Visa requirements for Australian citizens

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Visa requirements for Australian passport holders are administrative entry restrictions by the authorities of other states placed on citizens of Australia entering with an Australian passport.

As of January 2024, Australian citizens had visa-free or visa on arrival access to 189 countries and territories, ranking the Australian passport sixth in terms of travel freedom according to the Henley Passport Index.[1]

Besides visa requirements, most countries specify other requirements for the entry of Australian and other citizens into their country. For example, that a prospective entrant has no criminal history or health issues, or that there is evidence of sufficient funds or of a ticket for exit.

Visa requirements map[edit]

Visa requirements for Australian citizens holding ordinary passports
  Australia
  Freedom of Movement (Trans-Tasman Travel Arrangement; Visa not required)
  Visa not required / ESTA / eTA
  Visa issued upon arrival
  eVisa / Online payment required
  Visa available both on arrival or online
  Visa required

Visa requirements[edit]

Each country has a multitude of visa types, each with its particular purpose and requirements. Rules for visits by ordinary passport holders are as follows:

Dependent, disputed, or restricted territories[edit]

Unrecognized countries
Territory Conditions of access Notes
 Abkhazia Visa required[293] Letter for an entry permit upon arrival into Abkhazia is mandatory from 3 working days.
 Kosovo Visa not required[294] 90 days
 Northern Cyprus Visa not required[295] 3 months
 Palestine Visa not required[296] Arrival by sea to Gaza Strip not allowed.[297]
 Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic Undefined visa regime in the Western Sahara controlled territory.
 Somaliland Visa on arrival 30 days for 30 US dollars, payable on arrival.[298][299]
 South Ossetia Visa required[300] Multiple entry visa to Russia and three day prior notification are required to enter South Ossetia.[301][302]
 Taiwan Visa not required[303][304] 90 days
 Transnistria Visa not required[305] Registration required after 24 hours.[306][307]
Dependent and autonomous territories
Territory Conditions of access Notes
Hong Kong
 Hong Kong Visa not required[308] 90 days
Macau
 Macau Visa not required[309] 30 days
Denmark
 Faroe Islands Visa not required[310]
 Greenland Visa not required[311]
Finland
 Aland Islands Visa not required[312] 3 months
France
 French Guiana Visa not required[313] 3 months
 French Polynesia Visa not required[314] 90 days within 180 days
France French West Indies Visa not required Includes overseas departments of Guadeloupe and Martinique and overseas collectivities of Saint Barthélemy and Saint Martin.
 Mayotte Visa not required[315] 3 months
 New Caledonia Visa not required[316] 3 months
 Réunion Visa not required[317] 3 months
 Saint Pierre and Miquelon Visa not required[318] 3 months
 Wallis and Futuna Visa not required[319] 3 months
Netherlands
 Aruba Visa not required[320] 30 days, extendable to 180 days
Netherlands Caribbean Netherlands Visa not required[321] 90 days. Includes Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba.
 Curaçao Visa not required[322] 90 days
 Sint Maarten Visa not required[323] 90 days
New Zealand
 Cook Islands Visa not required[324] 31 days
 Niue Visa not required[325] 30 days
 Tokelau Visa required[326] Processing time for a tourist visa compulsory from 3–4 days.
United Kingdom
 Akrotiri and Dhekelia Visa not required[327] Stays longer than 28 days per 12-month period require a permit.[328]
 Anguilla Visa not required[329] 3 months
 Bermuda Visa not required[330] Up to 6 months, decided on arrival.
 British Indian Ocean Territory Special permit required Special permit required.[331]
 British Virgin Islands Visa not required[332] 30 days, extensions possible
 Cayman Islands Visa not required[333] 6 months
 Falkland Islands Visa not required[334] A visitor permit is normally issued as a stamp in the passport on arrival, The maximum validity period is 1 month.[335]
 Gibraltar Visa not required[336]
 Montserrat Visa not required[337] 6 months
 Pitcairn Islands Visa not required 14 days visa free and landing fee US$35 or tax of US$5 if not going ashore.[338][339][340]
 Ascension Island eVisa 3 months within any year period[341][342]
 Saint Helena Visitor's Pass required Visitor's Pass granted on arrival valid for 4/10/21/60/90 days for 12/14/16/20/25 pound sterling.[343]
 Tristan da Cunha Permission required Permission to land required for 15/30 pounds sterling (yacht/ship passenger) for Tristan da Cunha Island or 20 pounds sterling for Gough Island, Inaccessible Island or Nightingale Islands.[344]
 South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands Permit required Pre-arrival permit from the Commissioner required (72 hours/1 month for 110/160 pounds sterling).[345][346]
 Turks and Caicos Islands Visa not required[347] 90 days
United States
 American Samoa Electronic authorization[348] 30 days
 Guam Visa not required[349] 45 days
 Northern Mariana Islands Visa not required[350] 45 days
 Puerto Rico Visa not required[351] Under the Visa Waiver Program, for 90 days on arrival from overseas for 2 years. ESTA required.
 U.S. Virgin Islands Visa not required[352] Under the Visa Waiver Program, for 90 days on arrival from overseas for 2 years. ESTA required.
Antarctica and adjacent islands
Special permits required for  Bouvet Island,  British Antarctic Territory,  French Southern and Antarctic Lands,  Argentine Antarctica, Australia Australian Antarctic Territory, Antártica Chilena Province Chilean Antarctic Territory, Australia Heard Island and McDonald Islands, Norway Peter I Island, Norway Queen Maud Land, New Zealand Ross Dependency.[353][354][355][356][357][358][359][360][361][362][363][364]
Other territories

Reciprocity issues[edit]

Some countries regard Australia's requirement for obtaining an Electronic Travel Authority (ETA) prior to travel as being equivalent to offering visa-free travel when deciding whether to grant the same to Australians wishing to enter their territory.

The United States, for example, offers their Visa Waiver Program to Australian passport-holders,[404] and one of the conditions for joining this scheme is that "Governments provide reciprocal visa-free travel for U.S. citizens for 90 days for tourism or business purposes".[405] However, the United States has required from January 2009 a similar ETA from citizens of Australia and some more countries. This system is not called a visa, but Electronic System for Travel Authorisation, therefore the US allows visa-free travel for Australians.

As of December 1998, Japan has also granted visa-free access to Australians.[406] Other ETA eligible countries and territories including Canada,[407] Hong Kong,[408] Malaysia,[409] Singapore,[410] South Korea (90 days)[411] and Taiwan (90 days)[412] also grant visa-free access to Australians while Brunei grants Australians a 30-day visa on arrival.[413]

Additional rules[edit]

Visa exemptions for Schengen states[edit]

A stay in the Schengen Area as a whole of more than three months (but no more than three months in any individual member state)[edit]

The Australian Government has signed bilateral visa waiver agreements with a number of the individual countries who are Schengen signatories, which allow Australian citizens to spend up to three months in the relevant country, without reference to time spent in other Schengen signatory states. Since these agreements continue to remain valid despite the implementation of the Schengen agreement, the European Commission has confirmed that in practice if Australians visit Schengen countries which have signed these types of bilateral agreements with Australia, then the terms of these agreements override the conditions normally imposed as a result of the Schengen visa exemption agreement.[414] However, amendments are under consideration to restrict exit from the Schengen area only through the territory of the Member State which is a Contracting Party to the bilateral agreement and the authorities of which have extended the stay.[415]

Australia has individual bilateral visa waiver agreements with the following Schengen signatories:

Consequently, Australian citizens can visit the above Schengen member states visa-free for periods of up to three months in each country.

If, however, an Australian citizen then visits another Schengen state not included in the list above, the restriction of no more than three months out of a 6-month period in the Schengen area as a whole applies. Therefore, if an Australian citizen has already spent three months in one or more of the above Schengen countries, any visits to another Schengen country without a bilateral visa waiver agreement with Australia may lead to difficulties with local law enforcement agencies (e.g. being accused of having overstayed upon leaving a Schengen country which is not in the list above).

A stay in the Schengen Area as a whole of up to three months[edit]

Australian citizens are classified as 'Annex II' foreign nationals, and so are permitted to stay visa-free in the 26 member states of the Schengen Area as a whole — rather than each country individually — for a period not exceeding 3 months every 6 months.

During the visa exemption period, Australian citizens are permitted to work in Belgium, Bulgaria, Denmark, Finland, Germany, Iceland, Lithuania, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Slovenia and Sweden.[431]

In addition, Australian citizens intending to stay and work in Estonia for up to 90 days can do so without a visa as long as the employer has completed a 'registration of short-term employment'.[432]

A stay in the Schengen Area as a whole of more than 3 months (and more than 3 months in an individual member state)[edit]

In general, any person who is not a European Union, European Economic Area or Swiss citizen and who wishes to stay in a Schengen member state for more than 3 months is required to obtain a national long-stay 'D' visa and/or a residence permit.

Australian citizens aged 18–30 (or 18–35 in some cases) are able to obtain a national long-stay 'D' visa and/or a residence permit from some Schengen member states on the basis of a working holiday (see below). Schengen member states also issue national long-stay 'D' visas and residence permits for other reasons to those fulfilling criteria laid out in their national immigration policies (e.g. skilled workers, students, au pair).

In general, the national long-stay 'D' visa/residence permit needs to be obtained in advance through the member state's embassy/consulate. However, some Schengen member states offer exceptions for Australian citizens.

 Austria allows Australian citizens to enter the country without a visa and to apply for a temporary residence permit or a 'Red-White-Red Card' (issued to permanent immigrants) after arrival, rather than in advance through an Austrian embassy/consulate.[433][434]

The  Czech Republic allows Australian citizens to apply for a work visa under a special scheme known as a 'Green Card' (rather than a 'Blue Card' or work permit which is required by most non-EU citizens). The application for a Green Card can be lodged at any Czech embassy/consulate (or, in some circumstances, within the Czech Republic if the applicant is already resident there) and is usually processed within 60 days.[435] Note that 'Green Cards' are no longer issued after 24 June 2014.[436]

 Germany permits Australian citizens intending to stay in the country for over 3 months to enter without a visa and to apply for a residence permit after arrival (whilst for many other non-EEA and Swiss citizens, a residence permit and visa for a stay over 3 months must be applied for in advance at a German foreign mission).[437][438]

 Estonia permits Australian citizens to stay and work in Estonia for more than 90 days but less than 6 months as long as they obtain a category 'D' long-stay visa at a cost of €80 in advance at an Estonian foreign mission after the employer has completed a 'registration of short-term employment'.[439] Australian citizens intending to stay and work in Estonia for more than 6 months can apply for a temporary residence permit for employment after arrival in the country.[440]

 Hungary allows Australian citizens who wish to stay for more than 90 days in the country to apply for a residence card from the regional directorate of the Office of Immigration and Nationality within 90 days of arrival and do not need to obtain a residence permit prior to arrival in Hungary (unlike most other non-EEA and Swiss foreign nationals).[441]

 Latvia permits Australian citizens intending to stay in the country for over 3 months as self-employed persons or as businesspersons to enter Latvia without a visa and to apply for a residence permit after arrival (whilst for many non-EEA and Swiss citizens, an application for a residence permit must be lodged in advance at a Latvian foreign mission).[442]

 Netherlands exempts Australian citizens from the requirement to obtain a Schengen category "D" visa (the visa issued for long term stays in The Netherlands of over 90 days, known in Dutch as the "MVV" visa) - an exemption which goes beyond the visa waiver afforded to most other non-EEA and non-Swiss foreign nationals who are usually only given a visa waiver of up to 90 days in a 180-day period.[443]

 Norway permits Australian citizens who have qualifications as a skilled worker to stay in the country without a visa for up to 6 months to seek employment as a skilled worker or a specialist (except as a religious leader/teacher or an ethnic cook), as long as they register with the police within 3 months of arriving in Norway.[444]

Visa exemptions and requirements for the United Kingdom[edit]

Australian citizens are able to visit the United Kingdom for up to 6 months (or 3 months if they enter from the Republic of Ireland) without the need to apply for a visa as long as they fulfil all of the following criteria:

  • they do not work during their stay in the UK
  • they must not register a marriage or register a civil partnership during their stay in the UK
  • they can present evidence of sufficient money to fund their stay in the UK (if requested by the border inspection officer)
  • they intend to leave the UK at the end of their visit and can meet the cost of the return/onward journey
  • they have completed a landing card and submitted it at passport control unless in direct transit to a destination outside the Common Travel Area[445]
  • if under the age of 18, they can demonstrate evidence of suitable care arrangements and parental (or guardian's) consent for their stay in the UK[446]

However, even though, strictly speaking, they are not required to apply for a visa if they satisfy all of the above criteria, an Australian citizen who falls into any of the following categories has been strongly advised by the UK Border Agency (replaced by UK Visas and Immigration) to apply for a visa prior to travelling to the UK if they:

  • have any unspent criminal convictions in any country
  • have previously been refused or breached the terms of any entry to the UK, or been deported or otherwise removed from the UK
  • have previously applied for a visa and been refused one
  • have been warned by a UK official that they should obtain a visa before travelling to the UK

Australian citizens who were born before 1983[citation needed] and qualify for the right of abode are able to live and work in the United Kingdom indefinitely.

Australian citizens with a grandparent born either in the United Kingdom, Channel Islands or Isle of Man at any time or in the Republic of Ireland on or before 31 March 1922 can apply for UK Ancestry Entry Clearance, which enables them to work in the UK for five years, after which they can apply to settle indefinitely.

Australian citizens aged 18 to 30 can apply for a Youth Mobility Scheme visa which allows them to pursue a working holiday in the UK for two years.

In June 2021, the Australian and UK governments announced that their reciprocal working holiday scheme would soon be expanded to allow citizens of both countries aged 18 to 35 live and work in the other country for up to three years. These changes are expected to either in 2023 or by mid-2024 at the latest.[447]

Visa exemption for New Zealand[edit]

By virtue of the Trans-Tasman Travel Arrangement, Australian citizens are exempt from the requirement to hold a permit on arrival in New Zealand and may reside or work for an indefinite period as long as:[448]

  • they present a valid Australian passport OR hold a foreign passport showing their Australian Citizen Endorsement or Australian Citizen Declaratory Visa (either with a label or a confirmation letter) as evidence of their Australian citizenship
  • they have no criminal convictions
  • they have no untreated tuberculosis
  • they have not been deported, excluded or removed from any country

Travel ban[edit]

It is an offence for Australians to travel or remain in Declared Areas.

APEC Business Travel Card[edit]

  Full members of the scheme
  Transitional members (United States, Canada)

Holders of an APEC Business Travel Card (ABTC) travelling on business do not require a visa to the following countries:[449]

1 - Up to 180 days
2 - Up to 90 days
3 - Up to 90 days in a period of 180 days
4 - Up to 60 days

The card must be used in conjunction with a passport and has the following advantages:[450]

  • No need to apply for a visa or entry permit to APEC countries, as the card is treated as such (except by  Canada and  United States)
  • Undertake legitimate business in participating economies
  • Expedited border crossing in all member economies, including transitional members

Consular protection of Australian citizens abroad[edit]

Diplomatic missions of Australia

There are currently over 100 Australian missions overseas. In some countries Australians may also receive consular assistance from Canadian missions under the Canada–Australia Consular Services Sharing Agreement.

Foreign travel statistics[edit]

According to the statistics these are the numbers of Australian visitors to various countries per annum in 2015 (unless otherwise noted):

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj bk bl bm bn bo Data for 2017
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Counting only guests in tourist accommodation establishments.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v Data for 2016
  4. ^ a b Data for 2013
  5. ^ Data for 2011
  6. ^ a b c Data for arrivals by air only.
  7. ^ Data for 2012
  8. ^ a b c d Data for 2014
  9. ^ a b Data for 2009
  10. ^ Data for 2018
  11. ^ Data for arrivals by air only.
  12. ^ Total number includes tourists, business travelers, students, exchange visitors, temporary workers and families, diplomats and other representatives and all other classes of nonimmigrant admissions (I-94).

Non-visa restrictions[edit]

Many countries have entry restrictions on foreigners that go beyond the common requirement of having either a valid visa or a visa exemption. Such restrictions may be health related or impose additional documentation requirements on certain classes of people for diplomatic or political purposes.

Blank passport pages[edit]

Many countries require a minimum number of blank pages to be available in the passport being presented, typically one or two pages.[564] Endorsement pages, which often appear after the visa pages, are not counted as being valid or available.

Vaccination[edit]

Cover of the new International Certificate of Vaccination issued by the Bureau of Quarantine in the Philippines since 2021

Many African countries, including Angola, Benin, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Republic of the Congo, Côte d'Ivoire, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea-Bissau, Kenya, Liberia, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Rwanda, Senegal, Sierra Leone and Togo, South Sudan, Uganda, and Zambia, require all incoming passengers older than nine months to one year[565] to have a current International Certificate of Vaccination or Prophylaxis, as does the South American territory of French Guiana.[566]

Some other countries require vaccination only if the passenger is coming from an infected area or has visited one recently or has transited for 12 hours in those countries: Algeria, Botswana, Cabo Verde, Chad, Djibouti, Egypt, Eswatini, Ethiopia, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Lesotho, Libya, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Madagascar, Malawi, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mozambique, Namibia, Nigeria, Papua New Guinea, Seychelles, Somalia, South Africa, Sudan, Tunisia, Uganda, United Republic of Tanzania, Zambia and Zimbabwe.[567][568]

Passport validity length[edit]

Very few countries, such as Paraguay, just require a valid passport on arrival.

However many countries and groupings now require only an identity card – especially from their neighbours. Other countries may have special bilateral arrangements that depart from the generality of their passport validity length policies to shorten the period of passport validity required for each other's citizens[569][570] or even accept passports that have already expired (but not been cancelled).[571]

Some countries, such as Japan,[572] Ireland and the United Kingdom,[573] require a passport valid throughout the period of the intended stay.

In the absence of specific bilateral agreements, countries requiring passports to be valid for at least 6 more months on arrival include Afghanistan, Algeria, Anguilla, Bahrain,[574] Bhutan, Botswana, British Virgin Islands, Brunei, Cambodia, Cameroon, Cape Verde, Cayman Islands, Central African Republic, Chad, Comoros, Costa Rica, Côte d'Ivoire, Curaçao, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Equatorial Guinea, Fiji, Gabon, Guinea Bissau, Guyana, Haiti, India, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Israel,[575] Jordan, Kenya, Kiribati, Kuwait, Laos, Madagascar, Malaysia, Marshall Islands, Mongolia, Myanmar, Namibia, Nepal, Nicaragua, Nigeria, Oman, Palau, Papua New Guinea, Peru,[576] Philippines,[577] Qatar, Rwanda, Samoa, Saudi Arabia, Singapore, Solomon Islands, Somalia, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Suriname, Tanzania, Thailand, Timor-Leste, Tokelau, Tonga, Turkey, Tuvalu, Uganda, United Arab Emirates, Vanuatu, Venezuela, and Vietnam.[578]

Countries requiring passports valid for at least 4 months on arrival include Micronesia and Zambia.

Countries requiring passports with a validity of at least 3 months beyond the date of intended departure include Azerbaijan, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Honduras, Montenegro, Nauru, Moldova and New Zealand. Similarly, the EEA countries of Iceland, Liechtenstein, Norway, all European Union countries (except the Republic of Ireland) together with Switzerland also require 3 months validity beyond the date of the bearer's intended departure unless the bearer is an EEA or Swiss national.

Countries requiring passports valid for at least 3 months on arrival include Albania, North Macedonia, Panama, and Senegal.

Bermuda requires passports to be valid for at least 45 days upon entry.

Countries that require a passport validity of at least one month beyond the date of intended departure include Eritrea, Hong Kong, Lebanon, Macau, the Maldives[579] and South Africa.

Criminal record[edit]

Some countries, including Australia, Canada, Fiji, New Zealand and the United States,[580] routinely deny entry to non-citizens who have a criminal record while others impose restrictions depending on the type of conviction and the length of the sentence.

Persona non grata[edit]

Entry Permit to Nagorno-Karabakh issued in Yerevan as a stand-alone document rather than a visa affixed in a passport

The government of a country can declare a diplomat persona non grata, banning entry into that country. In non-diplomatic use, the authorities of a country may also declare a foreigner persona non grata permanently or temporarily, usually because of unlawful activity.[581]

For example, Azerbaijan bans visits by foreign citizens that have previously entered Azerbaijan through non-Azerbaijani controlled borders. This includes the illegal entry into the separatist region of Nagorno-Karabakh[582] (the de facto independent Republic of Artsakh), its surrounding Armenian-occupied territories, and the Azerbaijani exclaves of Karki, Yuxarı Əskipara, Barxudarlı, and Sofulu which are de jure part of Azerbaijan but under the control of Armenia. Foreign citizens who enter these territories will be permanently banned from entering the Republic of Azerbaijan[583] and will be included in their "list of personae non gratae".[584] As of 2 September 2019, the list mentioned 852 people.

Israeli stamps[edit]

Israeli border control Entry Permit (issued as a stand-alone document rather than a stamp affixed in a passport)

Kuwait,[585] Lebanon,[586] Libya,[587] Syria,[588] and Yemen[589] do not allow entry to people with passport stamps from Israel or whose passports have either a used or an unused Israeli visa, or where there is evidence of previous travel to Israel such as entry or exit stamps from neighbouring border posts in transit countries such as Jordan and Egypt.

To circumvent this Arab League boycott of Israel, the Israeli immigration services have now mostly ceased to stamp foreign nationals' passports on either entry to or exit from Israel (unless the entry is for some work-related purposes). Since 15 January 2013, Israel no longer stamps foreign passports at Ben Gurion Airport. Passports are still (as of 22 June 2017) stamped at Erez when passing into and out of Gaza.[citation needed]

Iran refuses admission to holders of passports containing an Israeli visa or stamp that is less than 12 months old.

Biometrics[edit]

Several countries mandate that all travellers, or all foreign travellers, be fingerprinted on arrival and will refuse admission to or even arrest travellers who refuse to comply. In some countries, such as the United States, this may apply even to transit passengers who merely wish to change planes rather than go landside.[590]

Fingerprinting countries/regions include Afghanistan,[591][592] Argentina,[593] Brunei, Cambodia,[594] China,[595] Ethiopia,[596] Ghana, Guinea,[597] India, Japan,[598][599] Kenya (both fingerprints and a photo are taken),[600] Malaysia upon entry and departure,[601] Mongolia, Paraguay, Saudi Arabia,[602] Singapore, South Korea,[603] Taiwan, Thailand,[604] Uganda,[605] the United Arab Emirates and the United States.

Many countries also require a photo be taken of people entering the country. The United States, which does not fully implement exit control formalities at its land frontiers (although long mandated by domestic legislation),[606][607][608] intends to implement facial recognition for passengers departing from international airports to identify people who overstay their visa.[609]

Together with fingerprint and face recognition, iris scanning is one of three biometric identification technologies internationally standardised since 2006 by the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) for use in e-passports[610] and the United Arab Emirates conducts iris scanning on visitors who need to apply for a visa.[611][612]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

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  610. ^ "ICAO Document 9303: Machine Readable Travel Documents, Part 9: Deployment of Biometric Identification and Electronic Storage of Data in MRTDs, 7th edition" (PDF). 2015. Retrieved 23 April 2019.
  611. ^ "Iris Scan Implemented at Doha International Airport". Archived from the original on 8 January 2012.
  612. ^ "Iris Scanner Could Replace Emirates ID In UAE". SimplyDXB. 11 June 2017. Retrieved 7 July 2018. The breach of privacy is probably the biggest threat to the biometric technique of iris recognition. Secondly, a device error can false reject or false accept the identity which can also have some heinous consequences. Lastly, the method isn't the most cost-effective one. It is complex and therefore expensive. Furthermore, the maintenance of devices and data can also be relatively burdensome. However, thanks to the oil money and spending ability of Dubai, they are economically equipped to effectively embrace this system.

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ In this column, Australia's eVisitor and ETA systems are deemed to be reciprocal to U.S.'s ESTA system, Canada's eTA system and other countries' visa-free programs.
  2. ^
  3. ^
  4. ^
    • Panghok - Taichang (Vietnam)
    • Lantui - Baka (China)
    • Meuang mom - Wan Pong (Myanmar)
    • Tanalaeng Dry Port - Nongkai (Thailand)
    • Nonghaed - Nam kanh (Vietnam)
    • Pakxan - Bungkan (Thailand)
    • Nam phao - Cau treo (Vietnam)
    • Na pao - Cha lo (Vietnam)
    • Nam ngeun - Huay konl (Thailand)
    • Namheuang - Nakaseng (Thailand)
    • Phoudou (Thailand)
    • Nam soy - Na meo (Vietnam)
    • Phoukeua - Kontoum (Vietnam)
    • Lalai (Vietnam)
    • Pangmone - Phayao (Thailand)
    • Daktaock - Nam Giang (Vietnam)
    • Savannakhet Airport
  5. ^
    • Vientiane
    • Savannakhet
    • Bokeo
  6. ^
    • Vientiane
    • Savannakhet
    • Khammouane
    • Bokeo
  7. ^
    • Samliemkham (Thailand and Myanmar)
    • Tanalaeng - Nongkai (Thailand)
    • Daensavan - Lao bao (Vietnam)
    • Veunkham - Nong nok khian (Cambodia)
    • Vang tao - Chongmek (Thailand)
    • Boten - Bo han (China)