, Italy, Luxembourg, The Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Spain, Sweden and Switzerland (as well as Hungary if visiting it as the final Schengen destination) without reference to time spent in other Schengen signatory states, but if travelling to other Schengen countries the 90 days in any 180-day period time limit applies.
In addition, above the framework of the Schengen visa exemption of 90 days in any 180-day period, Argentine, Chilean, Costa Rican, Israeli, Malaysian, South Korean and Uruguayan nationals are permitted to spend an extra 3 months per 6-month period visa-free in the Czech Republic, regardless of time spent in other Schengen countries. Separately, Singaporean nationals are permitted to spend an additional 1 month visa-free in Czechia. Further, the old method of calculating the length of the visa-free stay (i.e. 3 months within 6 months instead of 90 days in any 180-day period) still applies to nationals of Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Panama and Paraguay in the Czech Republic.
Similarly, above the framework of the Schengen visa exemption of 90 days in any 180-day period, Canadian, Chilean, Israeli, Japanese, Malaysian, Singaporean, South Korean and United States nationals are permitted to spend an extra period of 3 months visa-free in Denmark.
In addition to the Schengen visa exemption of 90 days in any 180-day period, Argentine, Australian, Brazilian, Bruneian, Canadian, Chilean, Costa Rican, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduran, Israeli, Japanese, Malaysian, Mexican, Nicaraguan, Panamanian, Paraguayan, Singaporean, South Korean, United States, Uruguayan and Venezuelan nationals are permitted to spend an extra period of 3 months visa-free in Norway.
Yet further, above the framework of the Schengen visa exemption of 90 days in any 180-day period, Argentine, Chilean, Costa Rican, Honduran, Israeli, Japanese, Malaysian, Mexican, Nicaraguan, Panamanian, Singaporean, South Korean, United States and Uruguayan nationals are permitted to spend an extra period of 3 months visa-free in Poland.
Means of subsistence
In addition to general requirements, Schengen states also set entry conditions for foreign nationals of countries outside the EU single market called the "reference amounts required for the crossing of the external border fixed by national authorities" regarding means of subsistence during their stay.
|Means of subsistence requirements|
|Belgium||€45 per day for aliens staying with a private individual; €95 per day for aliens staying at a hotel.|
|Bulgaria||€50 per day; minimum €500 per stay|
|Croatia||€100 per day; but €50 for aliens possessing a certified guarantee letter, a proof of paid travel arrangements, etc.|
|Czech Republic||€40 per day up to 30 days|
|Denmark||DKK 350 per day|
|Estonia||€130.80 per day|
|Finland||€30 per day|
|France||€120 per day if holding no proof of accommodation; €65 per day if staying at a hotel; €32.50 per day if holding proof of accommodation.|
|Germany||€45 per day in the form of cash, credit cards and cheques but alternatively a letter of guarantee from the host.|
|Greece||€50 per day; minimum total amount of €300 for a stay of up to 5 days reduced by 50% for minors|
|Hungary||HUF 10,000 per entry or letter of invitation, confirmation of accommodation or any other credible proof.|
|Iceland||ISK 8,000 per day + ISK 40,000 per each entry|
|Italy||€269.60 fixed sum for stays up to 5 days (€212.81 per person for groups of two and more); 6–10 days: €44.93 per day (€26.33); 11–20 days: €51.64 fixed sum + €36.67 per day (€25.82 + €22.21); 20+ days €206.58 fixed sum + €27.89 per day (€118.79 + €17.04).|
|Latvia||€14 per day or certified invitation letter|
|Liechtenstein||CHF 100 per day; CHF 30 for students|
|Lithuania||€40 per day|
|Luxembourg||€67 per day|
|Malta||€48 per day|
|Netherlands||€55 per day|
|Norway||NOK 500 per day (indicative for those not staying with friends or relatives)|
|Poland||PLN 300 for stay not exceeding 4 days; PLN 75 per day for stay exceeding 4 days|
|Portugal||€40 per day + €75 per entry|
|Romania||€50 per day; minimum €500 per stay|
|Slovakia||€56 per day (€30 for accommodation, €4 for breakfast, €7.5 for lunch, €7.5 for dinner, €7 for spending) or a certified invitation letter|
|Slovenia||€70; €35 for minors accompanied by parents|
|Spain||€900 minimum amount (for stays of up to 9 days); €100 per day in excess of 9 days.|
|Sweden||SEK 450 per day. Needed proof is a copy of three months of bank statements, or of two years of income tax declaration, if there is no official sponsor with proof of that.|
|Switzerland||CHF 100 per day; CHF 30 for students|
|Authorities of Austria and Cyprus decide on a case-by-case basis.
The Netherlands exempts visitors from Australia, Canada, Japan, New Zealand, South Korea, United States and Vatican City from holding proof of sufficient funds and return tickets. Romania requires visitors from Moldova, Montenegro, North Macedonia, Russia, Serbia and Ukraine to hold a medical insurance covering the period of stay. Romania also exempts visitors from Australia, Canada, South Korea and the United States from holding proof of sufficient funds and return tickets.
Visa policies of Ireland and overseas territories
Ireland has an independent visa policy. It grants visa-free entry to all Schengen Annex II nationalities, except for Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Colombia, East Timor, Georgia, Marshall Islands, Mauritius, Micronesia, Moldova, Montenegro, North Macedonia, Palau, Peru, Serbia and Venezuela. It also grants visa-free entry to several additional countries – Belize, Bolivia, Botswana, Eswatini, Fiji, Guyana, Lesotho, Maldives, Nauru and South Africa. Visas for Ireland and for the Schengen Area are not valid for each other. Ireland is part of the Common Travel Area and maintains freedom of movement with the United Kingdom in addition to with EU and Schengen countries.
The British overseas territory of Akrotiri and Dhekelia has open borders with Cyprus and follows the visa policy of the Schengen Area, but requires permits for stays longer than 28 days per 12-month period. These rules were not affected by Brexit.
The Faroe Islands and Greenland have the same list of nationalities exempt from visas as the Schengen Area, and arrivals from the Schengen Area are not subject to border checks. However, Schengen visas are not valid there, so nationalities that are not exempt need separate visas for these territories. These regulations are due to a special agreement under the Nordic Passport Union.
Svalbard is an entirely visa-free zone. Travellers to and from Svalbard must present a passport or national ID card. Travellers who need a visa for the Schengen Area must have such visa if they travel to Svalbard via mainland Norway, and this must be a double-entry visa if they also return from Svalbard via mainland Norway.
Visa policies of candidate and applicant states
Countries applying to join the European Union are obliged to adopt the EU's visa policy no later than three months before they formally join the Union. Schengen countries give visa-free access to nationals of all EU candidate and applicant states except Kosovo and Turkey. Candidate states Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Moldova, Montenegro and North Macedonia, and applicant state Kosovo maintain similar visa policies as the Schengen Area, with some notable exceptions regarding countries that were added to the Schengen Annex II more recently and additional nationalities not listed in Annex II. Candidate states Serbia, Turkey and Ukraine, and applicant state Georgia require visas from some nationalities that have always been in Annex II and also maintain visa exemptions for some additional nationalities not in Annex II. Turkey also requires visas from nationals of EU member state Cyprus.
Validity for other countries
Schengen visas that are valid for further travel are accepted as substitute visas for national visas in several other countries.
|Validity of Schengen visas for other countries|
- European Travel Information and Authorisation System
- Common Travel Area
- Central America-4 Border Control Agreement
- Foreign relations of the European Union
- Long-term resident (European Union)
- Trans-Tasman Travel Arrangement
- Visa Information System
- Visa policy of Ireland
- Visa policy of Northern Cyprus
- Visa policies of Overseas France
- Visa policy of the Kingdom of the Netherlands in the Caribbean
- Visa policy of Svalbard
- Visa requirements for European Union citizens
- Polish cash-for-visa scandal
- A visa waiver agreement with Vanuatu came into force on 28 May 2015, but was suspended from 4 May 2022 for holders of passports of Vanuatu issued from 25 May 2015. Although the visa waiver could still apply to passports issued before that date, such passports had a validity of five years so they had already expired. The visa waiver agreement was fully suspended from 4 February 2023 for all passports.
- For holders of biometric passports.
- For holders of a Hong Kong Special Administrative Region passport.
- For holders of a Macau Special Administrative Region passport.
- Except for holders of passports issued by the Serbian Coordination Directorate.
- For holders of passports containing an identity card number.
- Including all classes of British nationality.
- British citizens (except those connected only to the Crown dependencies), British subjects with right of abode in the United Kingdom, and British Overseas Territories citizens of Gibraltar.
- Österreich, Außenministerium der Republik. "Schengen Visa – BMEIA, Außenministerium Österreich". Archived from the original on 17 November 2015. Retrieved 6 May 2015.
- "Visa policy". European Commission. Archived from the original on 10 May 2016. Retrieved 6 April 2023.
- Directive 2004/38/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 29 April 2004 on the right of citizens of the Union and their family members to move and reside freely within the territory of the Member States
- Summary of the Directive 2004/38/EC "Right of Union citizens and their family members to move and reside freely within the territory of the Member States". 2 May 2006. Retrieved 17 December 2008.
- Decision of the EEA Joint Committee No 158/2007 of 7 December 2007 amending Annex V (Free movement of workers) and Annex VIII (Right of establishment) to the EEA Agreement
- "Short Overview of the EFTA Convention". Retrieved 29 November 2017.
- Article 6.3.2 of the Practical Handbook for Border Guards (C (2006) 5186)
- Judgement of the European Court of Justice of 17 February 2005, Case C 215/03, Salah Oulane vs. Minister voor Vreemdelingenzaken en Integratie, ECLI:EU:C:2005:95
- Article 27 of Directive 2004/38/EC (Directive 2004/38/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 29 April 2004 on the right of citizens of the Union and their family members to move and reside freely within the territory of the Member States).
- Article 28 of Directive 2004/38/EC (Directive 2004/38/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 29 April 2004 on the right of citizens of the Union and their family members to move and reside freely within the territory of the Member States).
- Article 29 of Directive 2004/38/EC (Directive 2004/38/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 29 April 2004 on the right of citizens of the Union and their family members to move and reside freely within the territory of the Member States).
- Regulation (EU) 2018/1806 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 14 November 2018 listing the third countries whose nationals must be in possession of visas when crossing the external borders and those whose nationals are exempt from that requirement, pp. 39–58
- Visa for Bulgaria, Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Bulgaria.
- Visa policy, Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Cyprus.
- Do I need a visa?, Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Romania.
- "Lists of third countries whose nationals must be in possession of a visa when crossing the external borders and of those whose nationals are exempt from that requirement" (PDF).
- Commission Implementing Regulation (EU) 2022/693 of 27 April 2022 on the temporary suspension of the visa exemption for nationals of Vanuatu, EUR-Lex.
- "FAQ (Frequently Asked Questions)". Government of Vanuatu. 2015. Archived from the original on 7 August 2022.
- No More Passport, Daily Post, 10 May 2018.
- Upgraded Passport Launched, Daily Post, 24 July 2019.
- Commission Delegated Regulation (EU) 2023/222 of 1 December 2022 on the temporary suspension of the visa exemption for all nationals of Vanuatu, EUR-Lex.
- Regulation (EU) 2023/850 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 19 April 2023 amending Regulation (EU) 2018/1806 listing the third countries whose nationals must be in possession of visas when crossing the external borders and those whose nationals are exempt from that requirement (Kosovo (This designation is without prejudice to positions on status, and is in line with UNSCR 1244/1999 and the ICJ Opinion on the Kosovo declaration of independence.)), EUR-Lex, 25 April 2023. The regulation specifies that the visa exemption applies from the date when ETIAS starts operations or from 1 January 2024, whichever comes first. ETIAS is expected to start operations in 2024. "Frequently asked questions about ETIAS". European Union.
- Council Regulation (EC) No 2317/95 of 25 September 1995 determining the third countries whose nationals must be in possession of visas when crossing the external borders of the Member Statesd
- Council Regulation (EC) No 539/2001 of 15 March 2001 listing the third countries whose nationals must be in possession of visas when crossing the external borders and those whose nationals are exempt from that requirement
- Council Regulation (EC) No 2414/2001 of 7 December 2001 amending Regulation (EC) No 539/2001 listing the third countries whose nationals must be in possession of visas when crossing the external borders of Member States and those whose nationals are exempt from that requirement
- Council Regulation (EC) No 1932/2006 of 21 December 2006 amending Regulation (EC) No 539/2001 listing the third countries whose nationals must be in possession of visas when crossing the external borders and those whose nationals are exempt from that requirement
- Ratified by the European Parliament (EP) on 15 December 2015
- Ratified by the EP on 15 December 2015
- Ratified by the EP on 8 June 2016
- Ratified by the EP on 5 July 2016
- Ratified by the EP on 1 December 2016
- The Schengen acquis - Decision of the Executive Committee of 15 December 1997 on the harmonisation of visa policy (SCH/Com-ex (97) 32)
- The Schengen acquis - Decision of the Executive Committee of 28 April 1999 on the definitive versions of the Common Manual and the Common Consular Instructions (SCH/Com-ex (99) 13)
- Council Regulation (EC) No 453/2003 of 6 March 2003 amending Regulation (EC) No 539/2001 listing the third countries whose nationals must be in possession of visas when crossing the external borders and those whose nationals are exempt from that requirement
- Corrigendum to Council Regulation (EC) No 1932/2006 of 21 December 2006 amending Regulation (EC) No 539/2001 listing the third countries whose nationals must be in possession of visas when crossing the external borders and those whose nationals are exempt from that requirement
- Article 6 of the Schengen Borders Code, pp. 1–52
- Practical Handbook for Border Guards, Part II, Section I, Point 3.1 C (2019) 7131
- Article 1(5)(b) of Regulation (EU) No 610/2013 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 26 June 2013 amending Regulation (EC) No 562/2006 of the European Parliament and of the Council establishing a Community Code on the rules governing the movement of persons across borders (Schengen Borders Code), the Convention implementing the Schengen Agreement, Council Regulations (EC) No 1683/95 and (EC) No 539/2001 and Regulations (EC) No 767/2008 and (EC) No 810/2009 of the European Parliament and of the Council. Prior to Regulation (EU) No 610/2013, in response to an Ad-hoc Query by the European Migration Network), the national agencies responsible for border control in 9 Member States confirmed that Annex II nationals holding residence permits or long-stay visas would be entitled to stay for a further period of three months without a visa upon the expiration of the residence permit/long-stay visa. However, following the entry in force of Article 1(5)(b) of Regulation (EU) No 610/2013 on 18 October 2013, all Annex II nationals holding residence permits or long-stay visas issued by a Schengen member state are entitled automatically to stay for a further period of three months without a visa upon the expiration of the residence permit/long-stay visa (the conditions of a visa-free stay would apply to this period of three months after the expiration of the residence permit/long-stay visa, rather than the conditions of stay associated with the residence permit/long-stay visa).
- "Border crossing". 6 December 2016.
- Agreement between the European Union and Antigua and Barbuda amending the Agreement between the European Community and Antigua and Barbuda on the short-stay visa waiver}
- Agreement between the European Union and the Commonwealth of the Bahamas amending the Agreement between the European Community and the Commonwealth of the Bahamas on the short-stay visa waiver
- Agreement between the European Union and Barbados amending the Agreement between the European Community and Barbados on the short-stay visa waiver
- Agreement between the European Union and the Federative Republic of Brazil amending the Agreement Between the European Union and the Federative Republic of Brazil on short-stay visa waiver for holders of ordinary passports
- Agreement between the European Union and the Republic of Mauritius amending the Agreement between the European Community and the Republic of Mauritius on the short-stay visa waiver
- Agreement between the European Union and the Federation of Saint Kitts and Nevis amending the Agreement between the European Community and the Federation of Saint Kitts and Nevis on the short-stay visa waiver
- Agreement between the European Union and the Republic of Seychelles amending the Agreement between the European Community and the Republic of Seychelles on the short-stay visa waiver
- Information on national derogations from the visa requirement, Directorate-General for Migration and Home Affairs, 12 May 2022.
- Frequently asked questions, European Union External Action Service.
- Residence Permit, Government of Monaco, 5 October 2012.
- Travelling in the EU / Schengen, Ministry of the Interior of the Czech Republic, 11 December 2017.
- Practical Handbook for Border Guards, European Commission, 28 October 2022. Page 80, footnote 83, and page 91, paragraph 9.
- Articles 3(1) and 5(2) of the Directive 2004/38/EC (Directive 2004/38/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 29 April 2004 on the right of citizens of the Union and their family members to move and reside freely within the territory of the Member States).
- "Non-EU family members".
- Practical Handbook for Border Guards, Part II, Section I, Points 2.1.2 and 2.8 (C (2019) 7131, 8 October 2019)
- Practical Handbook for Border Guards, Part II, Section I, Point 2.8 (C (2019) 7131, 8 October 2019, p. 22)
- Administrator. "embassy - Visas".
- "High Commission of the Republic of Cyprus in London – Visa Information". Archived from the original on 16 June 2012. Retrieved 7 July 2012.
- "V. Do I need a visa? - Ministry of Foreign Affairs".
- 94/795/JHA: Council Decision of 30 November 1994 on a joint action adopted by the Council on the basis of Article K.3.2.b of the Treaty on European Union concerning travel facilities for school pupils from third countries resident in a Member State
- Article 16 of the Visa Code (Regulation (EC) No 810/2009), p. 1–58
- Tensions are high, but no plans to terminate visa-free travel, The Barents Observer, 7 April 2022.
- "List of notifications of bilateral agreements under Article 19 of Local Border Traffic Regulation" (PDF).
- "Польша временно останавливает действие соглашения о местном приграничном передвижении". Archived from the original on 4 July 2016. Retrieved 1 July 2016.
- "Польша не возобновила пограничное движение с Калининградом - ЦФО - РИА ФедералПресс". 3 August 2016.
- Regulation (EC) No 1931/2006 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 20 December 2006
- Judgement of the European Court of Justice of 21 March 2013, Case C‑254/11, Szabolcs-Szatmár-Bereg Megyei Rendőrkapitányság Záhony Határrendészeti Kirendeltsége v Oskar Shomodi, ECLI:EU:C:2013:182, see Press release
- Do you need a visa?, Government of Iceland.
- Persons who do not need a visa to visit Norway (visa-free), Norwegian Directorate of Immigration.
- Overview of ID and visa provisions according to nationality, State Secretariat for Migration of Switzerland, 4 May 2022.
- "Mongolian citizens are exempted from visa to the following countries/regions". Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Mongolia. August 2022.
- Countries requiring or not requiring a visa, Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Greece, 18 January 2022.
- "FAQ - I'm planning a trip by air and have to transit at a German airport. Do I need a visa?". German Federal Foreign Office. Retrieved 13 December 2019.
The vast majority of foreign travellers benefit from the "transit privilege" - if during a stopover at a German airport, you do not leave the International Airport Area and if the destination is not in a Schengen country, you do not need a transit visa.
- Article 3 and Annex IV of the Visa Code (Regulation (EC) No 810/2009), p. 1–58
- Common list of third countries listed in Annex I to Regulation (EC) no 539/2001, whose nationals are required to be in possession of an airport transit visa when passing through the international transit area of airports situated on the territory of the Member States, Directorate-General for Migration and Home Affairs of the European Union.
- Article 3(5) of the Visa Code () (Regulation (EC) No 810/2009), p. 1–58
- Article 3(2) of the Visa Code (Regulation (EC) No 810/2009), p. 1–58
- List of third countries whose nationals are required to be in possession of an airport transit visa when passing through the international transit area of airports situated on the territory of one/some Member States, European Commission.
- Airport transit visa, Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Romania.
- Article 12(2) of the Schengen Convention.
- New EU visa rules – Questions and answers, European Commission, 31 January 2020.
- Article 13 of the Visa Code (Regulation (EC) No 810/2009), p. 1–58])
- Article 23 of the Visa Code (Regulation (EC) No 810/2009), p. 1–58)
- Article 16 of the Schengen Visa Code, as amended by Regulation (EU) 2019/1155 (OJ L 188, 12 July 2019, p. 25–54)
- Article 22 of the Schengen Convention, p. 19–62 and Article 23 of the Schengen Borders Code (Regulation (EU) 2016/399, pp. 1–52).
- Delay in Schengen visa issuances riles MEA, The Economic Times, 20 July 2022.
- Travellers Face Financial Losses as Processing Time for Schengen Visa Increases, Schengen Visa Info, 15 June 2022.
- Portuguese visa application “monopoly”, The Portugal News, 22 October 2022.
- Questions and Answers – Visa Digitalisation: Visa travel to the EU becomes easier, European Commission, 27 April 2022.
- "Schengen Visas to Become More Secure & Accessible as MEPs Adopt Digital Visas". 19 October 2023.
- Anonymous (6 December 2016). "Visa policy - Migration and Home Affairs - European Commission".
- "Cooperation with non-EU countries on readmission of irregular migrants".
- Visa Facilitation and Readmission: the European Union and Belarus sign agreements
- "Официально. С 1 июля "шенген" для белорусов – по 35 евро" (in Russian). Tut.By. 29 May 2020.
- "EU foreign ministers agree to scrap Russia visa deal but stop short of full tourist ban". Euronews. 31 August 2022. Retrieved 3 September 2022.
- Article 7.2 of the Practical Handbook for Border Guards (C (2006) 5186)
- Article 7.5 of the Practical Handbook for Border Guards (C (2006) 5186)
- "Schengen visa statistics, 2017".
- Article 25 of the Visa Code (Regulation (EC) No 810/2009, pp. 1–58])
- Travel documents issued by third countries and territorial entities, Directorate-General for Migration and Home Affairs, 17 July 2018.
- Travel documents issued by member states, Directorate-General for Migration and Home Affairs, 27 April 2018.
- Travel documents issued by international organisations and other entities subject to international law, Directorate-General for Migration and Home Affairs, 27 April 2018.
- Travel: Countries that accept Somaliland passport, Maalmaha News, 2 April 2018.
- Information concerning the non-exhaustive list of known fantasy and camouflage passports, as stipulated by Article 6 of the Decision no. 1105/2011/EU, Directorate-General for Migration and Home Affairs, 15 March 2017.
- "Schengen visa statistics, 2015".
- "Schengen visa statistics, 2016".
- "Schengen visa statistics, 2018".
- "Armenia starts visa liberalization dialogue with EU member states". Public Radio of Armenia. 18 January 2019. Retrieved 11 October 2020.
- Council conclusions on a strategic partnership with the Gulf, Council of the European Union, 20 June 2022.
- "EP: EU visa freedom for citizens of Kuwait, Qatar, Oman and Ecuador". European Interest. 1 December 2022.
- Five EU countries to sponsor Guyana's bid for Schengen visa-free travel, Office of the President of Guyana, 21 July 2023.
- "Indonesian government proposes free Schengen visa".
- "France to support RI's Schengen visa-free proposal". The Jakarta Post.
- Post, The Jakarta. "Kalla meets Luxembourg PM, Dutch Queen".
- "Indonesia, Finland to explore renewable energy cooperation".
- Saleh, Yudhistira Amran. "Hongaria Dukung Indonesia Dapatkan Bebas Visa Schengen".
- "Dubes Harapkan Jokowi Kunjungi Swiss – Waspada Online". 26 November 2015.
- "Indonesia usul bebas Visa Schengen untuk WNI - ANTARA News". 5 November 2015.
- Post, The Jakarta. "Indonesia proposes Schengen visa waiver".
- VIVA.co.id, PT. VIVA MEDIA BARU - (25 February 2016). "Indonesia Klaim Direstui UE Dapat Bebas Visa Schengen".
- Post, The Jakarta. "RI visa waiver on the cards, says envoy".
- "European Union opens doors to 16 island nations". The Times of India. 28 February 2014.
- "EU suspends talks on visa-free travel with Russia and threatens further sanctions". Euronews. 5 March 2014. Archived from the original on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 1 November 2015.
- "European Commission opens way for decision by June on visa-free travel for citizens of Turkey". European Commission. 4 May 2016. Retrieved 7 May 2016.
- Regulation (EU) 2017/2226 of the European Parliament and of the Council, of 30 November 2017
- Enhanced Security with the Entry/Exit System, EU-LISA.
- "Entry/Exit System (EES) general information". European Union. Retrieved 26 February 2023.
- Proposal for a Regulation of the European Parliament and of the Council establishing a Registered Traveller Programme, European Commission, 2013.
- "Security union: A European Travel Information and Authorisation System - Questions & answers". European Commission. 5 July 2018. Retrieved 14 August 2021.
- "Will you need a visa to visit Ireland in 2021?". IrishCentral. 8 March 2019. Retrieved 15 August 2021.
- "Frequently asked questions about ETIAS". European Union.
- Regulation (EU) 2018/1240 of the European Parliament and of the Council
- "ETIAS, what it means for travellers; what it means for Frontex". Frontex. Retrieved 14 August 2021.
- Report - A9-0025/2023, European Parliament, 7 February 2023.
- Legislative Train Schedule - Digitalisation of visa procedures, European Parliament.
- Schengen visa: Council agrees negotiating mandate on the digitalisation of the visa procedure, European Council.
- Schengen visa: Political agreement on digitalisation of visa application
- State of play and way forward as regards the situation of non-reciprocity in the area of visa policy, European Commission, 19 December 2018.
- "Bulgaria Will Not Sign TTIP Unless US Lifts Visa Requirements - Minister - Novinite.com - Sofia News Agency".
- Sharman, Jon (3 March 2016). "European Parliament votes to end visa-free travel for Americans". The Independent. Retrieved 4 March 2017.
- "Citizens of Romania now need a valid electronic passport for visa-free travel to Canada". Government of Canada. 5 June 2018. Retrieved 15 November 2019.
- Consular services, Israeli Embassy in Germany.
- German nationals who were born before 1928, Israeli Embassy in Germany. (in German)
- Statement, Israeli Embassy in Germany. (in German)
- Countries requiring a visa, Government of Montserrat.
- Frequently asked questions, Electronic System for Travel Authorization, U.S. Customs and Border Protection.
- Information on conditions of entry and stay in the United States, Consular Services of Hungary (in Hungarian).
- Hungarian citizens abroad can no longer travel to the United States without a visa, Krónika Online, January 20, 2022 (in Hungarian).
- "Overview of visa requirements/exemptions for entry into the Federal Republic of Germany".
- "Consulate-General of the Republic of Hungary in New Zealand: General information for entering Hungary, a member of the Schengen Area".
- Zaken, Ministerie van Buitenlandse (2 August 2016). "Visas - Topic - Government.nl".
- "Federal Office of Migration: List 1: Overview of ID and visa provisions according to nationality (version of 4 December 2011)" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 14 February 2012. Retrieved 30 January 2012.
- Council Directive 2004/114/EC of 13 December 2004 on the conditions of admission of third-country nationals for the purposes of studies, pupil exchange, unremunerated training or voluntary service
- Report from the Commission to the European Parliament and the Council on the application of Directive 2004/114/EC
- Council Directive 2003/109/EC concerning the status of third-country nationals who are long-term residents, p.44
- "Accueil Particuliers - service-public.fr". Archived from the original on 26 January 2013. Retrieved 12 March 2013.
- "Entering the Czech Republic, duties, length of stay - Ministry of the interior of the Czech Republic".
- "Europe entry requirements: Schengen area". smartraveller.gov.au. Retrieved 28 July 2019.
- "European Union - EEAS (European External Action Service) - Travelling to the EU". Archived from the original on 18 January 2016.
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- "Visa for New Zealand passport holders". Embassy of Switzerland in Wellington. 7 November 2017. Archived from the original on 13 April 2020. Retrieved 13 April 2020.
- "Visa". Embassy of Italy in Wellington. Archived from the original on 13 April 2020. Retrieved 13 April 2020.
- "Fact Sheet: Austria-New Zealand Bilateral Agreement on Visa Free Short Stays" (PDF). Austrian Embassy in Canberra. Archived from the original (PDF) on 13 April 2020. Retrieved 13 April 2020.
- "Visa". Embassy of Hungary in Wellington. Archived from the original on 13 April 2020. Retrieved 13 April 2020.
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- "Do I need a visa". Urząd do Spraw Cudzoziemców (Office for Foreigners). Archived from the original on 16 February 2020. Retrieved 13 April 2020.
- See The Council of the European Union: Replies to the questionnaire on the Presidency project for a system of electronic recording of entry and exit dates of third-country nationals in the Schengen area (PDF), pg 43.
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- Article 19(5) of the Ordinance on the terms and the procedure for the issuing of visas, adopted by Council of Ministers Decree No 97/11.05.2002
- Act No 326/1999 Sb. on Residence of Aliens in the Territory of the Czech Republic and Amendments of Some Acts
- Aliens' Act (301/2004, paragraph 11)
- Minimum wage equivalent.
- Article 15(2) of the Residence Act of 30 July 2004
- Common Ministerial Decision No 3021/22/10- f of 24 December 2007
- Decree No 25/2001. (XI. 21.) of the Minister of Interior
- Article 4 of the Act No 48/2002 Coll. on Stay of Aliens and on amendment of certain acts as amended
- Instructions on refusing entry to aliens, conditions for issuing visas at border crossings, conditions for issuing visas for humanitarian reasons and procedure for revoking visas (Official Gazette of the Republic of Slovenia, No. 2/01)
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- Protocol relating to the Sovereign Base Areas of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland in Cyprus, Agreement on the withdrawal of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland from the European Union and the European Atomic Energy Community2019/C 384 I/01
- Visa and Work Permits, Government of the Faroe Islands.
- Schengen and Tourists, Government of Greenland.
- "How to travel to Svalbard". Visit Svalbard. Retrieved 30 November 2020.
- "Visas and immigration". Governor of Svalbard. Retrieved 30 November 2020.
- "Russians, Ukrainians, Turks need visa for Croatia".
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- Países y regiones que No requieren visa para viajar a México