Visa policy of the United Kingdom

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search

The visa policy of the United Kingdom is the policy by which Her Majesty's Government determines visa requirements for visitors to the United Kingdom, and the Crown dependencies of Guernsey, Jersey, and the Isle of Man and those seeking to work, study or reside there. All intended entants must obtain a visa unless they are exempt.

The UK is no longer a member of the European Union (since 31 January 2020), but is in a transition period until at least 31 December 2020 implementing EU law, including the right to freedom of movement (with relevant opt-outs). It operates its own visa policy and maintains the Common Travel Area with the Republic of Ireland, the Channel Islands and the Isle of Man.[1]

British Overseas Territories generally apply their own similar but legally distinct visa policies.

Visa policy map[edit]

Visa policy of the United Kingdom
  United Kingdom
  Freedom of movement (EU/EEA/CH citizens)
  Visa-free entry for 6 months, subject to UK Visitor Rules (no UK jobs market work, no recourse to public funds)
  Electronic visa waiver countries
  Visa required for entry, and landside transit (unless holding exemption documents); visa-free airside transit
  Visa required for entry, and both landside and airside transit (unless holding exemption documents)

The following persons can enter the United Kingdom, the Channel Islands and the Isle of Man without a visa:

As of right[edit]

Non-visa nationals[edit]

British nationals and citizens of 56 countries and territories are visa-exempt for credibility-assessed stays in the UK of no longer than 6 months (or 3 months if they enter from the Republic of Ireland) in compliance with the Visitor Rules:[4][5][6]

United Kingdom British nationals:
Passport stamp with 6 months' leave to enter endorsed in the travel document of a non-visa national at the juxtaposed controls at the Port of Calais.

Non-visa nationals greeted by UK immigration officers arriving from outside the Common Travel Area are credibility-assessed as to grant of entry: "leave to enter". If granted for a regular visit they, excluding seven nations, receive a passport stamp in their passport at the UK Border Force entry checkpoint stating 'Leave to enter for six months: employment and recourse to public funds prohibited'. The exception covers nationals who are admitted, or admissible, by the ePassport gates system. These generally do not receive a passport stamp.[14][15] Those who entered using the Iris Recognition Immigration System (which was in operation from 2004 to 2013) did not receive a passport stamp.

Since 20 May 2019, Australian, Canadian, Japanese, New Zealand, Singaporean, South Korean and United States citizens seeking the above, most common, form of entry generally receive no passport stamp, regardless of whether they use an ePassport gate or a staffed control desk.[16] Three categories of their applicants for entry must go to a staffed control desk, for their passport will receive the relevant stamp(s): short-term student (for up to 6 months);[17] on a permitted paid engagement;[18] with a Tier 5 (Temporary Worker - Creative and Sporting) Certificate of Sponsorship (for up to 3 months);[19] or to accompany or join an EU/EEA/Swiss citizen family member (which case is mentioned in their passport entry clearance).[20][21]

Instead of endorsing a passport stamp, UK Border Force officers are permitted to grant leave to enter by fax or e-mail. They may also grant this orally (including by telephone) to a non-visa national seeking to stay as a visitor for up to 6 months. They, in general, have no power to do so where it has been conferred by another Common Travel Area border official.[22]

In the case of certain general aviation flights travellers may sometimes not be inspected by the UK Border Force on arrival (depending on the risk assessment per the travellers' information submitted in advance via the General Aviation Report (GAR) form) and may be 'remotely cleared' instead. In this case, although leave to enter is granted by implication or process, no passport stamp is received.[23]

All people arriving in the UK directly from the Republic of Ireland (part of the Common Travel Area) are not subject to routine checks by the UK Border Force on arrival in the UK. By virtue of the Immigration (Control of Entry through Republic of Ireland) Order 1972, non-visa nationals are automatically deemed to receive leave to remain in the UK for 3 months (also known as 'deemed leave'). They are forbidden from gainful employment during this period.[24] In this situation, no passport stamp is received upon entry to the UK.[25]

Similarly, all persons travelling between the UK and the Channel Islands and the Isle of Man (parts of the Common Travel Area) are not subject to routine immigration checks and no passport stamps are endorsed (although customs checks are sometimes carried out on passengers travelling between the UK and the Channel Islands, as they are separate customs areas). By virtue of Schedule 4 to the Immigration Act 1971, any leave to enter that is granted by the Crown Dependencies has effect as if the leave to enter had been given by the UK (and vice versa) under the same conditions and for the same period of time.[26][27]

All travellers arriving in the Crown Dependencies (the Channel Islands and the Isle of Man) directly from the Republic of Ireland (i.e. from within the Common Travel Area) are not subject to routine immigration checks and do not receive a passport stamp on arrival. Non-visa nationals are automatically deemed to receive leave to enter for 3 months and are not permitted to engage in gainful employment during this period.[28][29][30]

Electronic visa waiver (EVW)

Citizens of the following countries routinely obtain an electronic visa waiver (EVW) online before travel to accompany their passport:[31][32]

School pupils resident in the European Economic Area and Switzerland
Gibraltar
British Irish Visa Scheme (BIVS)

Citizens of these countries can travel to the UK without a visa if they hold a valid Irish visa endorsed with BIVS:[37]

Non-ordinary passport holders

Holders of diplomatic or service category passports of the following countries do not require a visa:

D — diplomatic passports
Sp — special passports
S — service passports
S* — service passports and a printed Electronic Visa Waiver (EVW)
PA — public affairs passports
1 – only for accompanying a Minister or above for the purpose of an official visit

Visa waiver also applies to holders of United Nations United Nations laissez-passer when they travel to the United Kingdom on official business.[40]

Transit[edit]

There are two types of transit through the United Kingdom under the United Kingdom Transit Rules — airside transit and landside transit.[130][131][132] The Transit Without Visa facility for visa requiring nationals was abolished, effective 1 December 2014, and replaced with United Kingdom Transit Rules.[133][134] Notwithstanding the lists below, in general, even persons from 'Direct Airside transit visa-exempt nationalities' require a transit visa if transiting though the UK to other parts of the Common Travel Area including Ireland.

Airside transit
  • available only at London Heathrow Airport, Gatwick Airport and Manchester Airport.
  • available only to those passengers arriving and departing by air to an international destination other than Ireland on the same day.
  • available only to those passengers not leaving the airside zone of the airport and not passing through immigration control.
  • concerns those passengers that would normally require a visitor visa to enter the United Kingdom but who either hold a Direct Airside Transit visa, a passport of a transit visa exempt country or who hold direct airside transit visa exemption documents.
Landside transit
  • available only to those passengers arriving and departing by air by 23:59 the next day who require passing through immigration control and leaving the airport building only for transit purposes.
  • concerns those passengers that would normally require a visitor visa to enter the United Kingdom but who hold a Visitor in Transit visa or landside visa exemption documents.
Direct Airside transit visa-exempt nationalities
  • United Nations Stateless persons holding UN Convention 1954 travel documents and refugees whose original nationality is exempt.
Direct Airside transit visa required
Direct Airside Transit visa exemption documents

The exemption applies where travellers:

  • arrive and depart by air, and
  • the onward flight must be confirmed, and must depart the same day, and
  • have proper documentation for their destination (including a visa for the destination country if necessary), and
  • fulfil any one of the below conditions:
  1. have a valid visa for Australia, Canada, New Zealand or the US, whether or not travelling to or from those countries, or
  2. have a valid Australian or New Zealand residence visa; or
  3. have a valid Canadian permanent resident card issued on or after 28 June 2002; or
  4. have a valid uniform format residence permit issued by an EEA state under Council Regulation (EC) number 1030/2002; or
  5. have a valid Irish biometric visa endorsed BC or BC BIVS; or
  6. have a valid uniform format category D visa for entry to a state in the European Economic Area (EEA); or
  7. have a valid US I-551 permanent resident card issued on or after 21 April 1998; or
  8. have an expired I-551 permanent resident card issued on or after 21 April 1998, accompanied by an I-797 extension letter; or
  9. have a standalone US Immigration Form 155A/155B attached to an envelope; or
  10. have a valid Schengen Approved destination Scheme (ADS) group tourism visa where the holder is travelling to the country that issued it or holds a valid airline ticket from the Schengen area, provided the holder can demonstrate they entered there no more than 30 days previously on the basis of a valid Schengen ADS visa;

E-visas or e-residence permits are not acceptable for airside transit unless the airline is able to verify it with the issuing country. Nationals of Syria who are holders of US B1/B2 visas are not exempt.

Visitor in Transit visa exemption documents

The exemption applies where travellers:

  • arrive and depart by air, and
  • the onward flight must be confirmed, and must depart by 23:59 the following day, and
  • have proper documentation for their destination (including a visa for the destination country if necessary), and
  • fulfil any one of the below conditions:
  1. have a valid entry visa for Australia, Canada, New Zealand or the US, and a valid airline ticket for travel via the UK, as part of a reasonable journey to or from one of those countries, or
  2. have a valid airline ticket for travel via the UK as part of a reasonable journey from Australia, Canada, New Zealand or the US, if they are transiting the UK no more than 6 months after the date when they last entered Australia, Canada, New Zealand or the US with a valid entry visa for that country; or
  3. have a valid Australian or New Zealand residence visa; or
  4. have a valid Canadian permanent resident card issued on or after 28 June 2002; or
  5. have a valid uniform format residence permit issued by an EEA state under Council Regulation (EC) number 1030/2002; or
  6. have a valid Irish biometric visa endorsed BC or BC BIVS; or
  7. have a valid uniform format category D visa for entry to a state in the European Economic Area (EEA); or
  8. have a valid US I-551 permanent resident card issued on or after 21 April 1998; or
  9. have an expired I-551 permanent resident card issued on or after 21 April 1998, accompanied by an I-797 extension letter; or
  10. have a standalone US Immigration Form 155A/155B attached to an envelope;

E-visas such as those regularly issued by Australia or e-residence permits are not acceptable for landside transit.

Obtaining an entry visa[edit]

Mandatory tuberculosis testing for a long term UK visa

Visitors entering the UK, the Channel Islands and/or the Isle of Man who do not qualify for one of the visa exemptions listed above have to apply for a visa in advance through the UK Visas and Immigration at a visa application centre.

The UK visa in a Russian student's passport

All visitors must apply by registering an online account (except citizens of North Korea who must apply in person at the British Embassy), fill in the application form, pay the fee and attend an appointment at a visa application centre.[135]

A visitor's visa for a single stay or multiple stays of up to 6 months costs £95. A multiple-entry visitor's visa valid for 2 years costs £361, 5 years £655, and 10 years £822.[136][137] Chinese citizens in can, for certain common forms of travel, obtain a 2-year, multiple-entry visitor's visa at a cost of £95.[138][139]

Family members of EU, EEA and Swiss citizens who are not covered by one of the visa exemptions above can apply for an EEA Family Permit free of charge (instead of a visa).[140]

Visitors applying for most types of UK visas (including a visitor's visa and an EEA Family Permit) are required to submit biometric identifiers (all fingerprints and a digital facial image) as part of the visa application process.[141] However, diplomats, foreign government ministers and officials and members of Commonwealth Forces are exempt from the requirement to submit biometric identifiers. Applicants who have obtained a new passport and are merely requesting a transfer of their visa vignette from their old passport to their new passport are not required to re-submit biometric identifiers.[142] In addition, applicants who are travelling directly to the Channel Islands or Gibraltar without passing through the UK or the Isle of Man are exempt from providing biometric information.[143] Children must be accompanied by an adult when their biometric identifiers are taken. Biometric identifiers may be shared with foreign governments. Biometric identifiers are destroyed 10 years after the last date a person's fingerprints and digital facial image were captured.[144]

Most visa applications are decided within 3 weeks.[137]

Applicants resident in the following countries and territories who wish to enter the UK for 6 months or more are required to be tested for tuberculosis as part of the visa application process:[145]

After a person has successfully obtained a UK visa, if they subsequently obtain a new passport, but the UK visa in their old passport still has remaining validity, they are not required to have the UK visa vignette affixed in the old passport transferred to the new passport, but must be able to present both the new and old passports at passport control when entering the UK.[146]

If a person who has successfully obtained a UK visa subsequently loses the passport in which the visa vignette is affixed (or if it is stolen), they have to pay the original visa fee in full again and may be required to show that their circumstances have not changed when applying for a replacement visa. However, a new 'confirmation of acceptance for studies' (CAS)/'certificate of sponsorship' (COS) is not required when applying for a replacement Tier 4/Tier 2 visa.[142]

Visa types[edit]

These are correct as of April 2015.

Visitor visas[edit]

  • Standard Visitor visa[147][148]
  • Marriage Visitor visa[149]
  • Permitted Paid Engagement visa[150]
  • Parent of a Tier 4 child visa[151]
  • Visa to pass through the UK in transit[130]
    • Direct Airside Transit visa
    • Visitor in Transit visa

Work visas[edit]

  • Tier 1 visa
    • Entrepreneur (minimum £200,000 investment or £50,000 if qualified)
    • Exceptional Talent (recognised leader in fields of science, humanities, engineering, medicine, digital technology or the arts)
    • General (highly skilled workers, writers, composers or artists and self-employed lawyers)
    • Graduate Entrepreneur
    • Investor (minimum £2,000,000 investment)
  • Tier 2 visa (sponsored workers)
    • General
    • Intra-company Transfer (foreign company workers in a UK branch)
    • Minister of Religion
    • Sportsperson
  • Tier 5 visa (temporary work for sponsored workers)
    • Charity Worker (unpaid voluntary work)
    • Creative and sporting
    • Government Authorised Exchange
    • International Agreement
    • Religious Worker
    • Youth Mobility Scheme
  • Domestic Workers in a Private Household visa (cleaners, chauffeurs, cooks, personal care providers and nannies)
  • Representative of an Overseas Business visa (head of a UK branch or a foreign journalist on a long-term posting)
  • Turkish Businessperson visa
  • Turkish Worker visa
  • UK Ancestry visa (Commonwealth citizens with UK born parents or grandparents)
  • Croatian national registration certificates

Student visas[edit]

  • Short-term study visa
  • Tier 4 visa
    • General
    • Child

Review of visa exemptions[edit]

By early 1917, all aliens (i.e. persons who were not British subjects) were required to obtain visas from a British consul before embarking for the United Kingdom.[152] Visa requirements would then be maintained for aliens under the peacetime regime of immigration control retained after 1918.

Visa policy of the UK from 1960 to the present
  United Kingdom
  Visa-free access (subject to UK arrival with credible presentation as a visitor)

In March 2007, the Home Office announced that it would carry out its first Visa Waiver Test to review the list of countries and territories outside the European Union, European Economic Area and Switzerland whose nationals are exempt from holding a visa for the UK.

After carrying out the review, in July 2008, Jacqui Smith, the Home Secretary, and David Miliband, the Foreign Secretary, announced to Parliament that the results of the test showed a 'strong case' for introducing visa regimes for 11 countries (Bolivia, Botswana, Brazil, Lesotho, Malaysia, Mauritius, Namibia, South Africa, Swaziland, Trinidad and Tobago and Venezuela) having taken into account the following factors (including the extent to which they were being addressed by the countries' authorities):[153][154][155]

  • Passport security and integrity
  • The degree of co-operation over deportation or removal of the countries' nationals from the UK
  • Levels of illegal working in the UK and other immigration abuse (such as fraudulent asylum claims)
  • Levels of crime and terrorism risk posed to the UK

Following the July 2008 announcement, the UK Government entered into a 6-month period of 'detailed dialogue' with the governments of the 11 countries 'to examine how risks can be reduced in a way that obviates the need for a visa regime to be introduced'. In order to maintain visa-free access to the UK, the 11 countries had to 'demonstrate a genuine commitment to put into effect credible and realistic plans, with clear timetables, to reduce the risks to the UK, and begin real implementation of these plans by the end of the dialogue period'.[153]

On 9 January 2009, the new visa rules announced required citizens of Bolivia, Lesotho, South Africa and Swaziland to obtain a visa, and only Venezuelan nationals travelling on biometric passports with an electronic chip issued since 2007 could continue to enter the UK without a visa.[156] The existing visa-free status for citizens of Botswana, Brazil, Malaysia, Mauritius, Namibia and Trinidad and Tobago was maintained.[157]

Starting from 3 March 2009, a transitional regime was put in place until 30 June 2009 for South African citizens - those who held a valid South African passport and had previously entered the UK lawfully using that passport could continue to enter the UK without a visa, whilst all other South African citizens were required to apply for a visa. On the same day, Taiwan citizens were able to enter the UK without a visa.[158][159] On 18 May 2009, Bolivian citizens were no longer able to enter the UK without a visa and Venezuelan citizens were required to present a biometric passport to enter the UK without a visa.[160] On 1 July 2009, all South African citizens were required to apply for a visa to enter the UK. On the same day, citizens of Lesotho and Swaziland were required to apply for a visa to enter the UK.

On 30 March 2010, Alan Johnson, the Home Secretary, and David Miliband, the Foreign Secretary, announced to Parliament that, having carried out a review of visa regimes in relation to Eastern Caribbean countries, 5 countries (Antigua and Barbuda, Barbados, Grenada, St Kitts and Nevis and St Vincent and the Grenadines) would have their visa-free status maintained. At the same time, the UK Government would enter a six-month period of 'detailed dialogue' with the governments of 2 countries (Dominica and St Lucia), who would have to 'demonstrate a genuine commitment to put into effect credible and realistic plans, with clear timetables, to reduce the risks to the UK, and begin implementing these plans by the end of the dialogue period' to maintain their visa-free status.[161] On 2 March 2011, Theresa May, the Home Secretary, and William Hague, the Foreign Secretary, announced to Parliament that the governments of Dominica and St Lucia 'have made concrete improvements to the immigration, border control and identity systems which would not have happened without the test', and so the visa-free status for the 2 countries would be maintained.[162]

On 13 June 2011, new Immigration Rules were laid before Parliament that came into force on 4 July 2011 introducing a new streamlined application procedure (waiving the normal requirements to provide documentary evidence of maintenance and qualifications at the time of application) for some non-visa nationals from 'low-risk countries' who wish to study in the UK for more than 6 months and apply for Tier 4 entry clearance. The following 15 countries and territories were categorised as 'low-risk' and included in 'Appendix H' of the Immigration Rules: Argentina, Australia, Brunei, Canada, Chile, Croatia, Hong Kong, Japan, New Zealand, Singapore, South Korea, Taiwan, Trinidad and Tobago and the United States.[163][164][165] Although the announcement did not relate to a Visa Waiver Test per se, it showed that the UK Border Agency considers some countries and territories in the list of visa-free nationalities to be lower risk than others. In particular, Trinidad and Tobago, which was considered to be a high-risk country from a visa regime perspective in 2008 when the Visa Waiver Test was carried out, was now viewed by the UK Border Agency as a low-risk country. On 5 September 2012, two more countries (Botswana and Malaysia) were added to the list of 'low-risk' nationalities for the purpose of Tier 4 entry clearance applications, i.e. 'Appendix H', (taking effect on 1 October 2012),[166] whilst on 6 September 2013, Barbados was also added to 'Appendix H' (taking effect on 1 October 2013).[167] Again, although the announcement did not relate to a Visa Waiver Test per se, it showed that Botswana, Malaysia and Barbados (countries which were considered to be a high-risk countries from a visa regime perspective when the Visa Waiver Test was carried out in 2008 in the case of Botswana and Malaysia, and in 2010 in the case of Barbados) were now viewed by the UK Border Agency as low-risk countries.[168][169]

In March 2013, it was revealed that Theresa May, the Home Secretary, was considering removing Brazil from the list of visa-exempt nationalities due to concerns about illegal immigration, since Brazil was fifth in the top 10 of illegal immigrant nationalities in the UK according to Home Office figures for 2011, and was the only country on the list for which short-term visitors do not need a visa. However, the UK Government later decided to retain the visa exemption for Brazilian citizens, a decision which was seen as attempting to develop closer trading links with Brazil.[170]

On 1 January 2014, an electronic visa waiver (EVW) scheme was introduced, enabling citizens of Oman, Qatar and the United Arab Emirates who have obtained an EVW authorisation online to visit and/or study in the UK for up to 6 months without a visa;[31] with Kuwait added to the EVW scheme during February 2016.[171]

After 'assessing countries against a list of risk and compliance criteria', the UK Government added Kuwait, Oman, Qatar and the UAE to 'Appendix H' (the list of 'low-risk' nationalities for the purpose of Tier 4 student visa applications) at various periods between 2014 and 2018 but according to the Cambridge Education Group, Oman was to be removed from this Appendix.[172] However, it doesn't seem like this may have occurred.

These two changes reflect the UK Government's view that Kuwait, Oman, Qatar and the UAE should now be regarded as low-risk countries from a visa regime perspective and it is possible that, in future, nationals of these four countries will be classified as non-visa nationals (enabling them to visit and/or study in the UK without a visa for up to 6 months without having to obtain an EVW authorisation online every time they wish to enter the UK).

On 13 March 2014, the UK Government announced that, with effect from 5 May 2014, Venezuelan citizens (including those with biometric passports) would require a visa to enter the UK.[173][174]

At present, although citizens of Argentina, Brazil, Israel, holders of Hong Kong SAR passports and Macao SAR passports are able to visit and/or study in the UK without a visa for up to 6 months, and although citizens of Kuwait, Oman, Qatar and the United Arab Emirates with an EVW can visit and/or study in the UK without a visa for up to 6 months, if they decide to stay for more than 6 months and have been granted entry clearance permitting them to do so, they are required to register with the police at a cost of £34 within 7 days of arriving in the UK (or within 7 days of obtaining their visa if they apply within the UK).[175][176]

In January 2020, British ambassador to Ukraine announced that there would be no visa-free arrangements for Ukrainian citizens.[177]

On April 9, 2020, the Home Office issued a new immigration rule imposing visa restriction on low-skilled people workers with effect from January 2021. The restriction introduced a new point-based immigration system, allotting points for certain skills, salaries, qualification and shortage occupations. Any worker with points falling below the given threshold will be restricted from applying for UK work visa, as per the new immigration rule.[178][179] Free Movement, a UK-based website updating, commenting, training and advising on immigration and asylum laws, claims that nurses, hospital porters, cleaners, postal workers, etc., are to be worst affected by the new immigration law.[180]

Entry and stay conditions for EU/EEA/Swiss citizens[edit]

Directive 2004/38/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 29 April 2004 recognises the right of citizens of the Union and their family members to move and reside freely within the territory of the Member States[181][182][183] defines the right of free movement for citizens of the European Economic Area (EEA), which includes the European Union (EU) and the three European Free Trade Association (EFTA) members Iceland, Norway and Liechtenstein. Switzerland, which is a member of EFTA but not of the EEA, is not bound by the Directive but rather has a separate bilateral agreement on the free movement with the EU.

Citizens of all European Economic Area (EEA) member states and Switzerland holding a valid passport or national identity card enjoy freedom of movement rights in each other's territory and can enter and reside in the each other's territory without a visa.

By law EU, EEA and Swiss citizens are entitled to use their valid national identity cards as travel documents to enter the UK, in practice UK Border Force officials have to examine in greater detail identity cards issued by some member states which have cheapest-produced, non-standard, limited security features and hence more susceptible to tampering/forgery. This exceeds counterparts in the Schengen Area (who, by its law, must only perform a 'rapid' and 'straightforward' visual check for signs of falsification and tampering and are not obliged to use technical devices (such as document scanners, UV light and magnifiers) when such passports and/or national identity cards present at external border checkpoints),[184] as a matter of policy UKBF officials are required to examine physically all passports and national identity cards presented by EU/EEA/Swiss citizens for signs of forgery and tampering.[185] In addition, unlike Schengen area counterparts who may only perform a 'rapid' and 'straightward' database check and may only check to see if the traveller is on a database containing persons of interest on a strictly 'non-systematic' basis where such a threat is 'genuine', 'present' and 'sufficiently serious'),[184] as a matter of policy UKBF officials are required to check every EU/EEA/Swiss citizen and their passport/national identity card against the Warnings Index (WI) database.[185] For this reason, when presented with a non-machine readable identity card, it can take up to four times longer for a UKBF official to process the card as the official has to enter the biographical details of the holder manually into the computer to check against the WI database and, if a large number of possible matches is returned, a different configuration has to be entered to reduce the number of possible matches.[186] For example, at Stansted Airport UKBF officials have been known to take longer to process Italian paper identity cards because they often need to be taken out of plastic wallets,[187] because they are particularly susceptible to forgery/tampering[188] and because, as non-machine readable documents, the holders' biographical details have to be entered manually into the computer.[187]

If EU, EEA and Swiss nationals are unable to present a valid passport or national identity card at the border, they must nonetheless be afforded every reasonable opportunity to obtain the necessary documents or have them brought to them within a reasonable period of time or corroborate or prove by other means that they are covered by the right of free movement.[189][190] Where, after being given every reasonable opportunity, they are still unable to demonstrate their identity and nationality, they should be either considered for Temporary Admission to allow further enquiries to be made or refused entry.[191]

However, entry can be refused to an EU/EEA/Swiss national on public policy, public security or public health grounds where the person presents a "genuine, present and sufficiently serious threat affecting one of the fundamental interests of society".[192] If the person has obtained permanent residence in the country where he/she seeks entry (a status which is normally attained after 5 years of residence), the member state can only expel him/her on serious grounds of public policy or public security. Where the person has resided for 10 years or is a minor, the member state can only expel him/her on imperative grounds of public security (and, in the case of minors, if expulsion is necessary in the best interests of the child, as provided for in the Convention on the Rights of the Child).[193] Expulsion on public health grounds must relate to diseases with 'epidemic potential' which have occurred less than 3 months from the person's the date of arrival in the Member State where he/she seeks entry.[194]

Non-EU/EEA/Swiss citizen family members[edit]

A family member of an EU/EEA/Swiss citizen who is in possession of a valid residence card indicating their status is exempt from the need to hold a visa when entering outside Schengen member states (UK, Ireland, Bulgaria, Romania, Cyprus) when they are accompanying their EU/EEA/Swiss family member or are seeking to join them.[195]

Such a person is so exempt regardless of the accompanying/joining condition above to enter the Schengen area, Iceland, Liechtenstein, Norway or Switzerland if that card is issued from one of the European Economic Area states or Switzerland (also called a Stamp 4 EU FAM card).

As of 6 April 2015, the non-EU family members of an EU national who are in possession of and present their residence card, which is issued to them under article 10 of directive 2004/38, along with proof of nationality are entitled to enter the UK without the need to apply for an EEA Family Permit. Such persons will need to prove their relation to any EU national family member who would be but is not accompanying them, by providing a document such as the marriage or birth certificate, contact details and both parties be able to evidence the relationship. Where the EU national family member is already in the UK, the non-EU family members should be able to prove their relation is living in the UK and their right of residency exists, i.e. current exercise of their Treaty of Rome rights. Therefore such residing in the UK either: less than three months (the initial right of residence); or if more than three months, then as a worker, self-employed, self-sufficient or a student or they acquired the status of permanent residency after having resided in the UK for five years.[196]

Reciprocity[edit]

Of the 58 countries and territories outside the European Union, European Economic Area and Switzerland whose citizens are granted 6 months' visa-free access to the UK:

  • 3 grant their standard visitor entry for up to 90 days (or 3 months), but extendable, with express permission: Botswana, Japan and Taiwan.
Beyond reciprocity (recent legacy arrangements)

Five South American legacy arrangements remain, and one recent other, as at 2020: (standard visitor grants of entry obtainable to, for duration stated)

No reciprocity
  • Papua New Guinea requires British citizens to apply for a visa on arrival, valid for up to 60 days, for PGK100 (tourist) or PGK500 (business)
  • Timor-Leste requires British citizens to apply for a visa on arrival valid for up to 30 days, for US$30.

Visitor statistics[edit]

Most visitors arriving to United Kingdom were from the following countries of nationality. Note the statistics for Ireland are fluid; no visitor conditions attach and visits across the land border are not counted.[198]

Nationality Total
2018 2017 2016 2015 2014 2013 2012 2011
 United States Decrease 3,877,000 Increase 3,910,000 Increase 3,455,000 Increase 3,266,000 Increase 2,976,000 Decrease 2,778,000 Decrease 2,840,000 Increase 2,846,000
 France Decrease 3,693,000 Decrease 3,956,000 Decrease 4,064,000 Increase 4,171,000 Increase 4,114,000 Increase 3,974,000 Increase 3,787,000 Increase 3,633,000
 Germany Decrease 3,262,000 Increase 3,380,000 Increase 3,341,000 Increase 3,249,000 Increase 3,220,000 Increase 3,048,000 Increase 2,967,000 Decrease 2,947,000
 Ireland Decrease 2,782,000 Increase 3,029,000 Increase 2,897,000 Increase 2,632,000 Increase 2,486,000 Decrease 2,350,000 Decrease 2,453,000 Decrease 2,574,000
 Spain Increase 2,530,000 Increase 2,413,000 Increase 2,397,000 Increase 2,197,000 Increase 1,986,000 Increase 1,746,000 Decrease 1,716,000 Increase 1,836,000
 Netherlands Decrease 1,954,000 Increase 2,136,000 Increase 2,062,000 Decrease 1,897,000 Increase 1,972,000 Increase 1,891,000 Decrease 1,735,000 1,789,000
 Poland Increase 1,817,000 Decrease 1,807,000 Increase 1,921,000 Increase 1,707,000 Increase 1,494,000 Increase 1,339,000 Increase 1,222,000 Decrease 1,057,000
 Italy Increase 1,808,000 Decrease 1,779,000 Increase 1,990,000 Increase 1,794,000 Increase 1,757,000 Increase 1,636,000 Decrease 1,521,000 Increase 1,526,000
 Belgium Decrease 1,116,000 Increase 1,148,000 Decrease 1,048,000 Increase 1,175,000 Decrease 1,122,000 Increase 1,174,000 Increase 1,113,000 Decrease 984,000
 Australia Decrease 1,003,000 Increase 1,092,000 Decrease 982,000 Decrease 1,043,000 Decrease 1,057,000 Increase 1,058,000 Decrease 993,000 Increase 1,093,000
 Romania Increase 987,000 Increase 944,000 Increase 891,000 Increase 693,000 Increase 471,000 Increase 377,000 Increase 267,000 Increase 259,000
 Canada Increase 850,000 Increase 835,000 Increase 828,000 Increase 708,000 Decrease 649,000 Increase 731,000 Decrease 704,000 Increase 740,000
 Sweden Decrease 827,000 Increase 831,000 Decrease 821,000 Decrease 850,000 Increase 869,000 Increase 784,000 Decrease 777,000 Increase 794,000
  Switzerland Decrease 808,000 Increase 989,000 Increase 940,000 Increase 872,000 Increase 864,000 Decrease 807,000 Increase 832,000 Increase 768,000
 Denmark Increase 735,000 – 730,000 Decrease 730,000 Increase 756,000 Decrease 662,000 Increase 696,000 Increase 636,000 Increase 614,000
 Norway Decrease 673,000 Increase 712,000 Decrease 700,000 Decrease 771,000 Increase 874,000 Increase 838,000 Increase 771,000 Increase 739,000
 India Decrease 511,000 Increase 562,000 Decrease 415,000 Increase 422,000 Increase 390,000 Increase 373,000 Decrease 339,000 Decrease 355,000
 China Increase 472,000 Increase 406,000 Decrease 307,000 Increase 325,000 Decrease 233,000 Increase 237,000 Increase 215,000 181,000
 Hungary Increase 437,000 Increase 415,000 Increase 397,000 Increase 328,000 Increase 323,000 Increase 276,000 Increase 262,000 Decrease 210,000
 Portugal Decrease 431,000 Decrease 482,000 Increase 492,000 Decrease 392,000 Increase 395,000 Decrease 285,000 Increase 292,000 Decrease 283,000
 Czech Republic Increase 412,000 Decrease 375,000 Decrease 414,000 Increase 465,000 Decrease 352,000 Increase 356,000 Increase 325,000 Increase 286,000
 United Arab Emirates Increase 392,000 Increase 374,000 Increase 365,000 Increase 347,000 Decrease 260,000 Increase 304,000 Increase 256,000 Increase 241,000
 Lithuania Increase 372,000 Increase 327,000 Decrease 242,000 Increase 271,000 Decrease 198,000 Increase 202,000 Decrease 171,000 Increase 178,000
 Austria Increase 322,000 Increase 307,000 Increase 302,000 Increase 277,000 Decrease 263,000 Increase 275,000 Decrease 268,000 Decrease 271,000
 Israel Increase 278,000 Increase 265,000 Increase 209,000 Increase 205,000 Increase 185,000 Increase 179,000 Decrease 138,000 Increase 164,000
 Bulgaria Increase 266,000 Increase 262,000 Increase 248,000 Decrease 173,000 Increase 184,000 Decrease 125,000 Increase 138,000 Increase 97,000
 Japan – 247,000 Increase 247,000 Increase 246,000 Decrease 194,000 Decrease 222,000 Decrease 225,000 Increase 243,000 Increase 237,000
 Hong Kong Increase 243,000 Increase 230,000 Increase 218,000 Increase 204,000 Decrease 159,000 Increase 163,000 Decrease 135,000 Increase 149,000
 Brazil Decrease 240,000 Increase 244,000 Decrease 187,000 Increase 324,000 Increase 293,000 Decrease 258,000 Decrease 260,000 Increase 276,000
 South Africa Decrease 224,000 Increase 230,000 Decrease 188,000 Increase 231,000 Decrease 217,000 Increase 225,000 Increase 211,000 Decrease 194,000
 New Zealand Decrease 216,000 Increase 220,000 Increase 213,000 Increase 207,000 Increase 196,000 Decrease 165,000 Decrease 175,000 — 187,000
 Finland Decrease 214,000 Decrease 258,000 Increase 261,000 Decrease 245,000 Increase 255,000 Increase 212,000 Decrease 208,000 Increase 233,000
 Greece Decrease 200,000 Decrease 213,000 Increase 227,000 Decrease 225,000 Increase 238,000 Increase 181,000 Decrease 159,000 Increase 225,000
 Russia Decrease 181,000 Increase 227,000 Decrease 147,000 Decrease 164,000 Increase 249,000 Decrease 214,000 Increase 227,000 211,000
 Turkey Decrease 177,000 Increase 230,000 Increase 196,000 Decrease 192,000 Increase 196,000 Increase 154,000 Increase 145,000 Decrease 126,000
 Mexico Decrease 153,000 Increase 155,000 Increase 106,000 Increase 102,000 Decrease 92,000 Increase 109,000 84,000 Increase 78,000
 Slovakia Decrease 142,000 Increase 179,000 Decrease 156,000 Increase 175,000 Decrease 132,000 Increase 146,000 Increase 120,000 Decrease 117,000
 Nigeria Decrease 107,000 Increase 119,000 Decrease 101,000 Decrease 128,000 Decrease 134,000 Increase 157,000 Increase 154,000 Decrease 142,000
 Pakistan Increase 102,000 Increase 69,000 Increase 66,000 Decrease 58,000 Increase 75,000 Decrease 63,000 Increase 73,000 65,000
 Cyprus Decrease 96,000 Increase 163,000 Decrease 135,000 Increase 136,000 Decrease 119,000 Increase 123,000 Decrease 111,000 Increase 124,000
 Thailand Decrease 93,000 Increase 94,000 Decrease 77,000 Increase 79,000 Increase 76,000 Decrease 74,000 Increase 75,000 Decrease 65,000
 Luxembourg Decrease 76,000 Decrease 83,000 Decrease 104,000 Increase 122,000 Increase 97,000 Increase 90,000 Increase 83,000 73,000
 Malta Decrease 72,000 Increase 104,000 Increase 87,000 Decrease 74,000 Increase 100,000 Increase 85,000 Increase 65,000 Decrease 64,000
 Egypt — 43,000 Increase 43,000 Decrease 42,000 Decrease 47,000 Increase 59,000 Increase 54,000 Increase 50,000 Decrease 41,000
 Morocco Decrease 32,000 – 33,000 Increase 33,000 Decrease 29,000 Increase 35,000 Increase 31,000 Increase 26,000 Increase 19,000
 Barbados Increase 22,000 – 11,000 Decrease 11,000 Increase 16,000 Decrease 9,000 Increase 10,000 Decrease 6,000 Increase 11,000
 Sri Lanka Increase 20,000 Decrease 17,000 Increase 22,000 Decrease 16,000 Decrease 17,000 Increase 24,000 — 20,000 Increase 20,000
 Jamaica Increase 15,000 Increase 8,000 Decrease 4,000 Increase 14,000 — 10,000 Increase 10,000 — 7,000 Decrease 7,000
 Tunisia Decrease 5,000 Decrease 7,000 Decrease 12,000 Increase 14,000 Decrease 9,000 Increase 10,000 — 9,000 — 9,000
Total Decrease 37,905,000 Increase 39,214,000 Increase 37,609,000 Increase 36,115,000 Increase 34,377,000 Increase 32,692,000 Increase 31,084,000 Increase 30,798,000

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Irish Citizens under the Common Travel Area arrangements can freely cross the land border and if asked to evidence their identity any independently issued photographic identity card will be sufficient, unless other facts or circumstances bring Irish citizenship into question. To enable Carriers to meet Carrier Regulations they are required to bear a valid Irish passport if entering the United Kingdom from a third country, or via an airport.
  2. ^ a b May enter on a national identity card
  3. ^ Rights of BN(O) since changes in 2020 include a presumption, though not guarantee, of grant on application on arrival for a grant of leave (permission to enter) outside of the rules. This will typically imply a 5-year limited leave to remain and the right to work and study, according to an individual's circumstances.
  4. ^ Persons holding a Hong Kong Special Administrative Region passport. See also British National (Overseas) for persons residing in Hong Kong holding a form of British nationality.
  5. ^ Persons holding a Macau Special Administrative Region passport.
  6. ^ Only for holders with their personal ID numbers stipulated in their respective passports. Taiwan issues passports without ID numbers to some persons not having the right to reside in Taiwan, including nationals without household registration and certain persons from Hong Kong, Macau, and mainland China.[9][10] The visa waiver granted by the United Kingdom to Taiwan passport holders has not altered its non-recognition of Taiwan as a sovereign country.
  7. ^ Passports that do not contain a Personal ID Number
  8. ^ Biometric passports only
  9. ^ Non-biometric passports only

References[edit]

  1. ^ Smith, Evan (20 July 2016). "Brexit and the history of policing the Irish border". History & Policy. History & Policy. Retrieved 21 July 2016.
  2. ^ "Common travel area guidance". Home Office. 22 February 2019.
  3. ^ https://www.citizensinformation.ie/en/moving_country/moving_abroad/freedom_of_movement_within_the_eu/common_travel_area_between_ireland_and_the_uk.html
  4. ^ "Entering the UK - GOV.UK".
  5. ^ UK Border Agency. "Visa and Direct Airside Transit Visa (DATV) nationals". Archived from the original on 26 August 2010. Retrieved 17 August 2010.
  6. ^ "Country information (visa section)". Timatic. International Air Transport Association (IATA) through Olympic Air. Retrieved 1 April 2017.
  7. ^ Do I need a visa? Hong Kong Archived 2011-07-19 at the Wayback Machine. UK Border Agency. Retrieved 17 August 2010
  8. ^ Do I need a visa? Macao Archived 2011-07-19 at the Wayback Machine. UK Border Agency. Retrieved 17 August 2010
  9. ^ ROC (Taiwan) Immigration Reference Guide for Civil Carriers (PDF), National Immigration Agency, 18 March 2011, retrieved 21 December 2011
  10. ^ "護照條例施行細則", Laws & Regulations Database of The Republic of China, Taipei: Ministry of Justice, 29 June 2011, retrieved 21 December 2011. English translation available from the Bureau of Consular Affairs.
  11. ^ "Short-term study visa - GOV.UK".
  12. ^ https://www.gov.uk/permitted-paid-engagement-visa
  13. ^ "Standard Visitor visa - GOV.UK".
  14. ^ "Entering the UK: At border control". UK Border Force. You cannot get a stamp if you use the ePassport gates.
  15. ^ "Visit guidance" (PDF). Home Office. 22 August 2019. pp. 67–68.
  16. ^ "A short guide on right to rent" (PDF). Home Office. July 2019. p. 8. Since 20 May 2019, the majority of individuals from Australia, Canada, Japan, New Zealand, Singapore, South Korea and the USA (known as B5JSSK nationals) have been able to use the eGates at UK airports, sea ports and Brussels and Paris Eurostar terminals, to enter the UK. Those individuals wishing to do so must hold a biometric passport. Those individuals not in possession of a biometric passport will be processed by a Border Force Officer at the manned passport control point. They will not have their passports endorsed with a stamp, instead individuals will be informed of their leave and its associated conditions orally by a Border Force Officer.
  17. ^ "Short-term students" (PDF). Home Office. 22 August 2019. p. 26.
  18. ^ "Visit guidance" (PDF). Home Office. 22 August 2019. p. 58.
  19. ^ "Temporary Worker - Creative and Sporting visa (Tier 5)". Gov.uk.
  20. ^ "Entering the UK". Gov.uk.
  21. ^ "Guide to faster travel through the UK border". UK Border Force. 20 May 2019.
  22. ^ The Immigration (Leave to Enter and Remain) Order 2000, Articles 8 and 8ZA (as amended by "The Immigration (Leave to Enter and Remain) (Amendment) Order 2013", legislation.gov.uk, The National Archives, SI 2013/1749)
  23. ^ "An inspection of General Aviation and General Maritime (February – July 2015)" (PDF). Independent Chief Inspector of Borders and Immigration. January 2016. pp. 15–27.
  24. ^ "The Immigration (Control of Entry through Republic of Ireland) Order 1972", legislation.gov.uk, The National Archives, SI 1972/1610
  25. ^ "Common Travel Area" (PDF). Home Office. 22 October 2019. pp. 34–35.
  26. ^ "Immigration Act 1971", legislation.gov.uk, The National Archives, 1971 c. 30
  27. ^ "Common Travel Area" (PDF). Home Office. 22 October 2019. pp. 9, 39–40.
  28. ^ The Immigration (Entry through Republic of Ireland) (Exclusions and Restrictions) (Bailiwick of Guernsey) Order, 2015, Article 4
  29. ^ Immigration (Control of Entry through Republic of Ireland) (Jersey) Order 2018, Article 4
  30. ^ Immigration (Control of Entry through Republic of Ireland) Order 2016, Article 6
  31. ^ a b "UK electronic visa waiver introduced for Oman, Qatar and UAE - GOV.UK".
  32. ^ "Welcome to Visa4UK". UK Visas and Immigration.
  33. ^ "European nationals and schemes (entry clearance guidance) - GOV.UK".
  34. ^ "Visas and Immigration - Government of Gibraltar".
  35. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2014-01-06. Retrieved 2014-05-03.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  36. ^ http://www.chronicle.gi/headlines_details.php?id=28347
  37. ^ a b c "The British-Irish Visa Scheme" (PDF).
  38. ^ a b "British-Irish visa scheme - GOV.UK".
  39. ^ Leijen, Majorie van (26 October 2014). "Joint visit visa to UK and Ireland launched".
  40. ^ "ECB08: what are acceptable travel documents for entry clearance - GOV.UK".
  41. ^ "Exchange of Notes between His Majesty's Government in the United Kingdom and the Government of the French Republic concerning the Mutual Abolition of Visas" (PDF). UK Treaties Online, Treaty Section of the Foreign & Commonwealth Office.
  42. ^ "Exchange of Notes between His Majesty's Government in the United Kingdom and the Belgian Government for the Reciprocal Abolition of Visas on British and Belgian Passports" (PDF). UK Treaties Online, Treaty Section of the Foreign & Commonwealth Office.
  43. ^ "Exchange of Notes between His Majesty's Government in the United Kingdom and the Government of Luxembourg for the Reciprocal Abolition of Visas on British and Luxembourg Passports" (PDF). UK Treaties Online, Treaty Section of the Foreign & Commonwealth Office.
  44. ^ "Exchange of Notes between His Majesty's Government in the United Kingdom and the Government of Norway concerning the Mutual Abolition of Visas" (PDF). UK Treaties Online, Treaty Section of the Foreign & Commonwealth Office.
  45. ^ "Exchange of Notes between the Government of the United Kingdom and the Government of Denmark concerning the Reciprocal Abolition of Visas" (PDF). UK Treaties Online, Treaty Section of the Foreign & Commonwealth Office.
  46. ^ "Exchange of Notes between the Government of the United Kingdom and the Government of Sweden regarding the Reciprocal Abolition of Visas" (PDF). UK Treaties Online, Treaty Section of the Foreign & Commonwealth Office.
  47. ^ "Exchange of Notes between the Government of the United Kingdom and the Government of the Netherlands regarding the Reciprocal Abolition of Visas" (PDF). UK Treaties Online, Treaty Section of the Foreign & Commonwealth Office.
  48. ^ "Exchange of Notes between the Government of the United Kingdom and the Swiss Government regarding the Reciprocal Abolition of Visas" (PDF). UK Treaties Online, Treaty Section of the Foreign & Commonwealth Office.
  49. ^ "Exchange of Notes between the Government of the United Kingdom and the Government of Iceland regarding the Reciprocal Abolition of Visas" (PDF). UK Treaties Online, Treaty Section of the Foreign & Commonwealth Office.
  50. ^ "UK Treaties Online".
  51. ^ "UK Treaties Online".
  52. ^ "UK Treaties Online".
  53. ^ "UK Treaties Online".
  54. ^ [1]
  55. ^ "UK Treaties Online".
  56. ^ "UK Treaties Online".
  57. ^ "UK Treaties Online".
  58. ^ "UK Treaties Online".
  59. ^ "UK Treaties Online".
  60. ^ "Notes exchanged between the Government of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and the Government of Uruguay concerning the Mutual Abolition of Visas". UK Treaties Online, Treaty Section of the Foreign & Commonwealth Office.
  61. ^ Under unilateral decision of the UK Government
  62. ^ "UK Treaties Online".
  63. ^ Was applied from 1 June 1961 under unilateral decision of the UK Government;
    from 19 December 1968 under Visa exemption agreement "UK Treaties Online".
  64. ^ Was applied from 1 June 1961 under unilateral decision of the UK Government;
    from 19 September 1962 under Visa exemption agreement "UK Treaties Online".
  65. ^ Was applied from 1 June 1961 under unilateral decision of the UK Government;
    from 30 May 1962 under Visa exemption agreement "UK Treaties Online".
  66. ^ Was applied from 1 June 1961 under unilateral decision of the UK Government;
    from 7 March 1969 under Visa exemption agreement "UK Treaties Online".
  67. ^ Was applied from 1 June 1961 under unilateral decision of the UK Government;
    from 6 February 1966 under Visa exemption agreement "UK Treaties Online".
  68. ^ Was applied from 1 June 1961 under unilateral decision of the UK Government;
    from 27 November 1966 under Visa exemption agreement "UK Treaties Online".
  69. ^ "UK Treaties Online".
  70. ^ "UK Treaties Online".
  71. ^ "UK Treaties Online".
  72. ^ "UK Treaties Online".
  73. ^ "UK Treaties Online".
  74. ^ "UK Treaties Online".
  75. ^ "UK Treaties Online".
  76. ^ "UK Treaties Online".
  77. ^ "United Kingdom | Ministry of Foreign Affairs".
  78. ^ "UK Treaties Online".
  79. ^ "Countries that Grant Visa-free Access to Hong Kong Special Administrative Region Passport Holders (as at 18 July 1997)". Hong Kong Immigration Department. Archived from the original on 1997-08-08. Retrieved 11 July 2019.
  80. ^ "Statement of changes to the Immigration Rules: HC735, April 2002 - GOV.UK".
  81. ^ "Statement of changes to the Immigration Rules: HC538, 26 November 2002 - GOV.UK".
  82. ^ "Statement of changes to the Immigration Rules: HC95, December 2003 - GOV.UK".
  83. ^ a b "Statement of changes to the Immigration Rules: HC949, 1 March 2006 - GOV.UK".
  84. ^ "Statement of changes to the Immigration Rules: HC130, 11 December 2006 - GOV.UK".
  85. ^ a b "Statement of changes to the Immigration Rules: HC227, 9 February 2009 - GOV.UK".
  86. ^ "Statement of changes to the Immigration Rules: HC887, 9 December 2013 - GOV.UK".
  87. ^ "Statement of changes to the Immigration Rules: HC877, 11 March 2016 - GOV.UK".
  88. ^ "List of Mutual Visa-free Agreements between China and Foreign Countries" (PDF).
  89. ^ "Statement of changes to the Immigration Rules: HC863, 16 March 2011" (PDF). Gov.UK. Retrieved 23 January 2019.
  90. ^ "Statement of changes to the Immigration Rules: HC1719, 20 December 2011" (PDF). Gov.UK. Retrieved 23 January 2019.
  91. ^ "Statement of changes to the Immigration Rules: HC 628, 6 September 2013" (PDF). Gov.UK. Retrieved 23 January 2019.
  92. ^ Paragraph 7.5 “Holders of non-national travel documents currently require a visa before travel to the United Kingdom. This rule encapsulates holders of Holy See Service and Temporary Service passports issued by the Holy See. The Government has assessed the procedures for issuance of these documents and their security to be robust enough to merit an exemption from the visit visa requirement. Nationals, citizens and diplomatic passport holders of the Vatican City are already exempt from the visa requirement.” "Statement of changes to the Immigration Rules: HC887, 9 December 2013" (PDF). Gov.UK. Retrieved 23 January 2019.
  93. ^ "Statement of changes to the Immigration Rules: HC1138, 13 March 2014" (PDF). Gov.UK. Retrieved 23 January 2019.
  94. ^ "Statement of changes to the Immigration Rules: HC297, 13 July 2015" (PDF). Gov.UK. Retrieved 23 January 2019.
  95. ^ "Statement of changes to the Immigration Rules: HC437, 17 September 2015" (PDF). Gov.UK. Retrieved 23 January 2019.
  96. ^ "Statement of changes to the Immigration Rules: HC877, 11 March 2016" (PDF). Gov.UK. Retrieved 23 January 2019.
  97. ^ Exchange of Notes between the United Kingdom and Austria constituting an Agreement relating to the Abolition of Passport Visas for the Nationals of the Two States
  98. ^ Was applied under visa exemption agreement on 3 December 1927 from 1 January 1928 http://treaties.fco.gov.uk/treaties/treatyrecord.htm?tid=8098
  99. ^ Was applied from 17 March 1951.
    "Exchange of Notes between the Government of the United Kingdom and the Government of Cuba for the Abolition of Visas" (PDF). UK Treaties Online, Treaty Section of the Foreign & Commonwealth Office. Retrieved 24 January 2019.
  100. ^ Was applied from 1 October 1973.
    "Exchange of Notes between the Government of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and the Imperial Iranian Government concerning the Abolition of Visas" (PDF). UK Treaties Online, Treaty Section of the Foreign & Commonwealth Office. Retrieved 24 January 2019.
  101. ^ Was applied from 1 June 1961 under unilateral decision of the UK Government
    from 19 March 1968 under Visa exemption agreement Exchange of Notes between the Government of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and the Government of the Argentine Republic concerning the Abolition of Visas
  102. ^ a b c Was applied from 1 June 1961 under unilateral decision of the UK Government
  103. ^ Was applied from 1 April 1960.
    "Exchange of Notes between the Government of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and the Government of Turkey constituting an Agreement for the Abolition of Visas" (PDF). UK Treaties Online, Treaty Section of the Foreign & Commonwealth Office. Retrieved 24 January 2019.
    Previous visa-free agreement was applied from 9 November 1952 to 1 April 1960.
    "Exchange of Notes between the Government of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and the Government of Turkey constituting an Agreement for the Abolition of Visas" (PDF). UK Treaties Online, Treaty Section of the Foreign & Commonwealth Office. Retrieved 24 January 2019.
  104. ^ Also was applied as French Algeria under visa-free agreement with France from 1 January 1947 to July 1962.
  105. ^ Was applied from 1 November 1958.
    "Exchange of Notes between the Government of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and the Government of Morocco for the Mutual Abolition of Visas on Passports" (PDF). Retrieved 24 January 2019.
  106. ^ Was applied from 7 August 1962.
    "Exchange of Notes between the Government of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and the Government of the Tunisian Republic regarding the Abolition of Visas" (PDF). Retrieved 24 January 2019.
  107. ^ "Statement of treaties and international agreements, October 1991, United Nations" (PDF). Retrieved 24 January 2019.
  108. ^ Was applied under visa exemption agreement on 25 May 1990 from 8 June 1990
    "Exchange of Notes between the Government of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and the Government of the German Democratic Republic concerning the Abolition of Visas" (PDF). UK Treaties Online, Treaty Section of the Foreign & Commonwealth Office.
  109. ^ Was applied from 14 May 1969. Exchange of Notes between the Government of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and the Government of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia concerning the Abolition of Visas
  110. ^ Was applied 28 April 1965. Exchange of Notes between the Government of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and the Government of the Republic of the Ivory Coast concerning the Abolition of Visas
  111. ^ "Statement of changes to the Immigration Rules: CM2663, September 1994 - GOV.UK".
  112. ^ "Statement of changes to the Immigration Rules: HC797, October 1995 - GOV.UK".
  113. ^ "Statement of changes to the Immigration Rules: CM3073, January 1996 - GOV.UK".
  114. ^ "Statement of changes to the Immigration Rules: HC274, March 1996 - GOV.UK".
  115. ^ Was applied from 1 June 1961 under unilateral decision of the UK Government;
    from 20 July 1967 under Visa exemption agreement Exchange of Notes between the Government of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and the Government of the Dominican Republic regarding the Abolition of Visas
  116. ^ Was applied from 21 July 1976. Exchange of Notes between the Government of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and the Government of the Republic of Niger concerning the Abolition of Visas
  117. ^ "Statement of changes to the Immigration Rules: HC329, April 1996 - GOV.UK".
  118. ^ Was applied from 1961. Exchange of Notes between the Government of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and the Government of Colombia regarding the Reciprocal Abolition of Visas
  119. ^ "Statement of changes to the Immigration Rules: CM3669, May 1997 - GOV.UK".
  120. ^ Was applied from 1 June 1961 under unilateral decision of the UK Government;
    from 13 October 1963 under Visa exemption agreement Exchange of Notes between the Government of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and the Government of Ecuador regarding the Abolition of Visas
  121. ^ "Statement of changes to the Immigration Rules: HC161, July 1997 - GOV.UK".
  122. ^ Was applied from 1 October 1990 (signed as Czechoslovakia) Exchange of Notes between the Government of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and the Government of the Czech and Slovak Federal Republic concerning the Abolition of Visas
  123. ^ "Statement of changes to the Immigration Rules: CM4065, October 1998 - GOV.UK".
  124. ^ "Statement of changes to the Immigration Rules: HC22, November 1999 - GOV.UK".
  125. ^ "Statement of changes to the Immigration Rules: HC1301, 7 November 2002 - GOV.UK".
  126. ^ "Statement of changes to the Immigration Rules: HC180, January 2003 - GOV.UK".
  127. ^ Was applied from 17 April 1960. Exchange of Notes between the Government of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and the Government of the Republic of Bolivia regarding the Reciprocal Abolition of Visas
  128. ^ a b "Statement of changes to the Immigration Rules: HC413, 24 April 2009 - GOV.UK".
  129. ^ "Statement of changes to the Immigration Rules: HC1138, 13 March 2014" (PDF).
  130. ^ a b "Visa to pass through the UK in transit - GOV.UK".
  131. ^ "Visa to pass through the UK in transit - GOV.UK".
  132. ^ "Visa to pass through the UK in transit - GOV.UK".
  133. ^ "Are you intending to transit via the UK? - GOV.UK".
  134. ^ https://www.timaticweb.com/cgi-bin/tim_client.cgi?ExpertMode=TINEWS/N1&user=KLMB2C&subuser=KLMB2C
  135. ^ "Apply for a UK visa - GOV.UK".
  136. ^ "Standard Visitor visa - GOV.UK".
  137. ^ a b "Standard Visitor visa - GOV.UK".
  138. ^ "The Home Office launches new two-year Chinese visa pilot - GOV.UK".
  139. ^ "Home Office immigration and nationality fees: 20 February 2020". UK Visas and Immigration.
  140. ^ "Apply for an EEA family permit from outside the UK - GOV.UK".
  141. ^ "The Immigration (Provision of Physical Data) Regulations 2006".
  142. ^ a b "Entry clearance basics (entry clearance guidance) - GOV.UK".
  143. ^ "Common travel area (entry clearance guidance) - GOV.UK".
  144. ^ "Apply for a UK visa - GOV.UK".
  145. ^ "Tuberculosis tests for visa applicants - GOV.UK".
  146. ^ "Transfer your visa to a new passport - GOV.UK".
  147. ^ "Standard Visitor visa - GOV.UK".
  148. ^ The Standard Visitor visa has replaced the Family Visitor visa, General Visitor visa, Child Visitor visa, Business Visitor visa (including visas for academics, doctors and dentists), Sports Visitor visa, Entertainer Visitor visa, Prospective Entrepreneur visa, Private Medical Treatment Visitor visa, and Approved Destination Status (ADS) visa.
  149. ^ "Marriage Visitor visa - GOV.UK".
  150. ^ "Permitted Paid Engagement visa - GOV.UK".
  151. ^ "Parent of a Tier 4 child visa - GOV.UK".
  152. ^ "NEUTRALS LANDING IN UNITED KINGDOM. (Hansard, 19 March 1917)".
  153. ^ a b http://webarchive.nationalarchives.gov.uk/20080806121433/http://www.ukba.homeoffice.gov.uk/sitecontent/documents/news/visawaivertest.pdf?view=Binary
  154. ^ Foundation, Internet Memory. "[ARCHIVED CONTENT] UK Government Web Archive – The National Archives". Archived from the original on 2008-08-06.
  155. ^ "Results of Britain's first global visa review". Foreign and Commonwealth Office. 14 July 2008. Retrieved 11 September 2011.
  156. ^ "Important change for Venezuelan visitors to the UK". Foreign and Commonwealth Office. 2011. Retrieved 11 September 2011.
  157. ^ BBC News (9 February 2009). "Countries face new UK visa rules". Retrieved 14 July 2010.
  158. ^ Foundation, Internet Memory. "[ARCHIVED CONTENT] UK Government Web Archive – The National Archives". Archived from the original on 2009-04-14.
  159. ^ http://www.ukba.homeoffice.gov.uk/sitecontent/documents/policyandlaw/statementsofchanges/2009/hc227.pdf?view=Binary
  160. ^ http://webarchive.nationalarchives.gov.uk/20090414164007/http://www.ukba.homeoffice.gov.uk/sitecontent/documents/news/introofvisaregimes?view=Binary
  161. ^ Westminster, Department of the Official Report (Hansard), House of Commons. "House of Commons Hansard Ministerial Statements for 30 Mar 2010 (pt 0004)".
  162. ^ Westminster, Department of the Official Report (Hansard), House of Commons. "House of Commons Hansard Ministerial Statements for 02 Mar 2011 (pt 0001)".
  163. ^ "Announcements - GOV.UK".
  164. ^ "Announcements - GOV.UK".
  165. ^ http://www.ukba.homeoffice.gov.uk/sitecontent/documents/policyandlaw/statementsofchanges/2011/hc1148.pdf?view=Binary
  166. ^ https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/268230/hc565.pdf
  167. ^ "Statement of Changes in Immigration Rules - GOV.UK".
  168. ^ http://www.ukba.homeoffice.gov.uk/sitecontent/documents/policyandlaw/statementsofchanges/2012/hc565.pdf?view=Binary
  169. ^ "Announcements - GOV.UK".
  170. ^ "UK puts Brazil visitor visa crackdown on hold". BBC News. 13 March 2013.
  171. ^ "UK launches e-visa system for Kuwaitis". 21 February 2016.
  172. ^ https://www.cambridgeeducationgroup.com/ugc-1/1/8/0/Important%20Update%20on%20UK%20Visa%20Regulati.pdf
  173. ^ https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/289857/HC_1138_EM_Web_Accessible.pdf
  174. ^ "Changes to UK visa requirements for Venezuelan nationals - GOV.UK".
  175. ^ http://www.ukba.homeoffice.gov.uk/sitecontent/documents/policyandlaw/modernised/cross-cut/police-registration/police-registration.pdf?view=Binary
  176. ^ "Entry clearance basics (entry clearance guidance) - GOV.UK".
  177. ^ "UK not to introduce visa-free travel for Ukrainians after Brexit – envoy".
  178. ^ "New immigration system: what you need to know". UK Government. Retrieved 8 April 2020.
  179. ^ "The UK's points-based immigration system: an introduction for employers". UK Government. Retrieved 9 April 2020.
  180. ^ "Government: we don't want "low-skilled" workers after the pandemic". Free Movement. 9 April 2020. Retrieved 9 April 2020.
  181. ^ "Directive 2004/38/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 29 April 2004 on the right of citizens of the Union and their family members to move and reside freely within the territory of the Member States". 2004-04-29. Retrieved 2008-12-17.
  182. ^ Summary of the Directive 2004/38/EC "Right of Union citizens and their family members to move and reside freely within the territory of the Member States". 2006-05-02. Retrieved 2008-12-17.
  183. ^ "Decision of the EEA Joint Committee No 158/2007 of 7 December 2007 amending Annex V (Free movement of workers) and Annex VIII (Right of establishment) to the EEA Agreement" (PDF). 2007-12-07. Retrieved 2008-12-22.
  184. ^ a b Article 7(2) of the Schengen Borders Code (OJ L 105, 13 April 2006, p. 1).
  185. ^ a b Home Office WI Checking Policy and operational instructions issued in June 2007 (see [2], pg 21)
  186. ^ See [3], pg 12
  187. ^ a b See [4], pg 3
  188. ^ See [5], table of statistics at 4.13 on pg 12
  189. ^ "The Immigration (European Economic Area) Regulations 2006".
  190. ^ Judgement of the European Court of Justice of 17 February 2005, Case C 215/03, Salah Oulane vs. Minister voor Vreemdelingenzaken en Integratie
  191. ^ http://webarchive.nationalarchives.gov.uk/20131001174849/http://www.bia.homeoffice.gov.uk/sitecontent/documents/policyandlaw/borderforce/primary-checkpoint/initial-examination/uk-eea-no-passport.pdf?view=Binary
  192. ^ Article 27 of Directive 2004/38/EC (Directive 2004/38/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 29 April 2004 on the right of citizens of the Union and their family members to move and reside freely within the territory of the Member States).
  193. ^ Article 28 of Directive 2004/38/EC (Directive 2004/38/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 29 April 2004 on the right of citizens of the Union and their family members to move and reside freely within the territory of the Member States).
  194. ^ Article 29 of Directive 2004/38/EC (Directive 2004/38/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 29 April 2004 on the right of citizens of the Union and their family members to move and reside freely within the territory of the Member States).
  195. ^ Articles 3(1) and 5(2) of Directive 2004/38/EC (Directive 2004/38/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 29 April 2004 on the right of citizens of the Union and their family members to move and reside freely within the territory of the Member States).
  196. ^ "Entering the UK as the holder of an Article 10 residence card - GOV.UK".
  197. ^ Electronic Travel Authority (NZD $9 on Immigration New Zealand's mobile app, NZD $12 if completed online), and an International Visitor Conservation and Tourism Levy (NZD $35), "Information about NZeTA". Immigration New Zealand.
  198. ^ "Overseas Residents Visits to the UK - Office for National Statistics".