Visa requirements for European Union citizens

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Visa requirements for European Union citizens are administrative entry restrictions by the authorities of other states placed on citizens of the European Union. They differ among countries. The European Union has achieved full reciprocity with certain countries.

Current member states of the European Union are Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden and the United Kingdom.

Member states' citizens enjoy freedom of movement in each other's territories. European Union citizens and European Free Trade Association (EFTA) nationals are not only visa-exempt but are legally entitled to enter and reside in each other's countries. British citizens who are not nationals of the United Kingdom[1][2] for the purposes of EU law, however, are exempted.

The freedom of movement provisions do not apply to the overseas countries and territories (except Saint Barthélemy)[3] and the Faroe Islands.

Visa requirements map[edit]

Visa requirements for the European Union citizens
  European Union (EU) and European Free Trade Association (EFTA)
  Visa free access for all EU citizens
  Visa free access for some (1-27) EU citizens
  Visa on arrival for all EU citizens
  Visa on arrival for some (1-27) EU citizens
  Electronic visa application

Visa free access[edit]

This table lists all countries, with source information as it is cited inline, for which citizens of at least one EU member state may enter without a visa on an ordinary passport. Information regarding visas on arrival and on exit fees is not listed in the table, regarding which, see the relevant section below.

Africa
Country Visa not required Visa required Notes
 Botswana All states.[4] 90 days within 12 months.
 Cape Verde All states.[5] 30 days.
 Eswatini All others Bulgaria, Romania.[6] 30 days.
 Gambia All others Estonia, France, Portugal, Spain, Slovakia.[7] 90 days.
 Kenya Cyprus.[8][9] All others 90 days.
 Lesotho All others Bulgaria, Croatia, Estonia, Greece, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia.[10] 14 days (90 days for Ireland and Malta).
 Mauritius All states.[11] 90 days.
 Morocco All states.[12][13] 90 days.
 Namibia Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, United Kingdom.[14] All others 3 months.
 São Tomé and Príncipe All states.[15] 15 days.
 Senegal All states.[16] 90 days.
 Seychelles All states.[17] 3 months.
 South Africa All others Bulgaria, Croatia, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia.[18] 90 days (30 days for Cyprus, Hungary, Poland).
 Tanzania Cyprus, Malta, Romania.[19] All others 30 days.
 Tunisia All others Cyprus.[20][21] 90 days (4 months for Germany, 2 months for Bulgaria, 1 month for Greece).
 Uganda Cyprus, Malta.[22] All others 3 months.
 Zambia Cyprus, Ireland, Malta, Romania.[23] All others 90 days for tourism, 30 days for business.
 Zimbabwe Cyprus, Malta.[24] All others 3 months.
Caribbean
Country Visa not required Visa required Notes
 Antigua and Barbuda All states.[25] 3 months (6 months for UK, 1 month for Ireland).
 Bahamas All states.[26] 3 months (8 months for Belgium, Denmark, Greece, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands and UK).
 Barbados All states.[27] 3 months (6 months for Ireland and the United Kingdom).
 Dominica All states.[28][29][30] 90 days.
 Dominican Republic All states.[31] 90 days.
 Grenada All states.[32][33] 3 months (6 months for the UK).
 Haiti All states.[34] 3 months.
 Jamaica All others Bulgaria, Croatia, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Romania, Slovenia.[35] 90 days for Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, Germany, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Sweden, United Kingdom, 30 days for others.
 Saint Kitts and Nevis All states.[36] 3 months.
 Saint Lucia All states[37][38] 90 days.
 Saint Vincent and the Grenadines All states.[39][40] 90 days.
 Trinidad and Tobago All states.[41][42] 90 days.
Central and North America
Country Visa not required Visa required Notes
 Belize All states.[43] 1 month.
 Canada All states.[44] 6 months, eTA required if arriving by air.[45]
 Costa Rica All states.[46] 90 days.
 El Salvador All states.[47] 90 days.
 Guatemala All states.[48] 90 days.
 Honduras All states.[49] 90 days.
 Mexico All states.[50] 180 days.
 Nicaragua All states.[51] 90 days (30-day tourist cards required).
 Panama All states.[52] 180 days.
 United States All others (VWP) Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Poland, Romania.[53] 90 days on every arrival from overseas, ESTA (issued for 2 years) required when arriving by air and cruise ship.
South America
Country Visa not required Visa required Notes
 Argentina All states.[54] 90 days.
 Bolivia All others Bulgaria, Cyprus, Malta, Romania.[55] 90 days.
 Brazil All states.[56][57] 90 days.
 Chile All states.[58] 90 days.
 Colombia All states.[59] 90 days.
 Ecuador All states.[60] 90 days.
 Guyana Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Italy, Ireland, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, United Kingdom.[61] All others 3 months.
 Paraguay All states.[62] 90 days.
 Peru All states.[63] 90 days.
 Uruguay All states.[64][65] 90 days, extendable once.
 Venezuela All states.[66] 90 days, extendable once.
Asia
Country Visa not required Visa required Notes
 Brunei All states.[67] 90 days.
 Indonesia All states.[68] 30 days.
 Japan All states.[69] 90 days, extendable once for Austria, Germany, Ireland and the United Kingdom.
 Kazakhstan All states.[70] 30 days.
 Kyrgyzstan All others Bulgaria, Cyprus, Romania.[71] 60 days.
 Laos Luxembourg.[72] All others 15 days.
 Malaysia All states.[73] 90 days.
 Mongolia Germany.[74] All others 30 days.
 Philippines All states.[75] 30 days.
 South Korea All states.[76] 90 days (30 days for Cyprus).
 Singapore All states.[77] 90 days.
 Thailand All others Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Malta, Romania.[78] 30 days, extendable once.
 Timor-Leste All others Ireland, United Kingdom[79] 90 days.
 Uzbekistan All states.[80] 30 days.
 Vietnam Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Italy, Spain, Sweden, United Kingdom.[81][82] All others 15 days.
Middle East and Caucasus
Country Visa not required Visa required Notes
 Armenia All states.[83][84] 180 days.
 Georgia All states.[85][86] 1 year.
 Israel All states.[87][88] 3 months.
 Qatar All states.[89] 90 days (30 days for Ireland and the United Kingdom).
 United Arab Emirates All others[90] Ireland, United Kingdom[91] 90 days.
Europe
Country Visa not required Visa required Notes
 Albania All states.[92] 90 days.
 Andorra All states.[93]
 Belarus All states.[94][95] 30 days. Must enter through the Minsk National Airport.
 Bosnia and Herzegovina All states.[96] 90 days within 180 days.
 Iceland All states[97] Freedom of movement.
 Liechtenstein All states[98] Freedom of movement.
 Moldova All states.[99] 90 days within 180 days.
 Montenegro All states.[100] 90 days within 180 days.
 Monaco All states.[101]
 North Macedonia All states.[102] 90 days within 180 days.
 Norway All states[103] Freedom of movement.
 San Marino All states.[104]
 Serbia All states.[105] 90 days within 180 days.
  Switzerland All states[106] Freedom of movement.
 Turkey All others Austria, Belgium, Croatia, Cyprus, Ireland, Malta, Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Spain, United Kingdom.[107] 90 days (30 days for Latvia).
 Ukraine All states.[108] 90 days.
  Vatican City All states.
Oceania
Country Visa not required Visa required Notes
 Australia All states (eVisitor).[109] 90 days on each visit in 12-month period if granted.
 Fiji All others[110] Croatia[111] 4 months.
 Kiribati All states.[112] 90 days (30 days for Ireland, United Kingdom).
 Marshall Islands All states.[113] 90 days.
 Micronesia All states.[114] 90 days (30 days for Ireland, United Kingdom).
 New Zealand All states.[115] 90 days (6 months for United Kingdom).
 Palau All others[116] Ireland, United Kingdom 90 days.
 Samoa All states.[117] 90 days (60 days for Ireland and the United Kingdom).
 Solomon Islands All others[118][119] Ireland, United Kingdom[120] 90 days.
 Tonga All others[117] Ireland, United Kingdom[121] 90 days.
 Tuvalu All others[122][123][124] Ireland, United Kingdom 90 days.
 Vanuatu All states.[125] 90 days.

All European Union citizens can visit the following partially recognised countries or territories with autonomous immigration policies without a visa — in Europe: Kosovo,[126] Transnistria,[127][128] in Asia: Hong Kong,[129] Macau,[130] Palestine,[131] Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus,[132][133] South Ossetia,[134][135] Taiwan.[136]

All European Union citizens always must arrange the visa prior to travel to (as of March 2018) Afghanistan, Algeria, Angola, Azerbaijan, Bhutan, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, China (except short term visits in transit and Hainan), Republic of the Congo, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Côte d'Ivoire, Cuba (can be obtained in travel agencies or airlines), Djibouti, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Ghana, Guinea, India, Iraq (outside Iraqi Kurdistan), North Korea, Liberia, Libya, Mali, Nauru, Niger, Nigeria, Oman, Russia, Saudi Arabia, Sierra Leone, South Sudan, Sudan, Syria, Turkmenistan and Yemen.

Reciprocity[edit]

As per Regulation No 539/2001 (amended by Regulation No 1289/2013)[137] reciprocity is required from all Annex II countries and territories. That means that these countries must offer visa-free access for 90 days to all EU citizens (except citizens of Ireland and the United Kingdom) and to the citizens of Iceland, Liechtenstein, Norway and Switzerland. When this is not the case, the affected EU or Schengen member state is expected to notify the European Commission. Starting six months after the notification, the Commission may adopt an implementing act to suspend the visa-free regime for certain categories of nationals of the third country concerned, for a period of up to six months, with a possible prolongation by further periods of up to six months. If the Commission decides not to adopt such an act, it has to present a report explaining the reasons why it did not propose the measure. If after two years from the notification the third country is still requiring visas from citizens of one or more Member States, the Commission shall adopt a delegated act to re-impose the visa obligation on all citizens of the third country, for a period of 12 months. Either the European Parliament or the Council could oppose the entry into force of the delegated acts.[138] All of the states that implement the common visa rules – including Iceland, Liechtenstein, Norway, Switzerland, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus and Romania – may notify the European Commission about non-compliant third states.[139]

The EU has achieved full reciprocity with the following countries (meaning the citizens of those countries may travel to all EU member states visa-free) — Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina, Australia, Bahamas, Barbados, Brazil, Brunei, Canada, Chile, Costa Rica, Dominica, El Salvador, Grenada, Guatemala, Honduras, Kiribati, Malaysia, Mexico, New Zealand, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Samoa, Singapore, Solomon Islands, South Korea, Tonga, Trinidad and Tobago, Tuvalu, Uruguay, Vanuatu.

Following countries are not implementing visa reciprocity fully:

  • Japan: For Romanian citizens a temporary waiver is in effect until 31 December 2018.[140] The new policy also allows holders of temporary or provisional passports to travel to Japan without a visa.[141]
  • United States: Bulgarian, Croatian, Cypriot, Polish and Romanian citizens are still required to apply for a visa to enter the US. Nonetheless, U.S refuses to lift the requirements. On 3 March 2017, the European Parliament voted in favor to impose visa requirements on U.S. citizens in the future.[140]

According to a report from April 2015,[142] the Commission dismissed notifications by both Bulgaria and Romania of a general visa requirement by Australia.[143] It concluded that the Australian electronic visa 'manual processing' treatment should not be considered as equivalent to the Schengen visa application procedures and consequently will not be covered by the reciprocity mechanism.[142] In its previous report[144] the Commission also committed to assessing certain provisions of the US ESTA system — such as the application fee — and the Australian eVisitor system.

In October 2014, it was reported that the Comprehensive Economic and Trade Agreement with Canada might not be ratified by Bulgaria and Romania unless visa requirements were lifted for their citizens.[145][146][147] In November 2014 Bulgarian Government also announced that it will not ratify the Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership unless the United States lifted visas for its citizens.[148]

Special requirements[edit]

The following countries require electronic registrations for all citizens of the European Union who don't need a visa:

  • Australia requires EU citizens to obtain an eVisitor, which is issued free of charge.
  • Canada requires EU citizens to obtain an eTA if arriving by air. The application fee is 7 CAD.
  • United States requires eligible EU citizens to obtain an ESTA for arrivals by air and sea. The application fee is 14 USD.

Visa on arrival[edit]

The following countries provide visa on arrival to the citizens of the European Union. Some of these countries may be available for visa free access to some (*) or all other EU nationals (**) – for details see above. Some countries may not provide visa on arrival facilities at all entry points.

Visa on arrival
for citizens
of all states
Notes
 Bahrain[149] 14 days. 90 days for Irish and UK citizens. BD 25.[150]
 Bangladesh[151][152] 30 days. Fees vary widely by country (USD 0-65).[153]
Extensions are possible.
[154]
 Benin[155] 8 days. EUR 15[156]
 Cambodia[157] 30 days. USD 20.[157]
 Comoros[158][159] 50 USD. EUR 30.[159]
 Egypt[160][161] 30 days. USD 25.[160]
 Gabon[162] 90 days.[160]
 Guinea Bissau[163] 90 days. EUR 85.[163]
 Indonesia** 30 days. USD 35.[164]
 Jordan[165][166] 30 days. Free of charge.[167][168]
 Kenya*[169] 3 months, extendable once. USD 50.[170]
 Kuwait 3 months. KWD 3.[171]
 Laos*[172][173] 30 days. USD 30.[174]
 Lebanon[175][176] 1 month extendable for 2 additional months.[177]
 Madagascar[178] 30 days. Free of charge.[179]
 Malawi*[180] Fees vary.
 Maldives[181] 30 days. Free of charge. Extendable up to 90 days, MVR 750.[182]
 Mauritania[183]
 Mozambique[184] 30 days, extendable up to 60 days.
   Nepal[185][186] 90 days. USD 25-100.[187]
 Papua New Guinea 60 days. Free of charge.[188][189]
 Philippines** 59 days. USD 50.[190]
 Rwanda 30 days. USD 30.[191]
 Somalia[192] 30 days. USD 60.[193][194]
 Sri Lanka[195][196] 30 days, extendable up to 150 days. Fees vary.[195]
 Tanzania*[197] USD 50 - USD 100.[198]
 Togo[199] 7 days, extendable for 90 days.
XOF 10,000-90,000.
[199]
 Uganda*[200] USD 100.[201]
 Zambia*[202] 90 days. USD 50 - USD 80.[199]
 Zimbabwe* 3 months. USD 30 - USD 70.[203]
Visa on arrival available to the citizens of some EU countries. Some of these countries may be available for visa free access to some (*) or all other EU nationals (**) – for details see above. Some countries may not provide visa on arrival facilities at all entry points.
Country Visa on arrival available to citizens of Notes
 Bolivia** Bulgaria, Cyprus, Malta, Romania[204] 90 days. USD 52.[205]
 Burkina Faso All except Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, and Romania[206] 1 month, extension possible.
XOF 47,000 to XOF 61,000.
[206]
 Ethiopia[207] Austria, Belgium, Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Slovakia, Spain, Sweden, United Kingdom[208] USD 20.[209]
 Gambia* France, Portugal, Spain[210]
 Iran[211] All except the United Kingdom 30 days. EUR 30-80.[212]
 Jamaica** Bulgaria, Croatia, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Romania, Slovenia[213] USD 20.[214]
 Kyrgyzstan** Bulgaria, Cyprus, Romania[215] 1 month. USD 40 - USD 100.[216]
 Mongolia* Croatia, Cyprus, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Greece, Ireland, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia and Spain 30 days[217]
 Palau**[218] Ireland, United Kingdom 30 days. Free of charge. Extension possible, USD 50.[219]
 Suriname[220] Austria, Belgium, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Portugal, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, United Kingdom[221] 90 days. USD 20.[222]
 Thailand* Bulgaria, Cyprus, Malta, Romania[78] 15 days. THB 2,000.[223]
 East Timor**[224] Ireland, United Kingdom[79] 30 days. USD 30.[225]
 Solomon Islands** Ireland, United Kingdom[226] 3 months. Free of charge.
 Tonga** Ireland, United Kingdom[227] 31 days, extendable for further 6 months.
Free of charge.
[227]
 Tuvalu** Ireland, United Kingdom[228] 1 month.
Free of charge.
[228]
 United Arab Emirates** Ireland, United Kingdom[91] 30 days. Free of charge.[229]

Limited visa on arrival[edit]

  •  Burundi - Visas are issued on arrival if an Entry Authorisation letter was issued by the authorities of Burundi.[230]
  •  Belarus - Visas are issued on arrival at the Minsk International Airport if the support documents were submitted not later than 3 business days before expected date of arrival.[231]
  •  Iraq – Holders of ordinary passports of all EU member states may obtain a visa on arrival for Iraqi Kurdistan valid for 15 days when arriving through the Erbil International Airport or Sulaimaniyah International Airport.[232]
  •  Pakistan - All EU nationals except those from Bulgaria and Croatia may obtain visa on arrival when travelling on business. They must have a local sponsor who must obtain an approval from the immigration authorities at the port of arrival (Islamabad, Lahore, Peshawar, Quetta or Karachi airports) and a recommendation letter from country of residence or invitation letter from Pakistan.[233] Nationals of Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Sweden and the United Kingdom may obtain a visa on arrival for a maximum stay of 30 days, if they are travelling as part of a group through a designated tour operator.[234]
  •  Vietnam - Visitors can obtain a visa on arrival for a maximum stay of 1 or 3 months if they are holders of an approval letter issued and stamped by the Vietnamese Immigration Department (obtainable online through travel agencies for a fee) and if arriving only at airports in Hanoi, Ho Chi Minh City or Da Nang.[235] All travellers can visit Phú Quốc without a visa for up to 30 days.[236][237]

Online visas[edit]

The following countries provide electronic visas to the citizens of the European Union.

Visa on arrival
for citizens
of all states
Notes
 Angola[238] Available to all EU citizens.
 Australia[239] ETA 601 online visa still available to citizens of Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Sweden and the United Kingdom. More recent and free eVisitor authorisation is available to all. Online Visitor visa e600 for stays over 90 days is also available to all EU citizens.
 Azerbaijan[240] Available to all EU citizens.
 Bahrain[241] Available to all EU citizens. Visa on arrival also available.
 Benin[242] Available to all EU citizens.
 Cambodia[243] Available to all EU citizens. Visa on arrival also available.
 Djibouti[244] Available to all EU citizens.
 Ethiopia[245] Available to all EU citizens. Visa on arrival also available.
 Gabon[246] Available to all EU citizens. Visa on arrival also available.
 India[247] Available to all EU citizens.
 Ivory Coast[248] Available to all EU citizens.
 Kenya[249] Available to all EU citizens.
 Kuwait[250] Available to all EU citizens. Visa on arrival also available.
 Laos[251] Available to all EU citizens. Visa on arrival also available.
 Lesotho[252] Available to all EU citizens. Some of the eVisa eligible nationals do not require a visa for visits up to 14 days.
 Madagascar[253] Available to all EU citizens. Visa on arrival also available.
 Myanmar[254] Available to all EU citizens.
   Nepal[255] Available to all EU citizens. Visa on arrival also available.
 Oman[256] Available to all EU citizens.
 Papua New Guinea[257] Available to all EU citizens.
 Rwanda[254][258] Available to all EU citizens. Visa on arrival also available.
 Sri Lanka[259] Available to all EU citizens. Visa on arrival also available.
 Suriname[260] Available to all EU citizens. Visa on arrival also available to some EU citizens.
 Tanzania[261] Available to all EU citizens. Visa on arrival also available.
 Tajikistan[262] Available to all EU citizens.
 Turkey[263] Available to the citizens of Austria, Belgium, Croatia, Cyprus, Ireland, Malta, Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Spain and the United Kingdom. Other EU citizens do not require a visa.
 Uganda[264] Available to all EU citizens. Visa on arrival also available.
 Vietnam[265] Available to all EU citizens. Some of the eVisa eligible nationals do not require a visa for visits up to 15 days.
 Zambia[266] Available to all EU citizens. Visa on arrival also available.
 Zimbabwe[267] Available to all EU citizens. Visa on arrival also available to some EU citizens.

Other[edit]

Non-ordinary passports[edit]

In addition to visa requirements for normal passport holders certain countries have specific visa requirements towards diplomatic and various official passport holders:

Cape Verde, Ethiopia, Mali and Zimbabwe grant visa-free access to holders of diplomatic or service passports issued to nationals of any country. Mauritania and Senegal grant visa-free access to holders of diplomatic passports issued to nationals of any country (except Italy for Mauritania). Bahrain, Bangladesh, Burkina Faso, Cambodia and South Sudan allow holders of diplomatic, official, service and special passports issued to nationals of any country to obtain a visa on arrival.

Non-visa restrictions[edit]

Passport validity length[edit]

In the absence of specific bilateral agreements, countries requiring passports to be valid for at least 6 more months on arrival include Afghanistan, Algeria, Anguilla, Bahrain,[284] Bhutan, Botswana, British Virgin Islands, Brunei, Cambodia, Cameroon, Cape Verde, Cayman Islands, Central African Republic, Chad, Comoros, Costa Rica, Côte d'Ivoire, Curaçao, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Equatorial Guinea, Fiji, Gabon, Guinea Bissau, Guyana, Haiti, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Israel,[285] Jordan, Kenya, Kiribati, Kuwait, Laos, Madagascar, Malaysia, Maldives, Marshall Islands, Mongolia, Myanmar, Namibia, Nepal, Nicaragua, Nigeria, Oman, Palau, Papua New Guinea, Philippines, Qatar, Rwanda, Samoa, Saudi Arabia, Singapore, Solomon Islands, Somalia, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Suriname, Tanzania, Thailand, Timor-Leste, Tokelau, Tonga, Tuvalu, Uganda, United Arab Emirates, Vanuatu, Venezuela, and Vietnam.[286]

Turkey requires passports to be valid for at least 150 days upon entry.

Countries requiring passports valid for at least 4 months on arrival include Micronesia and Zambia.

Countries requiring passports with a validity of at least 3 months beyond the date of intended departure include European Union countries (except the Republic of Ireland and the United Kingdom); Iceland, Liechtenstein, Norway, Switzerland (all with an exception made for EEA and Swiss nationals). Azerbaijan, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Montenegro, Nauru, Moldova, and New Zealand also require 3 months validity beyond the date of the bearer's intended departure.

Countries requiring passports valid for at least 3 months validity upon arrival include Albania, Honduras, North Macedonia, Panama, and Senegal.

Bermuda requires passports to be valid for at least 45 days upon entry.

Countries that require a passport validity of at least one month beyond the date of intended departure include Eritrea, Hong Kong, Lebanon, Macau, and South Africa.

Other countries require either a passport valid on arrival or a passport valid throughout the period of the intended stay. Some countries have bilateral agreements with other countries to shorten the period of passport validity required for each other's citizens[287][288] or even accept passports that have already expired (but not been cancelled).[289]

Blank passport pages[edit]

Many countries require a minimum number of blank pages in the passport being presented, generally one or two pages.[290] Endorsement pages, which often appear after the visa pages, are not counted as being available.

Vaccination[edit]

An International Certificate of Vaccination required to prove that someone has been vaccinated against yellow fever

Many African countries, including Angola, Benin, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Republic of the Congo, Côte d'Ivoire, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Ghana, Guinea, Liberia, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Rwanda, São Tomé and Príncipe, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Uganda, and Zambia, require all incoming passengers to have a current International Certificate of Vaccination.

Some other countries require vaccination only if the passenger is coming from an infected area or has visited one recently.[291]

Israeli stamps[edit]

Israeli border control Entry Permit (issued as a stand-alone document rather than a stamp affixed in a passport)

Kuwait,[292] Lebanon,[293] Libya,[294] Saudi Arabia,[295] Sudan,[296] Syria,[297] and Yemen[298] do not allow entry to people with passport stamps from Israel or whose passports have either a used or an unused Israeli visa, or where there is evidence of previous travel to Israel such as entry or exit stamps from neighbouring border posts in transit countries such as Jordan and Egypt.

To circumvent this Arab League boycott of Israel, the Israeli immigration services have now mostly ceased to stamp foreign nationals' passports on either entry to or exit from Israel. Since 15 January 2013, Israel no longer stamps foreign passports at Ben Gurion Airport, giving passengers a card instead that reads: "Since January 2013 a pilot scheme has been introduced whereby visitors are given an entry card instead of an entry stamp on arrival. You should keep this card with your passport until you leave. This is evidence of your legal entry into Israel and may be required, particularly at any crossing points into the Palestinian Territories." [299] Passports are still (as of 22 June 2017) stamped at Erez when travelling into and out of Gaza. Also, passports are still stamped (as of 22 June 2017) at the Jordan Valley/Sheikh Hussein and Yitzhak Rabin/Arava land borders with Jordan.

Iran refuses admission to holders of passports containing an Israeli visa or stamp that is less than 12 months old.

Armenian ethnicity[edit]

Due to a state of war existing between Armenia and Azerbaijan, the government of Azerbaijan not only bans entry of citizens from Armenia, but also all citizens and nationals of any other country who are of Armenian descent, to the Republic of Azerbaijan[300][301] (although there have been exceptions, notably for Armenia's participation at the 2015 European Games held in Azerbaijan).

Azerbaijan also strictly bans any visit by foreign citizens to the separatist region of Nagorno-Karabakh[302] (the de facto independent Republic of Artsakh), its surrounding territories, and the Azerbaijani exclaves of Karki, Yuxarı Əskipara, Barxudarlı, and Sofulu which are de jure part of Azerbaijan but under control of Armenia, without the prior consent of the government of Azerbaijan. Foreign citizens who enter these territories will be permanently banned from entering the Republic of Azerbaijan[303] and will be included in their "list of personae non gratae".[304] As of January 2019, the list mentioned 795 people.

Upon request, the authorities of the largely unrecognized Republic of Artsakh may attach their visa and/or stamps to a separate piece of paper in order to avoid detection of travel to their country.

Criminal record[edit]

Some countries, including Australia, Canada, Fiji, New Zealand and the United States,[305] routinely deny entry to non-citizens who have a criminal record.

Persona non grata[edit]

The government of a country can declare a diplomat persona non grata, banning their entry into that country. In non-diplomatic use, the authorities of a country may also declare a foreigner persona non grata permanently or temporarily, usually because of unlawful activity.

Biometrics[edit]

A fingerprint scanner at Dulles International Airport collects biometric data on visitors, which can be used for confirming identities.

Several countries mandate that all travellers, or all foreign travellers, be fingerprinted on arrival and will refuse admission to or even arrest those travellers that refuse to comply. In some countries, such as the United States, this may apply even to transit passengers who merely wish to quickly change planes rather than go landside.[306]

Fingerprinting countries include Afghanistan,[307][308] Argentina,[309] Brunei, Cambodia,[310] China,[311] Ethiopia,[312] Ghana, India, Japan[313][314], Kenya (fingerprints and photo) [315], Malaysia upon entry and departure,[316] Paraguay, Saudi Arabia,[317] Singapore, South Korea,[318] Taiwan, Uganda[319] and the United States.

Many countries also require a photo be taken of people entering the country. The United States, which does not fully implement exit control formalities at its land frontiers (although long mandated by its legislature),[320] [321] [322] intends to implement facial recognition for passengers departing from international airports to identify people who overstay their visa.[323]

Together with fingerprint and face recognition, iris scanning is one of three biometric identification technologies internationally standardised since 2006 by the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) for use in e-passports[324] and the United Arab Emirates conducts iris scanning on visitors who need to apply for a visa.[325][326] The United States Department of Homeland Security has announced plans to greatly increase the biometric data it collects at US borders.[327] In 2018, Singapore began trials of iris scanning at 3 land and maritime immigration checkpoints.[328][329]

Passport rankings[edit]

Passport rankings by the number of countries and territories their holders could visit without a visa or by obtaining visa on arrival in March 2019 according to the Henley Passport Index were as follows: German — 188 countries and territories (ranked[330] 2nd); Danish, Finnish, French, Italian, Swedish — 187 (3rd); Luxembourgish, Spanish — 186 (4th); Austrian, British, Dutch, Portuguese — 185 (5th); Belgian, Greek, Irish — 184 (6th); Czech — 183 (7th); Maltese — 182 (8th); Hungarian, Latvian, Lithuanian, Slovak, Slovenian — 180 (10th); Estonian — 179 (11th); Polish — 174 (15th); Cypriot — 173 (16th); Romanian — 170 (18th); Bulgarian — 169 (19th); Croatian — 168 (20th). All EU passports are ranked within the top 20 positions. Passports of the European Free Trade Association countries rank similarly, Norwegian, Swiss — 185 (5th); Icelandic — 181 (9th) and Liechtenstein — 178 (12th), while the passports of the candidate states rank lower Serbian — 131 (38th); North Macedonian — 125 (42nd); Montenegrin — 124 (43rd); Albanian — 116 (48th) and Turkish — 110 (50th). European microstates rank high: Monaco — 174 (15th); San Marino — 169 (19th); Andorra — 168 (20th) and Vatican City — 150 (28th).[331]

Future[edit]

European Commission proposed a visa-free travel for 16 island nations in 2012. This proposal foresees that the visa exemption will be reciprocated through visa waiver agreements, ensuring a visa free regime for all EU citizens who wish to travel to these countries. The island nations in question are Caribbean island nations – Dominica, Grenada, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines and Trinidad and Tobago, and Pacific island nations – Kiribati, the Marshall Islands, Micronesia, Nauru, Palau, Samoa, the Solomon Islands, Timor-Leste, Tonga, Tuvalu and Vanuatu.[332] The list was expanded in 2013 with Colombia, Peru and the United Arab Emirates.[333] Most of these countries already provide visa-free or visa on arrival access in some form to the EU citizens.

Freedom of movement within the EU[edit]

Directive 2004/38/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 29 April 2004 recognises the right of citizens of the Union and their family members to move and reside freely within the territory of the Member States[334][335][336] defines the right of free movement for citizens of the European Economic Area (EEA), which includes the European Union (EU) and the three European Free Trade Association (EFTA) members Iceland, Norway and Liechtenstein. Switzerland, which is a member of EFTA but not of the EEA, is not bound by the Directive but rather has a separate bilateral agreement on the free movement with the EU.

Citizens of all European Economic Area (EEA) member states and Switzerland holding a valid passport or national identity card enjoy freedom of movement rights in each other's territory and can enter and reside in the each other's territory without a visa.

If EU, EEA and Swiss nationals are unable to present a valid passport or national identity card at the border, they must nonetheless be afforded every reasonable opportunity to obtain the necessary documents or have them brought to them within a reasonable period of time or corroborate or prove by other means that he/she is covered by the right of free movement.[337][338]

However, EU, EEA member states and Switzerland can refuse entry to an EU/EEA/Swiss national on public policy, public security or public health grounds where the person presents a "genuine, present and sufficiently serious threat affecting one of the fundamental interests of society".[339] If the person has obtained permanent residence in the country where he/she seeks entry (a status which is normally attained after 5 years of residence), the member state can only expel him/her on serious grounds of public policy or public security. Where the person has resided for 10 years or is a minor, the member state can only expel him/her on imperative grounds of public security (and, in the case of minors, if expulsion is necessary in the best interests of the child, as provided for in the Convention on the Rights of the Child).[340] Expulsion on public health grounds must relate to diseases with 'epidemic potential' which have occurred less than 3 months from the person's the date of arrival in the Member State where he/she seeks entry.[341]

A family member of an EU/EEA/Swiss citizen who is in possession of a residence permit indicating their status is exempt from the requirement to hold a visa when entering the European Union, European Economic Area or Switzerland when they are accompanying their EU/EEA/Swiss family member or are seeking to join them.[342] However the UK requires family members to obtain a special permit in order to enter the United Kingdom.[343] Non-EU family members will need a Schengen Visa before they travel to Switzerland even if they possess a UK residence permit that clearly mentions that they are the family member of an EEA Citizen.

Right to consular protection[edit]

When in a non-EU country, EU citizens whose country maintains no embassy there have the right to get consular protection from the embassy of any other EU country present there.[344]

As of 2014, there are 16 non-EU countries where there is only one embassy of an EU country: Antigua and Barbuda (United Kingdom), Barbados (United Kingdom, EU delegation), Belize (United Kingdom, EU office), Central African Republic (France, EU delegation), Comoros (France), Gambia (United Kingdom, EU office), Guyana (United Kingdom, EU delegation), San Marino (Italy), São Tomé and Príncipe (Portugal), Solomon Islands (United Kingdom), Somalia (United Kingdom), Timor-Leste (Portugal, EU delegation), and Vanuatu (France, EU delegation).

As of 2014, the following 18 non-EU countries have no embassy of an EU country: Bahamas, Bhutan (Denmark Liaison office), Dominica, Grenada, Kiribati, Lesotho (EU delegation), Liechtenstein, Maldives, Marshall Islands, Micronesia, Nauru, Palau, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Samoa (EU office), Swaziland (EU office), Tonga, and Tuvalu.

See also[edit]

References and Notes[edit]

References
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  172. ^ Available at international airports Wattay Vientiane, Pakse Savannakhet and Luang Prabang, and at land borders Friendship Bridge, Vientiane and Savannakhet; Nam Heuang Friendship Bridge, Sayabouly Province; and border crossings at Boten-Mohan, Dansavan-Lao Bao, Houaysay-Chiang Khong, Thakhek-Nakhon Phanom, Nong Haet-Nam Kan, Nam Phao-Kao Cheo, Veun Kham-Dong Calor, and Vangtao-Chong Mek as well as Tha Naleng train station in Vientiane, which connects to the train station in Nongkhai, Thailand. Entry points Napao-Chalo, Taichang-Sophoun, Pakxan-Bungkan, and Xiengkok are open only to visa holders.
  173. ^ "Visa-on-arrival". tourismlaos.org. Retrieved 3 March 2017.
  174. ^ Timatic Staff (26 November 2013). "Visa Information—Laos". timaticweb.com. Montreal, CAN: International Air Transport Association. Retrieved 26 November 2013.
  175. ^ Obtainable at the land border with Syria, the port of Beirut, or Beirut International Airport.
  176. ^ [15]
  177. ^ Timatic Staff (26 November 2013). "Visa Information—Lebanon". timaticweb.com. Montreal, CAN: International Air Transport Association. Retrieved 26 November 2013.
  178. ^ "Madagascar Visa Information, How To Obtain a Visa". madagascar-consulate.org. Retrieved 3 March 2017.
  179. ^ Timatic Staff (26 November 2013). "Visa Information—Madagascar". timaticweb.com. Montreal, CAN: International Air Transport Association. Retrieved 26 November 2013.
  180. ^ Timatic Staff (26 November 2013). "Visa Information—Malawi". timaticweb.com. Montreal, CAN: International Air Transport Association. Retrieved 26 November 2013.
  181. ^ Beney. "Maldives Immigration". immigration.gov.mv. Archived from the original on 19 February 2014. Retrieved 3 March 2017.
  182. ^ Timatic Staff (26 November 2013). "Visa Information—Maldives". timaticweb.com. Montreal, CAN: International Air Transport Association. Retrieved 26 November 2013.
  183. ^ Timatic Staff (26 November 2013). "Visa Information—Mauritania". timaticweb.com. Montreal, CAN: International Air Transport Association. Retrieved 26 November 2013.
  184. ^ Timatic Staff (26 November 2013). "Visa Information—Mozambique". timaticweb.com. Montreal, CAN: International Air Transport Association. Retrieved 26 November 2013.
  185. ^ Obtainable at Tribhuvan International Airport and certain land borders.
  186. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2002-01-06. Retrieved 2002-01-06.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  187. ^ Timatic Staff (26 November 2013). "Visa Information—Nepal". timaticweb.com. Montreal, CAN: International Air Transport Association. Retrieved 26 November 2013.
  188. ^ Timatic Staff (26 November 2013). "Visa Information—Papua New Guinea". timaticweb.com. Montreal, CAN: International Air Transport Association. Retrieved 26 November 2013.
  189. ^ http://www.immigration.gov.pg/images/documents/High_Risk_Country_Visa_Requirements_5.pdf
  190. ^ Timatic Staff (26 November 2013). "Visa Information—Philippines". timaticweb.com. Montreal, CAN: International Air Transport Association. Retrieved 26 November 2013.
  191. ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2014-10-27. Retrieved 2014-10-27.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  192. ^ "Country information (visa section)". Timatic. International Air Transport Association (IATA) through Olympic Air. Retrieved 11 February 2018.
  193. ^ "Entry requirements - Somalia travel advice".
  194. ^ "Somalia International Travel Information".
  195. ^ a b Timatic Staff (26 November 2013). "Visa Information—Sri Lanka". timaticweb.com. Montreal, CAN: International Air Transport Association. Retrieved 26 November 2013.
  196. ^ ETA obtainable on arrival or online prior to arrival.
  197. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2012-09-16. Retrieved 2012-09-16.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  198. ^ Timatic Staff (26 November 2013). "Visa Information—Tanzania". timaticweb.com. Montreal, CAN: International Air Transport Association. Retrieved 26 November 2013.
  199. ^ a b c Timatic Staff (26 November 2013). "Visa Information—Togo". timaticweb.com. Montreal, CAN: International Air Transport Association. Retrieved 26 November 2013.
  200. ^ "Directorate of Citizenship and Immigration Control". Archived from the original on 2012-12-19. Retrieved 2012-12-19.
  201. ^ Timatic Staff (26 November 2013). "Visa Information—Uganda". timaticweb.com. Montreal, CAN: International Air Transport Association. Retrieved 26 November 2013.
  202. ^ "Zambia Visa & Immigration". zambiatourism.com. Retrieved 3 March 2017.
  203. ^ Timatic Staff (17 December 2013). "Visa Information—Zimbabwe". timaticweb.com. Montreal, CAN: International Air Transport Association. Retrieved 17 December 2013.
  204. ^ http://www.boliviabella.com/support-files/bolivia-visa-group-2.pdf
  205. ^ Timatic Staff (26 November 2013). "Visa Information—Bolivia". timaticweb.com. Montreal, CAN: International Air Transport Association. Retrieved 26 November 2013.
  206. ^ a b Timatic Staff (17 December 2013). "Visa Information—Burkina Faso". timaticweb.com. Montreal, CAN: International Air Transport Association. Retrieved 17 December 2013.
  207. ^ Obtainable at Addis Ababa Bole International Airport.
  208. ^ "Consular Service". ethiopianembassy.org. Retrieved 3 March 2017.
  209. ^ Timatic Staff (17 December 2013). "Visa Information—Ethiopia". timaticweb.com. Montreal, CAN: International Air Transport Association. Retrieved 17 December 2013.
  210. ^ Timatic Staff (17 December 2013). "Visa Information—Gambia". timaticweb.com. Montreal, CAN: International Air Transport Association. Retrieved 17 December 2013.
  211. ^ Obtainable at the airports in Chah-Bahar, Qeshm, Kish, Mashad, Esfahan, Shiraz, Tabriz and Tehran international airports.
  212. ^ Timatic Staff (17 December 2013). "Visa Information—Iran". timaticweb.com. Montreal, CAN: International Air Transport Association. Retrieved 17 December 2013.
  213. ^ "Requirements For Travel to Jamaica". pica.gov.jm. Retrieved 3 March 2017.
  214. ^ Timatic Staff (17 December 2013). "Visa Information—Jamaica". timaticweb.com. Montreal, CAN: International Air Transport Association. Retrieved 17 December 2013.
  215. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2008-10-11. Retrieved 2008-10-11.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  216. ^ Timatic Staff (17 December 2013). "Visa Information—Kyrgyzstan". timaticweb.com. Montreal, CAN: International Air Transport Association. Retrieved 17 December 2013.
  217. ^ Timatic Staff. "Visa Information—Mongolia". timaticweb.com. Montreal, CAN: International Air Transport Association. Retrieved 24 March 2019.
  218. ^ "Pristine Paradise Palau | Official Tourism Office of Palau Micronesia". Archived from the original on 2003-09-09. Retrieved 2003-09-09.
  219. ^ Timatic Staff (17 December 2013). "Visa Information—Palau". timaticweb.com. Montreal, CAN: International Air Transport Association. Retrieved 17 December 2013.
  220. ^ Obtainable at Johan Adolf Pengel International Airport.
  221. ^ Tilon. "Toeristenkaart informatie". consulaatsuriname.nl. Retrieved 3 March 2017.
  222. ^ Timatic Staff (17 December 2013). "Visa Information—Suriname". timaticweb.com. Montreal, CAN: International Air Transport Association. Retrieved 17 December 2013.
  223. ^ Timatic Staff (17 December 2013). "Visa Information—Thailand". timaticweb.com. Montreal, CAN: International Air Transport Association. Retrieved 17 December 2013.
  224. ^ For arrivals by air only.
  225. ^ Timatic Staff (17 December 2013). "Visa Information—East Timor". timaticweb.com. Montreal, CAN: International Air Transport Association. Retrieved 17 December 2013.
  226. ^ Timatic Staff (17 December 2013). "Visa Information—Solomon Islands". timaticweb.com. Montreal, CAN: International Air Transport Association. Retrieved 17 December 2013.
  227. ^ a b Timatic Staff (17 December 2013). "Visa Information—Tonga". timaticweb.com. Montreal, CAN: International Air Transport Association. Retrieved 17 December 2013.
  228. ^ a b Timatic Staff (17 December 2013). "Visa Information—Tuvalu". timaticweb.com. Montreal, CAN: International Air Transport Association. Retrieved 17 December 2013.
  229. ^ Timatic Staff (17 December 2013). "Visa Information—United Arab Emirates". timaticweb.com. Montreal, CAN: International Air Transport Association. Retrieved 17 December 2013.
  230. ^ Timatic Staff (17 December 2013). "Visa Information—Burundi". timaticweb.com. Montreal, CAN: International Air Transport Association. Retrieved 17 December 2013.
  231. ^ "Particulars of issuance of entry visas at the "National Airport Minsk" - Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Belarus". mfa.gov.by. Retrieved 3 March 2017.
  232. ^ Timatic Staff (17 December 2013). "Visa Information—Iraq". timaticweb.com. Montreal, CAN: International Air Transport Association. Retrieved 17 December 2013.
  233. ^ Timatic Staff (17 December 2013). "Visa Information—Pakistan". timaticweb.com. Montreal, CAN: International Air Transport Association. Retrieved 17 December 2013.
  234. ^ "Directorate General of Immigration & Passports, Ministry of Interior, Government of Pakistan". dgip.gov.pk. Retrieved 3 March 2017.
  235. ^ Timatic Staff (17 December 2013). "Visa Information—Vietnam". timaticweb.com. Montreal, CAN: International Air Transport Association. Retrieved 17 December 2013.
  236. ^ html, www.sitecreation.com.au - web design, sydney, design, freelance. "Discover Phu Quoc - island paradise in the Gulf of Thailand, secluded and beautiful beaches, resorts and hotels on Phu Quoc island, Vietnam..." discoverphuquoc.com. Retrieved 3 March 2017.
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  239. ^ "Electronic Travel Authority". immi.gov.au. Retrieved 3 March 2017.
  240. ^ "Home Page - The Electronic Visa System of Azerbaijan Republic". evisa.gov.az. Retrieved 3 March 2017.
  241. ^ "Bahrain Electronic Visa Service". evisa.gov.bh. Retrieved 3 March 2017.
  242. ^ eVisa Benin
  243. ^ "Ethiopian eVISA". evisa.gov.et. Retrieved 14 June 2017.
  244. ^ "EVisa".
  245. ^ "Kingdom of Cambodia - Ministry of Foreign Affairs & International Cooperation". evisa.gov.kh. Retrieved 3 March 2017.
  246. ^ "Gabon e-Visa". dgdi.ga. Retrieved 3 March 2017.
  247. ^ "Indian e-Tourist Visa". indianvisaonline.gov.in. Retrieved 3 March 2017.
  248. ^ Email:marcel_bessin@yahoo.fr, BESSIN Effi Marcel. ":::SNEDAI". snedai.com. Retrieved 3 March 2017.
  249. ^ eCitizen. "eCitizen - Gateway to All Government Services". ecitizen.go.ke. Retrieved 3 March 2017.
  250. ^ "Kuwait e-Visa". moi.gov.kw. Retrieved 3 March 2017.
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  252. ^ eVisa Lesotho
  253. ^ "EVisa | Welcome to the eService of Tourism, Immigration and Emigration".
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  284. ^ Bahrain government website
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  286. ^ Timatic
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  289. ^ "Countries whose citizens are allowed to enter Turkey with their expired passports". Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Republic of Turkey. Archived from the original on 8 October 2015. Retrieved 6 July 2018. Countries whose citizens are allowed to enter Turkey with their expired passports: 1. Germany – Passports expired within the last year / ID’s expired within the last year, 2. Belgium - Passports expired within the last 5 years, 3. France - Passports expired within the last 5 years, 4. Spain - Passports expired within the last 5 years, 5. Switzerland - Passports expired within the last 5 years, 6. Luxemburg - Passports expired within the last 5 years, 7. Portugal - Passports expired within the last 5 years, 8. Bulgaria – Valid ordinary passport
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  291. ^ Country list - Yellow fever vaccination requirements and recommendations; and malaria situation; and other vaccination requirement
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  295. ^ Michael Freund, Canada defends Saudi policy of shunning tourists who visited Israel, 2008-12-07, Jerusalem Post
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  299. ^ "Entry Requirements - Israel Travel Advice". Foreign Travel Advice. Foreign & Commonwealth Office of Her Majesty's Government of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. Retrieved 6 April 2019. Visitors entering via Ben Gurion airport are given an entry card instead of an entry stamp in their passport. While this practice is in place at other ports of entry, there have been instances where passports have been stamped for entry purposes. You should keep your entry card with your passport until you leave. This is evidence of your legal entry into Israel and may be required, particularly at any crossing points into the Occupied Palestinian Territories. If you’re refused entry into Israel, your passport may be stamped with an entry stamp and two red lines drawn across it to indicate the refusal.
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  306. ^ Calder, Simon (24 April 2017). "Airline lobbying for a relaxation of draconian rules for London-Auckland travellers". The Independent. Retrieved 7 July 2018. Travellers heading west from the UK to New Zealand may soon be able to avoid the onerous requirement to clear US border control during the refuelling stop at Los Angeles airport (LAX). Unlike almost every other country in the world, the US insists on a full immigration check even for travellers who simply intend to re-board their plane to continue onwards to a foreign destination. Air New Zealand, which flies daily from Heathrow via Los Angeles to Auckland, says there are currently “strict requirements for travellers” in transit at LAX. Through passengers to Auckland on flight NZ1 or Heathrow on NZ2 must apply in advance for an ESTA (online visa) even though they have no intention of staying in the US. They also have to undergo screening by the Transportation Security Administration.
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  315. ^ "Immigration & Visas FAQs". Kenya Airports Authority. Retrieved 6 May 2019. Will visitors still have their digital photo and fingerprints taken at the immigration desk on arrival? Yes, the need to have photos and fingerprints taken upon arrival is to authenticate that the person who applied for the Visa is the same person at the port of entry
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  320. ^ Brown, Theresa Cardinal (9 May 2016). "Biometric Entry-Exit Update: CBP Developing Land Border Process". Bipartisan Policy Center. Retrieved 25 April 2019. While a requirement for a biometric entry-exit system has been in law for over a decade, it is not yet a reality. Many reasons for the long gestating development have been documented in BPC’s 2014 report Entry-Exit System: Progress, Challenges, and Outlook, including the technological, operational, and cost challenges of creating exit systems and infrastructure where none exist today. However, many critics, especially in Congress, simply accused the Department of Homeland security of dragging its feet... the major operational, logistical, and technical challenge in implementing exit capability at our ports has been the land borders. Unlike airports and seaports, the land border environment is not physically controlled, there is no means to get advance information on who is arriving, and the sheer volume of travel—both vehicular and pedestrian—creates challenges in any system to not further exacerbate delays. While biometric exit for land vehicular traffic is still in the “what if” stage, CBP is moving ahead and piloting systems and technology to use with the large population of pedestrian crossers at the U.S.-Mexico border.
  321. ^ Lipton, Eric (21 May 2013). "U.S. Quietly Monitors Foreigners' Departures at the Canadian Border". The New York Times. Retrieved 25 April 2019. Long demanded by lawmakers in Congress, it is considered a critical step to developing a coherent program to curb illegal immigration, as historically about 30 percent to 40 percent of illegal immigrants in the United States arrived on tourist visas or other legal means and then never left, according to estimates by Homeland Security officials.
  322. ^ LIPTON, Eric (15 December 2006). "Administration to Drop Effort to Track if Visitors Leave". The New York Times. Retrieved 25 April 2019. Efforts to determine whether visitors actually leave have faltered. Departure monitoring would help officials hunt for foreigners who have not left, if necessary. Domestic security officials say, however, it would be too expensive to conduct fingerprint or facial recognition scans for land departures.
  323. ^ Campoy, Ana; Campoy, Ana. "The US wants to scan the faces of all air passengers leaving the country". Quartz. Retrieved 2019-04-24.
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  327. ^ Roberts, Jeff John (12 September 2016). "Homeland Security Plans to Expand Fingerprint and Eye Scanning at Borders". Fortune. Fortune Media IP Limited. Retrieved 24 April 2019. Unlike with documents, it’s very hard for a traveler to present a forged copy of a fingerprint or iris. That’s why the U.S. Department of Homeland Security plans to vastly expand the amount of biometric data it collects at the borders. According to Passcode, a new program will ramp up a process to scan fingers and eyes in order to stop people entering and exiting the country on someone else’s passport.
  328. ^ "Singapore tests eye scans at immigration checkpoints". Reuters. 6 August 2018. Retrieved 24 April 2019. Singapore has started scanning travellers’ eyes at some of its border checkpoints, its immigration authority said on Monday, in a trial of expensive technology that could one day replace fingerprint verification.
  329. ^ Lee, Vivien (6 August 2018). "5 Reasons We Prefer Iris Scans To Fingerprint Checks At Our Borders In Singapore". Retrieved 24 April 2019. The iris technology could potentially scan irises covertly, as opposed to the scanning of thumbprints which necessitates active participation from travellers.
  330. ^ Using dense ranking.
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  338. ^ Judgement of the European Court of Justice of 17 February 2005, Case C 215/03, Salah Oulane vs. Minister voor Vreemdelingenzaken en Integratie
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  340. ^ Article 28 of Directive 2004/38/EC (Directive 2004/38/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 29 April 2004 on the right of citizens of the Union and their family members to move and reside freely within the territory of the Member States).
  341. ^ Article 29 of Directive 2004/38/EC (Directive 2004/38/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 29 April 2004 on the right of citizens of the Union and their family members to move and reside freely within the territory of the Member States).
  342. ^ Articles 3(1) and 5(2) of the Directive 2004/38/EC (Directive 2004/38/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 29 April 2004 on the right of citizens of the Union and their family members to move and reside freely within the territory of the Member States).
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Notes

External links[edit]