Visa requirements for Australian citizens

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Visa requirements for Australian citizens are administrative entry restrictions by the authorities of other states placed on citizens of Australia entering with an Australian passport.

As of 1 January 2017, Australian citizens had visa-free or visa on arrival access to 170 countries and territories, ranking the Australian passport 7th in terms of travel freedom (tied with South Korean passport) according to the Henley visa restrictions index.[1]

Besides visa requirements, most countries specify other requirements which may preclude the entry of Australian and other citizens into their country—for example, that a prospective entrant has a criminal history or health issues, or that there is no evidence of sufficient funds or of a ticket for exit.

Visa requirements map[edit]

Visa requirements for Australian passport holders
  Australia
  Freedom of Movement (Trans-Tasman Travel Arrangement)
  Visa free access
  Visa issued upon arrival
  Electronic authorization or online payment required / eVisa
  Both visa on arrival and eVisa available
  Visa required prior to arrival

Visa requirements[edit]

Each country has a multitude of visa types, each with its particular purpose and requirements. Rules for short visits by ordinary passport holders are as follows:

Country Visa requirement Notes (excluding departure fees)
 Afghanistan Visa required[2] Due to safety concerns, Australian government advises its citizens not to visit Afghanistan.[3]
 Albania Visa not required[4] 90 days
 Algeria Visa required[5]
 Andorra Visa not required[6]
 Angola Visa required[7]
 Antigua and Barbuda Visa not required[8] 1 month
 Argentina Visa not required[9] 90 days
 Armenia eVisa / Visa on arrival[10] 120 days. Obtainable on arrival at Zvartnots International Airport or prior to travel online.[11]
 Austria Visa not required[12] 90 days within any 180 day period in the Schengen Area
 Azerbaijan eVisa[13] 30 days[14]
 Bahamas Visa not required[15] 3 months
 Bahrain eVisa / Visa on arrival[16] 14 days
 Bangladesh Visa on arrival[17] 30 days. Not available at all entry points.[18]
 Barbados Visa not required[19] 6 months
 Belarus Visa not required[20] 5 days, must arrive via Minsk International Airport;
Visas are issued on arrival at the Minsk International Airport
if the support documents were submitted not later than 3 business days before expected date of arrival.[21]
 Belgium Visa not required[22] 90 days within any 180 day period in the Schengen Area
 Belize Visa not required[23] 1 month[24]
 Benin Visa required[25]
 Bhutan Visa required[26] Visa approved via tour operators only.
 Bolivia Visa not required[27] 90 days
 Bosnia and Herzegovina Visa not required[28] 90 days within any 6-month period
 Botswana Visa not required[29] 90 days per year
 Brazil eVisa[30] 90 days per year
 Brunei Visa on arrival[31] 30 days
 Bulgaria Visa not required[32] 90 days within any 180 day period
 Burkina Faso Visa on arrival[33] 1 month
 Burundi Visa required[34] Visitors arriving at Bujumbura International Airport can obtain a visa on arrival providing they have informed their travel agency of passport number and flight details.
Due to safety concerns, Australian government advises its citizens not to visit Burundi.[35]
 Cambodia eVisa / Visa on arrival[36] 30 days. Visa is also obtainable online.[37]
 Cameroon Visa required[38]
 Canada Visa not required[39] 6 months; eTA required if arriving by air.[40]
 Cape Verde Visa on arrival[41] Not available at all entry points.[42]
 Central African Republic Visa required[43] Due to safety concerns, Australian government advises its citizens not to visit Central African Republic.[44]
 Chad Visa required[45] Letter of invitation required.
 Chile Visa not required[46] 90 days. Australian tourists entering Chile through Santiago International Airport are required to pay a "reciprocity fee" of US$117.
 China Visa required[47] 72-hours visa free visit when in transit at Beijing, Changsha, Chengdu, Chongqing, Dalian, Guangzhou, Guilin, Harbin, Kunming, Qingdao, Shenyang, Tianjin, Wuhan, Xi'an and Xiamen.
144-hours visa free visit when in transit at Hangzhou, Nanjing and Shanghai's airports, Railway Station and port.
 Colombia Visa not required[48] 90 days - extendable up to 180-days stay within a one-year period
 Comoros Visa on arrival[49]
 Republic of the Congo Visa required[50]
 Democratic Republic of the Congo Visa required[51] Visa not required for Congolese-born visitors
 Costa Rica Visa not required[52] 90 days
 Côte d'Ivoire eVisa[53] 3 months; eVisa holders must arrive via Port Bouet Airport.
 Croatia Visa not required[54] 90 days within any 180 day period
 Cuba Tourist Card required[55]
 Cyprus Visa not required[56] 90 days within any 180 day period
 Czech Republic Visa not required[57] 90 days within any 180 day period in the Schengen Area
 Denmark Visa not required[58] 90 days within any 180 day period regardless of previous time spent in other Schengen countries (except the other Nordic countries)
 Djibouti Visa on arrival[59] Not available at all entry points.[60]
 Dominica Visa not required[61] 6 months
 Dominican Republic Visa not required[62] 90 days (10 USD Tourist Card valid for 30 days must be purchased upon arrival)
 Ecuador Visa not required[63] 90 days[24]
 Egypt Visa on arrival[64] 30 days
 El Salvador Visa not required[65] 3 months
 Equatorial Guinea Visa required[66] Letter of invitation required.
 Eritrea Visa required[67]
 Estonia Visa not required[68] 90 days within any 180 day period in the Schengen Area
 Ethiopia eVisa / Visa on arrival[69] Not available at all entry points.[70]
 Fiji Visa not required[71] 4 months
 Finland Visa not required[72] 90 days within any 180 day period in the Schengen Area
 France Visa not required[73] 90 days within any 180 day period in the Schengen Area (in Regions of France)
 Gabon eVisa / Visa on arrival[74] Electronic visa holders must arrive via Libreville International Airport.[75]
 Gambia Visa not required[76] 90 days
 Georgia Visa not required[77] 360 days[78]
 Germany Visa not required[79] 90 days within any 180 day period regardless of previous time spent in Schengen countries
 Ghana Visa required[80][81]
 Greece Visa not required[82] 90 days within any 180 day period in the Schengen Area
 Grenada Visa not required[83] 3 months[24]
 Guatemala Visa not required[84] 90 days
 Guinea Visa required[85]
 Guinea-Bissau eVisa / Visa on arrival[86] 90 days
 Guyana Visa not required[87] 3 months
 Haiti Visa not required[88] 3 months
 Honduras Visa not required[89] 3 months
 Hungary Visa not required[90] 90 days within any 180 day period in the Schengen Area
 Iceland Visa not required[91] 90 days within any 180 day period in the Schengen Area
 India e-Visa[92] 60 days; e-Visa holders must arrive via 24 designated airports or 3 designated seaports.[93]
 Indonesia Visa not required[94][95] 30 days
 Iran Visa on arrival[96] 30 days[97]
 Iraq Visa required[98] Due to safety concerns, Australian government advises its citizens not to visit Iraq.[99]
 Ireland Visa not required[100] 3 months
 Israel Visa not required[101] 3 months
 Italy Visa not required[102] 90 days within any 180 day period in the Schengen Area
 Jamaica Visa not required[103]
 Japan Visa not required[104] 90 days
 Jordan Visa on arrival[105] Conditions apply.[106] Not available at all entry points.[107]
 Kazakhstan Visa not required[108] 30 days
 Kenya eVisa / Visa on arrival[109] 3 months
 Kiribati Visa not required[110] 30 days
 North Korea Visa required[111]
 South Korea Visa not required[112] 90 days
 Kuwait eVisa / Visa on arrival[113] 3 months
 Kyrgyzstan Visa not required[114] 60 days
A single or multiple tourist or business e-visa for 90 days is also available.[115]
 Laos Visa on arrival[116] 30 days.[24] Not available at all entry points.[117]
 Latvia Visa not required[118] 90 days within any 180 day period in the Schengen Area
 Lebanon Visa on arrival[119] 1 month extendible for 2 additional months; granted free of charge at Beirut International Airport or any other port of entry if there is no Israeli visa or seal, holding a telephone number, an address in Lebanon, and a non refundable return or circle trip ticket.
 Lesotho Visa not required[120] 14 days[24]
 Liberia Visa required[121]
 Libya Visa required[122] Due to safety concerns, Australian government advises its citizens not to visit Libya.[123]
 Liechtenstein Visa not required[124] 90 days within any 180 day period in the Schengen Area
 Lithuania Visa not required[125] 90 days within any 180 day period in the Schengen Area
 Luxembourg Visa not required[126] 90 days within any 180 day period in the Schengen Area
 Macedonia Visa not required[127] 90 days within any 180 day period
 Madagascar Visa on arrival[128] 30 days free of charge
 Malawi Visa on arrival[129]
 Malaysia Visa not required[130] 3 months
 Maldives Visa on arrival[131] 30 days[24]
 Mali Visa required[132]
 Malta Visa not required[133] 90 days within any 180 day period in the Schengen Area
 Marshall Islands Visa on arrival[134] 90 days
 Mauritania Visa on arrival[135] Available at Nouakchott–Oumtounsy International Airport.
 Mauritius Visa not required[136] 90 days
 Mexico Visa not required[137] 180 days
 Micronesia Visa not required[138] 30 days
 Moldova Visa not required[139] 90 days within any 180 day period
 Monaco Visa not required[140]
 Mongolia Visa required[141] Registration upon arrival for stays longer than 30 days is mandatory.
 Montenegro Visa not required[142] 90 days within any 180 day period
 Morocco Visa not required[143] 3 months
 Mozambique Visa on arrival[144] 30 days, conditions apply[145]
 Myanmar eVisa[146] 28 days. eVisa holders must arrive via Yangon, Nay Pyi Taw or Mandalay airports.
 Namibia Visa not required[147] 3 months
 Nauru Visa required[148] Criminal record and medical fitness certificates are not required for Australian citizens.[149]
   Nepal Visa on arrival[150] 90 days
 Netherlands Visa not required[151] 90 days within any 180 day period in the Schengen area (European Netherlands)
 New Zealand Freedom of movement[152] Trans-Tasman Travel Arrangement
 Nicaragua Visa not required[153] 90 days
 Niger Visa required[154]
 Nigeria Visa required[155] Visa not required for Nigerian-born citizens
 Norway Visa not required[156] 90 days within any 180 day period in the Schengen Area
 Oman eVisa / Visa on arrival[157] 30 days[24]
 Pakistan Visa required[158] Visa on arrival when travelling on business valid for 30 days. Conditions apply.[159]
 Palau Visa on arrival[160] 30 days
 Panama Visa not required[161] 180 days
 Papua New Guinea Free Visa on arrival[162] 30 days, available at Gurney Airport (Alotau), Mount Hagen Airport, Port Moresby Airport and Tokua Airport (Rabaul).
 Paraguay Visa on arrival[163] 90 days, only available at Silvio Pettirossi International Airport in Luque. Reciprocity fee applies.
 Peru Visa not required[164] 183 days
 Philippines Visa not required[165] 30 days
 Poland Visa not required[166] 90 days within any 180 day period in the Schengen Area
 Portugal Visa not required[167] 90 days within any 180 day period in the Schengen Area
 Qatar eVisa / Visa on arrival[168] 30 days, available at Hamad International Airport. eVisa is also available.
 Romania Visa not required[169] 90 days within any 180 day period
 Russia Visa required[170]
 Rwanda Visa on arrival[171] 30 days
 Saint Kitts and Nevis Visa not required[172] 3 months
 Saint Lucia Visa not required[173] 6 weeks
 Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Visa not required[174] 1 month
 Samoa Entry Permit on arrival[175] 60 days
 San Marino Visa not required[176]
 São Tomé and Príncipe eVisa[177]
 Saudi Arabia Visa required[178]
 Senegal Visa not required[179]
 Serbia Visa not required[180] 90 days within any 180 day period
 Seychelles Visitor's Permit on arrival[181] 3 months[24]
 Sierra Leone Visa required[182]
 Singapore Visa not required[183] 90 days
 Slovakia Visa not required[184] 90 days within any 180 day period in the Schengen Area
 Slovenia Visa not required[185] 90 days within any 180 day period in the Schengen Area
 Solomon Islands Visitor's permit on arrival[186] 3 months
 Somalia Visa required[187] Visa may be obtained on arrival, provided an invitation letter by the sponsor had been submitted to the authorities before arrival.
Due to safety concerns, Australian government advises its citizens not to visit Somalia.[188]
 South Africa Visa not required[189] 90 days
 South Sudan Visa required[190] Due to safety concerns, Australian government advises its citizens not to visit South Sudan.[191]
 Spain Visa not required[192] 90 days within any 180 day period in the Schengen Area
 Sri Lanka eVisa / Visa on arrival[193] 30 days
 Sudan Visa required[194] Visa not required for Sudanese-born citizens
 Suriname Visa required[195]
 Swaziland Visa not required[196] 30 days[24]
 Sweden Visa not required[197] 90 days within any 180 day period in the Schengen Area
  Switzerland Visa not required[198] 90 days within any 180 day period in the Schengen Area
 Syria Visa required[199] Due to safety concerns, Australian government advises its citizens not to visit Syria.[200]
 Tajikistan Visa on arrival[201] 45 days at Dushanbe International Airport. Visa also available online. E-visa holders can enter through all border points.[202]
 Tanzania Visa on arrival[203]
 Thailand Visa not required[204] 30 days (maximum two visits annually if not arriving by air)
 Timor-Leste Visa on arrival[205] 30 days. Not available at all entry points.[206]
 Togo Visa on arrival[207] 7 days
 Tonga Visa on arrival[208] 31 days
 Trinidad and Tobago Visa on arrival[209] 30 days
 Tunisia Visa not required[210][211] 3 months
 Turkey eVisa / Visa on arrival[212] 3 months.[213] Cruise ship passengers do not require a visa for up to 72 hours.[214] eVisa can be obtained on arrival for a higher fee.
 Turkmenistan Visa required[215] Transit visa is required.
 Tuvalu Visa on arrival[216] 1 month[24]
 Uganda eVisa / Visa on arrival[217] Determined at the port of entry. May apply online.[218]
 Ukraine Visa on arrival[219] 15 days for business or tourism purposes, available at Kyiv Boryspil Airport, Kyiv International Airport (Zhuliany) and Odessa International Airport.[220]
 United Arab Emirates Visa on arrival[221] 30 days
 United Kingdom and Crown dependencies Visa not required[222] 6 months
 United States Visa Waiver Program[223] 90 days on arrival from overseas; ESTA (valid for 2 years when issued) required if arriving by air or cruise ship.[224]
 Uruguay Visa not required[225] 3 months
 Uzbekistan Visa required[226] Pre-arranged visa can be obtained on arrival for a maximum of 7 days.
 Vanuatu Visa not required[227] 30 days[24]
  Vatican City Visa not required[228]
 Venezuela Visa not required[229] 90 days
 Vietnam Visa required[230] Pre-arranged visa obtained online through travel agencies available at Hanoi, Ho Chi Minh City or Da Nang airports.
Phú Quốc without a visa for up to 30 days.[231]
 Yemen Visa required[232] Due to safety concerns, Australian government advises its citizens not to visit Yemen.[233]
 Zambia eVisa / Visa on arrival[234] 90 days; also eligible for a universal visa allowing access to Zimbabwe. eVisa available.
 Zimbabwe eVisa / Visa on arrival[235] 3 months. Strictly tourism purposes only. Also eligible for a universal visa allowing access to Zambia. eVisa available.

Dependent, Disputed, or Restricted territories[edit]

Unrecognized or partially recognized countries
Territory Conditions of access Notes
 Abkhazia Visa required[236]
 Kosovo Visa not required[237] 90 days
 Northern Cyprus Visa not required[238] 3 months
 Nagorno-Karabakh Visa required[239] Travellers with Nagorno-Karabakh visa (expired or valid) or evidence of travel to Nagorno-Karabakh (stamps) will be permanently denied entry to Azerbaijan.[240]
 Palestine Visa not required[241] Arrival by sea to Gaza Strip not allowed.[242]
 Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic Undefined visa regime in the Western Sahara controlled territory.
 Somaliland Visa on arrival 30 days for 30 US dollars, payable on arrival.[243][244]
 South Ossetia Visa not required[245] Multiple entry visa to Russia and three day prior notification are required to enter South Ossetia.[246][247]
 Taiwan Visa not required[248][249] 90 days
 Transnistria Visa not required[250] Registration required after 24h.[251][252]
Dependent and autonomous territories
Territory Conditions of access Notes
China
 Hong Kong Visa not required[253] 90 days
 Macau Visa not required[254] 30 days
Denmark
 Faroe Islands Visa not required[255]
 Greenland Visa not required[256]
France
 French Guiana Visa not required[257] 3 months
 French Polynesia Visa not required[258] 90 days within 180 days
France French West Indies Visa not required Includes overseas departments of Guadeloupe and Martinique and overseas collectivities of Saint Barthélemy and Saint Martin.
 Mayotte Visa not required[259] 3 months
 New Caledonia Visa not required[260] 3 months
 Réunion Visa not required[261] 3 months
 Saint Pierre and Miquelon Visa not required[262] 3 months
 Wallis and Futuna Visa not required[263] 3 months
Netherlands
 Aruba Visa not required[264] 30 days, extendable to 180 days
Netherlands Caribbean Netherlands Visa not required[265] 90 days. Includes Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba.
 Curaçao Visa not required[266] 90 days
 Sint Maarten Visa not required[267] 90 days
New Zealand
 Cook Islands Visa not required[268] 31 days
 Niue Visa not required[269] 30 days
 Tokelau Visa required[270]
United Kingdom
 Akrotiri and Dhekelia Visa not required[271] Stays longer than 28 days per 12-month period require a permit.[272]
 Anguilla Visa not required[273] 3 months
 Bermuda Visa not required[274] Up to 6 months, decided on arriva
 British Indian Ocean Territory Special permit required Special permit required.[275]
 British Virgin Islands Visa not required[276] 30 days, extensions possible
 Cayman Islands Visa not required[277] 6 months
 Falkland Islands Visa not required[278]
 Gibraltar Visa not required[279]
 Montserrat Visa not required[280] 6 months
 Pitcairn Islands Visa not required 14 days visa free and landing fee 35 USD or tax of 5 USD if not going ashore.[281][282][283]
 Ascension Island Entry Permit required Entry Permit must be obtained minimum 28 days in advance (3 months for 20/30 pounds sterling, single/double entry).[284]
 Saint Helena Visitor's Pass required Visitor's Pass granted on arrival valid for 4/10/21/60/90 days for 12/14/16/20/25 pound sterling.[285]
 Tristan da Cunha Permission required Permission to land required for 15/30 pounds sterling (yacht/ship passenger) for Tristan da Cunha Island or 20 pounds sterling for Gough Island, Inaccessible Island or Nightingale Islands.[286]
 South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands Permit required Pre-arrival permit from the Commissioner required (72 hours/1 month for 110/160 pounds sterling).[287][288]
 Turks and Caicos Islands Visa required[289] 90 days
United States
 American Samoa Entry permit required[290]
 Guam Visa not required[291] 45 days
 Northern Mariana Islands Visa not required[292] 45 days
 Puerto Rico Visa not required[293] Under the Visa Waiver Program, for 90 days on arrival from overseas for 2 years. ESTA required.
 U.S. Virgin Islands Visa not required[294] Under the Visa Waiver Program, for 90 days on arrival from overseas for 2 years. ESTA required.
Antarctica and adjacent islands
Special permits required for  Bouvet Island,  British Antarctic Territory,  French Southern and Antarctic Lands,  Argentine Antarctica, Australia Australian Antarctic Territory, Antártica Chilena Province Chilean Antarctic Territory, Australia Heard Island and McDonald Islands, Norway Peter I Island, Norway Queen Maud Land, New Zealand Ross Dependency.[295][296][297][298][299][300][301][302][303][304][305][306]
Other territories
Territory Conditions of access Notes
 Belarus
Belovezhskaya Pushcha National Park
Visa not required 3 days;[307] must first obtain an electronic pass[308]
 China
Hainan
Visa on arrival[309] 15 days. Available at Haikou Meilan International Airport and Sanya Phoenix International Airport.
Visa not required for 15 days for traveling as part of a tourist group (5 or more people)[310]
 China
Tibet Autonomous Region
TTP required Tibet Travel Permit required (10 US Dollars).[311][312][313]
Autonomous Republic of Crimea Crimea Visa required Visa issued by Russia is required.[314]
 Ecuador
Bandera Provincia Galápagos.svg Galápagos
Pre-registration required Online pre-registration is required. Transit Control Card must also be obtained at the airport prior to departure.[315]
 Eritrea outside Asmara Travel permit required To travel in the rest of the country, a Travel Permit for Foreigners is required (20 Eritrean nakfa).[316]
 Greece
Mount Athos
Special permit required Special permit required (4 days: 25 euro for Orthodox visitors, 35 euro for non-Orthodox visitors, 18 euro for students). There is a visitors' quota: maximum 100 Orthodox and 10 non-Orthodox per day and women are not allowed.[317][318]
 India PAP/RAP PAP/RAP required Protected Area Permit (PAP) required for whole states of Nagaland and Sikkim and parts of states Manipur, Arunachal Pradesh, Uttaranchal, Jammu and Kashmir, Rajasthan, Himachal Pradesh.
Restricted Area Permit (RAP) required for all of Andaman and Nicobar Islands and parts of Sikkim. Some of these requirements are occasionally lifted for a year.[319][320][321][322][323][324]
 Iran
Kish Island
Visa not required Visitors to Kish Island do not require a visa.[325]
 Iraqi Kurdistan Visa on arrival Visa on arrival for 15 days is available at Erbil and Sulaymaniyah airports.[326]
 Fiji
Lau Province
Special permission required Special permission required.[327]
 France
Clipperton Island
Special permit required Special permit required.[328]
 Kazakhstan Special permission required Special permission required for the town of Baikonur and surrounding areas in Kyzylorda Oblast, and the town of Gvardeyskiy near Almaty.[329]
 North Korea outside Pyongyang Special permit required People are not allowed to leave the capital city, tourists can only leave the capital with a governmental tourist guide (no independent moving)
 Malaysia Sabah and Sarawak Visa not required These states have their own immigration authorities and passport is required to travel to them, however the same visa applies.[330]
 Maldives outside Malé Permission required With the exception of the capital Malé, tourists are generally prohibited from visiting non-resort islands without the express permission of the Government of Maldives.[331]
 Norway
Jan Mayen
Permit required Permit issued by the local police required for staying for less than 24 hours[332] and permit issued by the Norwegian police for staying for more than 24 hours.[333]
 Novorossiya Restricted area Crossing from Ukraine requires visit purpose to be explained to Ukrainian passport control on exit and those who entered from Russia are not allowed to proceed further into Ukraine.[334][335]
 Russia Special authorization required Several closed cities and regions in Russia require special authorization.[336]
 Sudan outside Khartoum Travel permit required All foreigners traveling more than 25 kilometers outside of Khartoum must obtain a travel permit.
 Sudan
Darfur
Travel permit required Separate travel permit is required.[337]
 Tajikistan
Gorno-Badakhshan Autonomous Province
OIVR permit required OIVR permit required (15+5 Tajikistani Somoni) and another special permit (free of charge) is required for Lake Sarez.[338][339][340]
United Nations UN Buffer Zone in Cyprus Access Permit required[341] Access Permit is required for travelling inside the zone, except Civil Use Areas.
United Nations Korean Demilitarized Zone Restricted zone.
United Nations UNDOF Zone and Ghajar Restricted zone.
United States United States Minor Outlying Islands Special permits required Special permits required for Baker Island, Howland Island, Jarvis Island, Johnston Atoll, Kingman Reef, Midway Atoll, Palmyra Atoll and Wake Island.[342][343][344][345][346][347][348]
 Venezuela
Margarita Island
Visa not required All visitors are fingerprinted.[349]
 Vietnam
Phú Quốc
Visa not required 30 days[350]
 Yemen outside Sana’a or Aden Special permission required Special permission needed for travel outside Sana’a or Aden.[351]

Reciprocity issues[edit]

In 2014 Bulgaria, Cyprus and Romania notified the European Commission that they consider Australia requires a visa for their citizens.[352] Implications are that if the notification is accepted the EU may suspend the visa exemption for certain categories of Australian nationals and at the latest six months after publication of the regulation, the Commission may decide to suspend the visa-free access to all Australian citizens.[353]

Some countries regard the ETA as being equivalent to visa-free travel when deciding whether to grant the same to Australians wishing to enter their territory. The United States, for example, offers their Visa Waiver Program to Australian passport-holders,[354] and one of the conditions for joining this scheme is that "Governments provide reciprocal visa-free travel for U.S. citizens for 90 days for tourism or business purposes".[355] However, United States require from January 2009 similar ETA from citizens of Australia and some more countries. This system is not called visa, but Electronic System for Travel Authorization, therefore the USA still allows visa-free travel for Australians. As of December 1998, Japan has also granted visa-free access to Australians.[356] Other ETA eligible countries and territories Canada,[357] Hong Kong,[358] Malaysia,[359] Singapore,[360] South Korea (90 days)[361] and Taiwan (90 days)[362] also grant visa-free access to Australians while Brunei grants Australians a 30-day visa on arrival.[363]

Additional rules[edit]

Visa exemptions for Schengen states[edit]

A stay in the Schengen Area as a whole of more than three months (but no more than three months in any individual member state)[edit]

The Australian Government has signed bilateral visa waiver agreements with a number of the individual countries who are Schengen signatories, which allow Australian citizens to spend up to three months in the relevant country, without reference to time spent in other Schengen signatory states. Since these agreements continue to remain valid despite the implementation of the Schengen agreement, the European Commission has confirmed that in practice if Australians visit Schengen countries which have signed these types of bilateral agreements with Australia, then the terms of these agreements override the conditions normally imposed as a result of the Schengen visa exemption agreement.[364] However, amendments are under consideration to restrict exit from the Schengen area only through the territory of the Member State which is a Contracting Party to the bilateral agreement and the authorities of which have extended the stay. [365]

Australia has individual bilateral visa waiver agreements with the following Schengen signatories:

Consequently, Australian citizens can visit the above Schengen member states visa-free for periods of up to three months in each country. If, however, an Australian citizen then visits another Schengen state not included in the list above, the restriction of no more than three months out of a six-month period in the Schengen area as a whole applies. Therefore, if an Australian citizen has already spent three months in one or more of the above Schengen countries, any visits to another Schengen country without a bilateral visa waiver agreement with Australia may lead to difficulties with local law enforcement agencies (e.g. being accused of having overstayed upon leaving a Schengen country which is not in the list above).

A stay in the Schengen Area as a whole of up to three months[edit]

Australian citizens are classified as 'Annex II' foreign nationals, and so are permitted to stay visa-free in the 26 member states of the Schengen Area as a whole — rather than each country individually — for a period not exceeding 3 months every 6 months.

During the visa exemption period, Australian citizens are permitted to work in Belgium, Bulgaria, Denmark, Finland, Germany, Iceland, Lithuania, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Slovenia and Sweden.[381] In addition, Australian citizens intending to stay and work in Estonia for up to 90 days can do so without a visa as long as the employer has completed a 'registration of short-term employment'.[382]

A stay in the Schengen Area as a whole of more than 3 months (and more than 3 months in an individual member state)[edit]

In general, any person who is not a European Union, European Economic Area or Swiss citizen and who wishes to stay in a Schengen member state for more than 3 months is required to obtain a national long-stay 'D' visa and/or a residence permit. Australian citizens aged 18–30 (or 18-35 in some cases) are able to obtain a national long-stay 'D' visa and/or a residence permit from some Schengen member states on the basis of a working holiday (see below). Schengen member states also issue national long-stay 'D' visas and residence permits for other reasons to those fulfilling criteria laid out in their national immigration policies (e.g. skilled workers, students, au pair).

In general, the national long-stay 'D' visa/residence permit needs to be obtained in advance through the member state's embassy/consulate. However, some Schengen member states offer exceptions for Australian citizens.

 Austria allows Australian citizens to enter the country without a visa and to apply for a temporary residence permit or a 'Red-White-Red Card' (issued to permanent immigrants) after arrival, rather than in advance through an Austrian embassy/consulate.[383][384]

The  Czech Republic allows Australian citizens to apply for a work visa under a special scheme known as a 'Green Card' (rather than a 'Blue Card' or work permit which is required by most non-EU citizens). The application for a Green Card can be lodged at any Czech embassy/consulate (or, in some circumstances, within the Czech Republic if the applicant is already resident there) and is usually processed within 60 days.[385] Note that 'Green Cards' are no longer issued after 24 June 2014.[386]

 Germany permits Australian citizens intending to stay in the country for over 3 months to enter without a visa and to apply for a residence permit after arrival (whilst for many other non-EEA and Swiss citizens, a residence permit and visa for a stay over 3 months must be applied for in advance at a German foreign mission).[387][388]

 Estonia permits Australian citizens to stay and work in Estonia for more than 90 days but less than 6 months as long as they obtain a category 'D' long-stay visa at a cost of €80 in advance at an Estonian foreign mission after the employer has completed a 'registration of short-term employment'.[389] Australian citizens intending to stay and work in Estonia for more than 6 months can apply for a temporary residence permit for employment after arrival in the country.[390]

 Hungary allows Australian citizens who wish to stay for more than 90 days in the country to apply for a residence card from the regional directorate of the Office of Immigration and Nationality within 90 days of arrival and do not need to obtain a residence permit prior to arrival in Hungary (unlike most other non-EEA and Swiss foreign nationals).[391]

 Latvia permits Australian citizens intending to stay in the country for over 3 months as self-employed persons or as businesspersons to enter Latvia without a visa and to apply for a residence permit after arrival (whilst for many non-EEA and Swiss citizens, an application for a residence permit must be lodged in advance at a Latvian foreign mission).[392]

 Netherlands exempts Australian citizens from the requirement to obtain a Schengen category "D" visa (the visa issued for long term stays in The Netherlands of over 90 days, known in Dutch as the "MVV" visa) - an exemption which goes beyond the visa waiver afforded to most other non-EEA and non-Swiss foreign nationals who are usually only given a visa waiver of up to 90 days in a 180-day period.[393]

 Norway permits Australian citizens who have qualifications as a skilled worker to stay in the country without a visa for up to 6 months to seek employment as a skilled worker or a specialist (except as a religious leader/teacher or an ethnic cook), as long as they register with the police within 3 months of arriving in Norway.[394]

Visa exemptions and requirements for the United Kingdom[edit]

Australian citizens are able to visit the United Kingdom for up to 6 months (or 3 months if they enter from the Republic of Ireland) without the need to apply for a visa as long as they fulfil all of the following criteria:

  • they do not work during their stay in the UK
  • they must not register a marriage or register a civil partnership during their stay in the UK
  • they can present evidence of sufficient money to fund their stay in the UK (if requested by the border inspection officer)
  • they intend to leave the UK at the end of their visit and can meet the cost of the return/onward journey
  • they have completed a landing card and submitted it at passport control unless in direct transit to a destination outside the Common Travel Area[395]
  • if under the age of 18, they can demonstrate evidence of suitable care arrangements and parental (or guardian's) consent for their stay in the UK[396]

However, even though, strictly speaking, he or she is not required to apply for a visa if he or she satisfies all of the above criteria, an Australian citizen who falls into any of the following categories has been strongly advised by the UK Border Agency (replaced by UK Visas and Immigration) to apply for a visa prior to travelling to the UK:

  • he/she has any unspent criminal convictions in any country
  • he/she has previously been refused or breached the terms of any entry to the UK, or been deported or otherwise removed from the UK
  • he/she has previously applied for a visa and been refused one
  • he/she has been warned by a UK official that he/she should obtain a visa before travelling to the UK

Australian citizens who were born before 1983[citation needed] and qualify for the right of abode are able to live and work in the United Kingdom indefinitely.

Australian citizens with a grandparent born either in the United Kingdom, Channel Islands or Isle of Man at any time or in the Republic of Ireland on or before 31 March 1922 can apply for UK Ancestry Entry Clearance, which enables them to work in the UK for five years, after which they can apply to settle indefinitely.

Australian citizens aged 18 to 30 can apply for a Youth Mobility Scheme visa which allows them to pursue a working holiday in the UK for two years.

Visa exemption for New Zealand[edit]

By virtue of the Trans-Tasman Travel Arrangement, Australian citizens are exempt from the requirement to hold a permit on arrival in New Zealand and may reside or work for an indefinite period as long as:[397]

  • they present a valid Australian passport OR hold a foreign passport showing their Australian Citizen Endorsement or Australian Citizen Declaratory Visa (either with a label or a confirmation letter) as evidence of their Australian citizenship
  • they have no criminal convictions
  • they have no untreated tuberculosis
  • they have not been deported, excluded or removed from any country

Travel ban[edit]

It is an offence for Australians to travel or remain in Declared Areas. Those are currently parts of northern Iraq and parts of northern Syria.

APEC Business Travel Card[edit]

  Full members of the scheme
  Transitional members (United States, Canada)

Holders of an APEC Business Travel Card (ABTC) travelling on business do not require a visa to the following countries:[398]

1 – up to 90 days
2 – up to 60 days
3 – up to 59 days

The card must be used in conjunction with a passport and has the following advantages:[399]

  • no need to apply for a visa or entry permit to APEC countries, as the card is treated as such (except by  Canada and  United States)
  • undertake legitimate business in participating economies
  • expedited border crossing in all member economies, including transitional members
  • expedited scheduling of visa interview (USA)

Non-visa restrictions[edit]

Passport validity length[edit]

Many countries require passports to be valid for at least 6 months upon arrival.[400] Note that some nations have bilateral agreements with other countries to shorten the passport validity cut-off period for each other's citizens.[401][402]

Countries requiring passports to be valid at least 6 months on arrival include Afghanistan, Algeria, Anguilla, Bahrain, Bhutan, Botswana, British Virgin Islands, Brunei, Cambodia, Cameroon, Cayman Islands, Central African Republic, Chad, Comoros, Côte d'Ivoire, Curaçao, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Equatorial Guinea, Fiji, Gabon, Guinea Bissau, Guyana, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq (except when arriving at Basra and Erbil or Sulaimaniyah), Israel, Jordan, Kenya, Kiribati, Laos, Madagascar, Malaysia, Marshall Islands, Micronesia, Myanmar, Namibia, Nicaragua, Nigeria, Oman, Palau, Papua New Guinea, Philippines, Qatar, Rwanda, Saint Lucia, Samoa, Saudi Arabia, Singapore, Solomon Islands, Somalia, Somaliland, Sri Lanka, Suriname, Taiwan, Tanzania, Thailand, Timor-Leste, Tokelau, Tonga, Tuvalu, Uganda, United Arab Emirates, Vanuatu, Venezuela, Vietnam, Yemen and Zimbabwe.[403]

Countries requiring passports valid for at least 4 months on arrival include Micronesia and Zambia.

Countries requiring passports valid for at least 3 months on arrival include European Union countries (except Denmark, Republic of Ireland and the United Kingdom, and except for EU/EEA/Swiss citizens), Albania, Belarus, Georgia, Honduras, Iceland, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Liechtenstein, Moldova, Monaco, Nauru, Panama, Saint Barthélemy, San Marino, Switzerland and the United Arab Emirates.

Bermuda requires passports to be valid for at least 45 days upon entry.

Countries that require a passport validity of at least 1 month on arrival include Eritrea, Hong Kong, Macao, New Zealand and South Africa.[404]

Other countries require either a passport valid on arrival or a passport valid throughout the period of the intended stay.

Blank passport pages[edit]

Many countries require a minimum number of blank pages in the passport being presented, generally one or two pages.[405]

Vaccination[edit]

Many African countries, including Angola, Benin, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Republic of the Congo, Côte d'Ivoire, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Ghana, Guinea, Liberia, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Rwanda, São Tomé and Príncipe, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Uganda, and Zambia require all incoming passengers to have a current International Certificate of Vaccination.

Some other countries require vaccination only if the passenger is coming from an infected area.[406]

Israeli stamps[edit]

Kuwait,[407] Lebanon,[408] Libya,[409] Saudi Arabia,[410] Sudan,[411] Syria[412] and Yemen[413] do not allow entry to people with passport stamps from Israel or whose passports have either a used or an unused Israeli visa, or where there is evidence of previous travel to Israel such as entry or exit stamps from neighbouring border posts in transit countries such as Jordan and Egypt.

To circumvent this Arab League boycott of Israel, the Israeli immigration services have now mostly ceased to stamp foreign nationals' passports on either entry to or exit from Israel. Since 15 January 2013, Israel no longer stamps foreign passports at Ben Gurion Airport, giving passengers a card instead: "Since January 2013 a pilot scheme has been introduced whereby visitors are given an entry card instead of an entry stamp on arrival. You should keep this card with your passport until you leave. This is evidence of your legal entry into Israel and may be required, particularly at any crossing points into the Occupied Palestinian Territories." [414] Passports are still (as of 22 June 2017) stamped at Erez when travelling into and out of Gaza. Also, passports are still stamped (as of 22 June 2017) at the Jordan Valley/Sheikh Hussein and Yitzhak Rabin/Arava land borders with Jordan.

  • Iran: Admission is refused for holders of passports containing an Israeli visa/stamp in the last 12 months[415]

Armenian ethnicity[edit]

Due to a state of war existing between Armenia and Azerbaijan, the government of Azerbaijan not only bans entry of citizens from Armenia, but also all citizens and nationals of any other country who are of Armenian descent, to the Republic of Azerbaijan[416][417] (although there have been exceptions, notably for Armenia's participation at the 2015 European Games held in Azerbaijan).

Azerbaijan also strictly bans any visit by foreign citizens to the separatist region of Nagorno-Karabakh[418] (the de facto independent Republic of Artsakh), its surrounding territories and the Azerbaijani exclaves of Karki, Yuxarı Əskipara, Barxudarlı and Sofulu which are de jure part of Azerbaijan but under control of Armenia, without the prior consent of the government of Azerbaijan. Foreign citizens who enter these occupied territories, will be permanently banned from entering the Republic of Azerbaijan and will be included in their "list of personae non gratae".[419]

Upon request, the Republic of Artsakh authorities may attach their visa and/or stamps to a separate piece of paper in order to avoid detection of travel to their country.

Persona non grata[edit]

The government of a country can declare a diplomat persona non grata, banning their entry into that country. In non-diplomatic use, the authorities of a country may also declare a foreigner persona non grata permanently or temporarily, usually because of unlawful activity. Attempts to enter the Gaza strip by sea may attract a 10-year ban on entering Israel.[420]

Criminal record[edit]

Some countries (for example, Canada[421]) routinely deny entry to foreigners who have a criminal record.


Fingerprinting[edit]

Several countries including Argentina, Cambodia, Japan, Malaysia, Saudi Arabia, United States, South Korea demand all passengers to be fingerprinted on arrival.[422][423][424][425][426][427][428]

Furthermore, the UAE conducts retina scanning on visitors, however, that is normally for those who have to apply for a visa.[429]

Consular protection of Australian citizens abroad[edit]

Diplomatic missions of Australia

There are currently over 100 Australian missions overseas.
See also List of diplomatic missions of Australia.

Foreign travel statistics[edit]

According to the statistics these are the numbers of Australian visitors to various countries per annum in 2015 (unless otherwise noted):

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj bk bl Data for 2016
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Counting only guests in tourist accommodation establishments.
  3. ^ a b c Data for 2013
  4. ^ a b Data for 2011
  5. ^ a b c Data for arrivals by air only.
  6. ^ Data for 2012
  7. ^ a b c d e f g Data for 2014
  8. ^ a b c Data for 2009
  9. ^ Data for arrivals by air only.
  10. ^ Total number includes tourists, business travelers, students, exchange visitors, temporary workers and families, diplomats and other representatives and all other classes of nonimmigrant admissions (I-94).


See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Global Ranking - Visa Restriction Index 2017" (PDF). Henley & Partners. Retrieved 14 March 2017. 
  2. ^ "Passport and visa requirements". Timatic. International Air Transport Association (IATA) through Olympic Air. Retrieved 28 June 2015. 
  3. ^ http://www.smartraveller.gov.au/Countries/asia/south/Pages/afghanistan.aspx
  4. ^ "Passport and visa requirements". Timatic. International Air Transport Association (IATA) through Olympic Air. Retrieved 28 June 2015. 
  5. ^ "Passport and visa requirements". Timatic. International Air Transport Association (IATA) through Olympic Air. Retrieved 28 June 2015. 
  6. ^ "Passport and visa requirements". Timatic. International Air Transport Association (IATA) through Olympic Air. Retrieved 28 June 2015. 
  7. ^ "Passport and visa requirements". Timatic. International Air Transport Association (IATA) through Olympic Air. Retrieved 28 June 2015. 
  8. ^ "Passport and visa requirements". Timatic. International Air Transport Association (IATA) through Olympic Air. Retrieved 28 June 2015. 
  9. ^ "Passport and visa requirements". Timatic. International Air Transport Association (IATA) through Olympic Air. Retrieved 28 June 2015. 
  10. ^ "Passport and visa requirements". Timatic. International Air Transport Association (IATA) through Olympic Air. Retrieved 28 June 2015. 
  11. ^ e-Visa - Republic of Armenia Electronic Visa System
  12. ^ "Passport and visa requirements". Timatic. International Air Transport Association (IATA) through Olympic Air. Retrieved 28 June 2015. 
  13. ^ "Passport and visa requirements". Timatic. International Air Transport Association (IATA) through Olympic Air. 
  14. ^ Electronic Visa System of Azerbaijan Republic
  15. ^ "Passport and visa requirements". Timatic. International Air Transport Association (IATA) through Olympic Air. Retrieved 28 June 2015. 
  16. ^ "Passport and visa requirements". Timatic. International Air Transport Association (IATA) through Olympic Air. Retrieved 28 June 2015. 
  17. ^ "Passport and visa requirements". Timatic. International Air Transport Association (IATA) through Olympic Air. Retrieved 28 June 2015. 
  18. ^ Available at Shahjalal International Airport, Shah Amanat International Airport and Osmani International Airport only.
  19. ^ "Passport and visa requirements". Timatic. International Air Transport Association (IATA) through Olympic Air. Retrieved 28 June 2015. 
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  24. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Extendable length of stay.
  25. ^ "Passport and visa requirements". Timatic. International Air Transport Association (IATA) through Olympic Air. Retrieved 28 June 2015. 
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  30. ^ http://www.vfsglobal.com/Brazil-eVisa/
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  32. ^ "Passport and visa requirements". Timatic. International Air Transport Association (IATA) through Olympic Air. Retrieved 28 June 2015. 
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  34. ^ "Passport and visa requirements". Timatic. International Air Transport Association (IATA) through Olympic Air. Retrieved 9 October 2015. 
  35. ^ http://www.smartraveller.gov.au/Countries/africa/east/Pages/burundi.aspx
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  40. ^ canada.ca/eTA
  41. ^ "Passport and visa requirements". Timatic. International Air Transport Association (IATA) through Olympic Air. Retrieved 28 June 2015. 
  42. ^ Obtainable at Nelson Mandela International Airport, Cesária Évora Airport, Amílcar Cabral International Airport and Aristides Pereira International Airport.
  43. ^ "Passport and visa requirements". Timatic. International Air Transport Association (IATA) through Olympic Air. Retrieved 28 June 2015. 
  44. ^ http://www.smartraveller.gov.au/Countries/africa/central/Pages/central_african_republic.aspx
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  53. ^ Visa at International Airport Felix Houphouet Boigny in Abidjan
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  58. ^ "Passport and visa requirements". Timatic. International Air Transport Association (IATA) through Olympic Air. Retrieved 28 June 2015. 
  59. ^ "Passport and visa requirements". Timatic. International Air Transport Association (IATA) through Olympic Air. Retrieved 28 June 2015. 
  60. ^ Obtainable at Djibouti–Ambouli International Airport.
  61. ^ "Passport and visa requirements". Timatic. International Air Transport Association (IATA) through Olympic Air. Retrieved 28 June 2015. 
  62. ^ "Passport and visa requirements". Timatic. International Air Transport Association (IATA) through Olympic Air. Retrieved 28 June 2015. 
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  67. ^ "Passport and visa requirements". Timatic. International Air Transport Association (IATA) through Olympic Air. Retrieved 28 June 2015. 
  68. ^ "Passport and visa requirements". Timatic. International Air Transport Association (IATA) through Olympic Air. Retrieved 28 June 2015. 
  69. ^ "Passport and visa requirements". Timatic. International Air Transport Association (IATA) through Olympic Air. Retrieved 28 June 2015. 
  70. ^ Obtainable at Addis Ababa Bole International Airport.
  71. ^ "Passport and visa requirements". Timatic. International Air Transport Association (IATA) through Olympic Air. Retrieved 28 June 2015. 
  72. ^ "Passport and visa requirements". Timatic. International Air Transport Association (IATA) through Olympic Air. Retrieved 28 June 2015. 
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  74. ^ "Passport and visa requirements". Timatic. International Air Transport Association (IATA) through Olympic Air. 
  75. ^ Gabon e-Visa
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  78. ^ Georgia Restores One-Year Visa-Free Rules
  79. ^ "Passport and visa requirements". Timatic. International Air Transport Association (IATA) through Olympic Air. Retrieved 28 June 2015. 
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  81. ^ http://www.ghanahighcom.org.au/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=53&Itemid=59
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  91. ^ "Passport and visa requirements". Timatic. International Air Transport Association (IATA) through Olympic Air. Retrieved 28 June 2015. 
  92. ^ "Indian e-Visa". Ministry of Home Affairs, Government of India. 
  93. ^ e-Visa
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  95. ^ http://setkab.go.id/tidak-untuk-jurnalistik-wisatawan-dari-169-negara-ini-bebas-visa-kunjungan-ke-indonesia/
  96. ^ "Passport and visa requirements". Timatic. International Air Transport Association (IATA) through Olympic Air. Retrieved 28 June 2015. 
  97. ^ Iran extends airport visa validity to 30 days
  98. ^ "Passport and visa requirements". Timatic. International Air Transport Association (IATA) through Olympic Air. Retrieved 28 June 2015. 
  99. ^ http://www.smartraveller.gov.au/Countries/middle-east/Pages/iraq.aspx
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  101. ^ "Passport and visa requirements". Timatic. International Air Transport Association (IATA) through Olympic Air. Retrieved 28 June 2015. 
  102. ^ "Passport and visa requirements". Timatic. International Air Transport Association (IATA) through Olympic Air. Retrieved 28 June 2015. 
  103. ^ "Passport and visa requirements". Timatic. International Air Transport Association (IATA) through Olympic Air. Retrieved 28 June 2015. 
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  105. ^ "Passport and visa requirements". Timatic. International Air Transport Association (IATA) through Olympic Air. Retrieved 28 June 2015. 
  106. ^ "Visa Information". Timatic. Retrieved 28 June 2015. 
  107. ^ Visa on arrival obtainable at most international ports of entry and at most international land border crossings (except King Hussein/Allenby Bridge crossing).
  108. ^ "Passport and visa requirements". Timatic. International Air Transport Association (IATA) through Olympic Air. Retrieved 28 June 2015. 
  109. ^ Republic of Kenya - eCitizen portal
  110. ^ "Passport and visa requirements". Timatic. International Air Transport Association (IATA) through Olympic Air. Retrieved 28 June 2015. 
  111. ^ "Passport and visa requirements". Timatic. International Air Transport Association (IATA) through Olympic Air. Retrieved 28 June 2015. 
  112. ^ "Passport and visa requirements". Timatic. International Air Transport Association (IATA) through Olympic Air. Retrieved 28 June 2015. 
  113. ^ Kuwait eVisa
  114. ^ "Passport and visa requirements". Timatic. International Air Transport Association (IATA) through Olympic Air. Retrieved 28 June 2015. 
  115. ^ E-visa Kyrgyz Republic
  116. ^ "Passport and visa requirements". Timatic. International Air Transport Association (IATA) through Olympic Air. Retrieved 28 June 2015. 
  117. ^ Available at international airports Wattay Vientiane, Pakse Savannakhet and Luang Prabang, and at land borders Friendship Bridge, Vientiane and Savannakhet; Nam Heuang Friendship Bridge, Sayabouly Province; and border crossings at Boten-Mohan, Dansavan-Lao Bao, Houaysay-Chiang Khong, Thakhek-Nakhon Phanom, Nong Haet-Nam Kan, Nam Phao-Kao Cheo, Veun Kham-Dong Calor, and Vangtao-Chong Mek as well as Tha Naleng train station in Vientiane, which connects to the train station in Nongkhai, Thailand. Entry points Napao-Chalo, Taichang-Sophoun, Pakxan-Bungkan, and Xiengkok are open only to visa holders.
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  121. ^ "Passport and visa requirements". Timatic. International Air Transport Association (IATA) through Olympic Air. Retrieved 28 June 2015. 
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  123. ^ http://www.smartraveller.gov.au/zw-cgi/view/Advice/Libya
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  125. ^ "Passport and visa requirements". Timatic. International Air Transport Association (IATA) through Olympic Air. Retrieved 28 June 2015. 
  126. ^ "Passport and visa requirements". Timatic. International Air Transport Association (IATA) through Olympic Air. Retrieved 28 June 2015. 
  127. ^ "Passport and visa requirements". Timatic. International Air Transport Association (IATA) through Olympic Air. Retrieved 28 June 2015. 
  128. ^ "Passport and visa requirements". Timatic. International Air Transport Association (IATA) through Olympic Air. Retrieved 28 June 2015. 
  129. ^ "Passport and visa requirements". Timatic. International Air Transport Association (IATA) through Olympic Air. Retrieved 5 October 2015. 
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  131. ^ "Passport and visa requirements". Timatic. International Air Transport Association (IATA) through Olympic Air. Retrieved 28 June 2015. 
  132. ^ "Passport and visa requirements". Timatic. International Air Transport Association (IATA) through Olympic Air. Retrieved 28 June 2015. 
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  137. ^ "Passport and visa requirements". Timatic. International Air Transport Association (IATA) through Olympic Air. Retrieved 28 June 2015. 
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  149. ^ Immigration Regulations 2014 SL No. 2 of 2014
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  159. ^ Business Visa. Ministry of Interior of Pakistan
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  188. ^ http://www.smartraveller.gov.au/Countries/africa/east/Pages/somalia.aspx
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  191. ^ http://www.smartraveller.gov.au/Countries/africa/east/Pages/south_sudan.aspx
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  200. ^ http://www.smartraveller.gov.au/Countries/middle-east/Pages/syria.aspx
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  202. ^ https://www.evisa.tj
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  206. ^ Obtainable at the Presidente Nicolau Lobato International Airport or at the Dili Sea Port.
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  213. ^ http://www.mfa.gov.tr/visa-applications-at-points-of-entry-to-the-republic-of-turkey-as-of-11-april-2014-and-measures-to-be-taken-during-the-transit.en.mfa
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  218. ^ Uganda Electronic Visa/Permit Application System
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  236. ^ "MINISTRY OF FOREIGN AFFAIRS REPUBLIC OF ABKHAZIA". 
  237. ^ "Visas For Foreign Citizens - For Kosovo Citizens - Consular Services - Ministry of Foreign Affairs - Republic of Kosovo". Ministry of Foreign Affairs - Republic of Kosovo. 
  238. ^ "VISA Regulations". Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus. 
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  242. ^ "Israel Country Specific Information". Bureau of Consular Affairs, U.S. Department of State. Retrieved 18 November 2013. 
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  249. ^ "線上填寫簽證申請系統". 
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  251. ^ Luxlana.net
  252. ^ Rules and recommendations | Transnistria tour
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  255. ^ "Passport and visa". Visit Faroe Islands. 
  256. ^ "Advice & Services for travelling to and staying in Greenland". 
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  275. ^ British Indian Ocean Territory travel advice - GOV.UK
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  281. ^ Tourist Information | Visas & Legal Info | Pitcairn Island Tourism
  282. ^ Pitcairn Islands
  283. ^ http://www.government.pn/immigration%20ordinance.pdf
  284. ^ Entry Permits | Ascension Island
  285. ^ Useful info : St Helena Tourism
  286. ^ Tristan da Cunha Information for Visitors
  287. ^ South Georgia and South Sandwich Islands (British Overseas Territory) travel advice - GOV.UK
  288. ^ Information for Visitors - South Georgia Website
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  295. ^ http://www.antarctica.ac.uk/about_antarctica/tourism/index.php
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  297. ^ http://britishantarcticterritory.fco.gov.uk/en/tourism/
  298. ^ http://www.taaf.fr/Acces-a-l-Antarctique
  299. ^ http://www.taaf.fr/Acces-aux-iles-australes
  300. ^ http://www.taaf.fr/Acces-aux-iles-Eparses
  301. ^ http://www.dna.gov.ar/DIVULGAC/INDEX.HTM
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  303. ^ http://www.heardisland.aq/about/frequently-asked-questions#visit_heard_island
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  305. ^ http://www.npolar.no/en/antarctica/dronning-maud-land.html
  306. ^ http://www.mfat.govt.nz/Foreign-Relations/Antarctica/3-New-Zealand-Procedures-for-Visitors-to-Antarctica/index.php
  307. ^ Visa-free trips to Belovezhskaya Pushcha as from 12 June
  308. ^ VISA-FREE TRAVEL THROUGH THE CHECKPOINT «PEREROV - BIALOWIEZA» FOR FOREIGN CITIZENS
  309. ^ https://www.timaticweb.com/cgi-bin/tim_website_client.cgi?FullText=1&COUNTRY=CN&SECTION=VI&SUBSECTION=00&user=KLMB2C&subuser=KLMB2C
  310. ^ Tours must be organized by a travel agent registered in Hainan province and approved by the National Tourism Administration of China.
  311. ^ http://www.xzta.gov.cn/yww/Essential/Notice/4719.shtml
  312. ^ http://www.tibettravel.org/tibet-travel-permit/tibet-permits.html
  313. ^ http://www.tibettravelplanner.com/travel_permit.htm
  314. ^ Foreigners Now Need Russian Visa to Visit Crimea
  315. ^ Sistema de Calificación y Control de Residencia - Consejo de Gobierno de Galápagos
  316. ^ http://www.eritrea.be/MoT.htm
  317. ^ http://www.athosfriends.org/PilgrimsGuide/planning/
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  321. ^ http://arunachaltourism.com/entry_formalities.php
  322. ^ http://manipurbhawan.nic.in/entryformalities.htm
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  327. ^ "Fiji Country Specific Information". Bureau of Consular Affairs, U.S. Department of State. Retrieved 18 November 2013. 
  328. ^ http://www.clipperton.fr/incagen.html?geopolitique.htm~main
  329. ^ "Kazakhstan Country Specific Information". Bureau of Consular Affairs, U.S. Department of State. Retrieved 18 November 2013. 
  330. ^ "Malaysia Country Specific Information". Bureau of Consular Affairs, U.S. Department of State. Retrieved 18 November 2013. 
  331. ^ "Maldives Country Specific Information". Bureau of Consular Affairs, U.S. Department of State. Retrieved 18 November 2013. 
  332. ^ http://www.jan-mayen.no/visit.htm
  333. ^ http://www.lovdata.no/for/sf/jd/xd-19620601-0001.html
  334. ^ Kiev declares passport control on border with rebel-held regions
  335. ^ Ukraine crisis: Kiev imposes passport control around rebel-held regions
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  337. ^ "Republic of South Sudan Country Specific Information". Bureau of Consular Affairs, U.S. Department of State. Retrieved 19 November 2013. 
  338. ^ http://www.pamirs.org/visas.htm
  339. ^ http://www.traveltajikistan.com/visas/gbao.html
  340. ^ http://tajiktourism.com/tajikistan-visa/
  341. ^ http://www.unficyp.org/nqcontent.cfm?a_id=1608&tt=graphic&lang=l1
  342. ^ http://www.fws.gov/bakerisland/visit.html
  343. ^ http://www.fws.gov/howlandisland/visit.html
  344. ^ http://www.fws.gov/jarvisisland/
  345. ^ http://www.fws.gov/johnstonisland/visit.html
  346. ^ http://www.fws.gov/kingmanreef/visit.html
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  348. ^ http://www.fws.gov/palmyraatoll/visit.html
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  350. ^ www.vietseatourist.vn/News/category1/news-57/No-visa-required-for-tourists-to-Phu-Quoc-on-short-stay.html
  351. ^ "Yemen Country Specific Information". Bureau of Consular Affairs, U.S. Department of State. Retrieved 19 November 2013. 
  352. ^ "Information from the Commission about notifications by the Member States of cases of non-reciprocity in accordance with Article 1(4)(a) of Council Regulation (EC) No 539/2001 as amended by Regulation (EU) No 1289/2013 of the European Parliament and of the Council". European Commission. 12 April 2014. Retrieved 14 April 2014. 
  353. ^ EU gives US six months to come clean on visa policy
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  359. ^ "Visa Requirement by Country". Immigration Department of Malaysia. Retrieved 25 September 2013. 
  360. ^ "Visa Requirements for Entry into Singapore". High Commission of The Republic of Singapore - London. Retrieved 25 September 2013. 
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  362. ^ "Visa-Exempt Entry and Landing Visas". Retrieved 5 January 2016. 
  363. ^ "Visa Information". Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade. Retrieved 25 September 2013. 
  364. ^ Opinion concerning the proposal for a Regulation of the European Parliament and of the Council establishing a touring visa and amending the Convention implementing the Schengen Agreement and Regulations (Brussels, 28 July 2014)
  365. ^ Duration of short-stay in the Schengen area Extension of that duration under bilateral agreements concluded by Member States with third countries - Draft regulations on Entry/Exit system and Touring visa (Brussels, 25 October 2016)
  366. ^ Agreement between the Government of Australia and the Government of Austria concerning Visas and Visa Fees (1956)
  367. ^ Agreement between the Government of Australia and the Government of Belgium concerning Visas and Visa Fees (1951)
  368. ^ Agreement between the Government of Australia and the Government of Denmark regarding Visas and Visa Fees (1952)
  369. ^ http://www.nyidanmark.dk/en-us/coming_to_dk/visa/Visa_free_travel.htm
  370. ^ Agreement between the Government of Australia and the Government of Finland on Visas and Visa Fees (1961)
  371. ^ Agreement between the Government of Australia and the Government of France on Visas and Visa Fees (1999)
  372. ^ Agreement between the Government of Australia and the Government of the Federal Republic of Germany regarding Visas and Visa Fees (1953)
  373. ^ http://www.auswaertiges-amt.de/EN/EinreiseUndAufenthalt/StaatenlisteVisumpflicht_node.html
  374. ^ Agreement between the Government of Australia and the Government of Iceland on Visas and Visa Fees (1969)
  375. ^ Agreement between the Government of Australia and the Government of Italy on Visas and Visa Fees (1951)
  376. ^ Agreement between the Government of Australia and the Government of Luxembourg on Visas and Visa Fees (1961)
  377. ^ Agreement between the Government of Australia and the Government of the Netherlands concerning Visas and Visa Fees (1951)
  378. ^ AU passport holders travelling in Europe/Schengen zone. Bilateral Visa Waiver Agreement
  379. ^ http://www.norway.org.au/Services/Visas-and-Residence-Permits1/FAQ-Visa-application/#.Vuerl-L5icx
  380. ^ Agreement between the Government of Australia and the Government of Sweden concerning Visas and Visa Fees (1951)
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  382. ^ http://www.politsei.ee/en/teenused/working-in-estonia/registration-of-short-term-employment/
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  384. ^ http://www.migration.gv.at/en/types-of-immigration/permanent-immigration-red-white-red-card/very-highly-qualified-workers.html
  385. ^ http://portal.mpsv.cz/sz/zahr_zam/zelka/ciz#jakziskat
  386. ^ http://www.mvcr.cz/mvcren/article/green-cards.aspx
  387. ^ Table of countries whose citizens require/do not require visas to enter Germany
  388. ^ Studying and working in Germany
  389. ^ http://www.vm.ee/?q=en/node/9232
  390. ^ http://www.politsei.ee/en/teenused/residence-permit/tahtajaline-elamisluba/tootamiseks/oluline-info-tootamiseks-elamisloa-taotlejale.dot#erand
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  395. ^ UK Border Agency: Arriving at the UK border (If one is not a citizen of the EU, EEA or Switzerland)
  396. ^ UK Border Agency: Child visitors
  397. ^ http://www.nzembassy.com/australia/going-new-zealand/visas
  398. ^ APEC Business Travel Card
  399. ^ APEC Business Travel Card
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  401. ^ "Foreign Affairs Manual, 9 FAM 403.9-3(B)(2) f". U.S. Department of State. Retrieved 10 October 2017. 
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  403. ^ Timatic
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  405. ^ "Country Information". Bureau of Consular Affairs, U.S. Department of State. Retrieved 11 September 2017. 
  406. ^ Country list - Yellow fever vaccination requirements and recommendations; and malaria situation; and other vaccination requirement
  407. ^ "Travel Report - Kuwait". Voyage.gc.ca. 2012-11-16. Retrieved 2013-07-01. 
  408. ^ Travel Advice for Lebanon - Australian Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade Archived 2008-12-24 at the Wayback Machine. and Lebanese Ministry of Tourism Archived 2009-03-27 at the Wayback Machine.
  409. ^ "Travel Advice for Libya - Australian Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade". Smartraveller.gov.au. Retrieved 2013-07-01. 
  410. ^ Michael Freund, Canada defends Saudi policy of shunning tourists who visited Israel, 2008-12-07, Jerusalem Post
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