Visa requirements for Italian citizens

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Visa requirements for Italian citizens are administrative entry restrictions by the authorities of other states placed on citizens of Italy. As of 13 April 2021, Italian citizens had visa-free or visa on arrival access to 190 countries and territories, ranking the Italian passport 4th in terms of travel freedom (tied with Spain, Luxembourg and Finland) according to the Henley Passport Index.[1] Additionally, the World Tourism Organization also published a report on 15 January 2016 ranking the Italian passport 1st in the world (tied with Denmark, Finland, Germany, Luxembourg, Singapore and the United Kingdom) in terms of travel freedom, with the mobility index of 160 (out of 215 with no visa weighted by 1, visa on arrival weighted by 0.7, eVisa by 0.5 and traditional visa weighted by 0).[2]

Visa requirements map[edit]

Visa requirements for Italian citizens
  Italy
  Freedom of movement
  Visa not required / ESTA / eTA / eVisitor
  Visa on arrival
  eVisa
  Visa available both on arrival or online
  Visa required prior to arrival

Visa requirements[edit]

Country Visa requirement Allowed stay Notes (excluding departure fees)
 Afghanistan Visa required[3]
 Albania Visa not required[4] 90 days
 Algeria Visa required[5]
 Andorra Visa not required[6]
 Angola eVisa[7][8] 30 days
  • Visitors who have been granted an online pre-visa or have requested a pre-visa from an Angolan consulate abroad are issued a visa upon arrival at the country's border crossings.
  • Maximum total stay of 90 days within a one-year period.[9]
  • Visitors must have a return/onward ticket and a hotel reservation confirmation.[10]
 Antigua and Barbuda Visa not required[11] 3 months
 Argentina Visa not required[12] 90 days
 Armenia Visa not required[13] 180 days
 Australia eVisitor[14] 90 days
  • 90 days on each visit in 12-month period if granted
 Austria Visa not required[15]
 Azerbaijan eVisa[16] 30 days[17]
 Bahamas Visa not required[18] 3 months
 Bahrain eVisa / Visa on arrival[19] 14 days
 Bangladesh Visa on arrival[20] 30 days
 Barbados Visa not required[21] 3 months
 Belarus Visa not required[22] 30 days
 Belgium Visa not required[23]
 Belize Visa not required[24] 1 month
 Benin eVisa / Visa on arrival[25][26] 30 days / 8 days
  • Must have an international vaccination certificate.
 Bhutan Visa required[27]
 Bolivia Visa not required[28] 90 days
 Bosnia and Herzegovina Visa not required[29] 90 days
  • 90 days within any 6-month period
  • ID card valid
 Botswana Visa not required[30] 90 days
 Brazil Visa not required[31] 90 days
  • 90 days within any 180 day period
 Brunei Visa not required[32] 90 days
 Bulgaria Visa not required[33]
 Burkina Faso Visa on arrival[34] 1 month
 Burundi Visa required[35]
 Cambodia eVisa / Visa on arrival[36] 30 days
  • Visa is also obtainable online.[37]
 Cameroon Visa required[38]
 Canada Visa not required[39] 6 months
 Cape Verde Visa not required[42] 30 days
  • Must register online at least five days prior to arrival.[43]
 Central African Republic Visa required[44]
 Chad Visa required[45]
 Chile Visa not required[46] 90 days
 China Visa required[47]
 Colombia Visa not required[50] 180 days
  • 90 days - extendable up to 180-days stay within a one-year period
 Comoros Visa on arrival[51] 45 days
 Republic of the Congo Visa required[52]
 Democratic Republic of the Congo Visa required[53]
 Costa Rica Visa not required[54] 90 days
 Côte d'Ivoire eVisa[55] 3 months
 Croatia Visa not required[56]
 Cuba Tourist Card required[57]
 Cyprus Visa not required[58]
 Czech Republic Visa not required[59]
 Denmark Visa not required[60]
  • Freedom of movement (DK)
  • ID card valid
 Djibouti eVisa[61] 31 days
 Dominica Visa not required[62] 90 days
  • 90 days within any 180 day period
 Dominican Republic Visa not required[63] 90 days
 Ecuador Visa not required[64] 90 days
 Egypt eVisa / Visa on arrival[65][66] 30 days
 El Salvador Visa not required[68] 3 months
 Equatorial Guinea Visa required[69]
 Eritrea Visa required[70]
 Estonia Visa not required[71]
 Eswatini Visa not required[72] 30 days
 Ethiopia eVisa / Visa on arrival[73] up to 90 days
 Fiji Visa not required[76] 4 months
 Finland Visa not required[77]
 France Visa not required[78]
 Gabon eVisa / Visa on arrival[79] 90 days
 Gambia Visa not required[81] 90 days
 Georgia Visa not required[82] 1 year
 Germany Visa not required[83]
 Ghana Visa required[84]
 Greece Visa not required[85]
 Grenada Visa not required[86] 3 months
 Guatemala Visa not required[87] 90 days
 Guinea eVisa[88] 90 days
 Guinea-Bissau eVisa / Visa on arrival[89] 90 days
 Guyana Visa not required[90] 3 months
 Haiti Visa not required[91] 90 days
 Honduras Visa not required[92] 3 months
 Hungary Visa not required[93]
 Iceland Visa not required[94]
 India eVisa[95] 60 days
  • e-Visa holders must arrive via 26 designated airports[Note 1] or 3 designated seaports.[Note 2][96]
  • An Indian e-Tourist Visa can only be obtained twice in one calendar year.
 Indonesia Visa not required[97] 30 days
 Iran Visa on arrival[98] 30 days[99]
 Iraq Visa on arrival[100] 60 days
  • Visa not required for up to 30 days to Iraqi Kurdistan.
  • On the 15th of March 2021 the Iraqi government lifted pre-arrival visa requirements, allowing EU citizens to apply for visa on arrival in any entry point.[101]
 Ireland Visa not required[102]
 Israel Visa not required[103] 3 months
 Jamaica Visa not required[104] 90 days
 Japan Visa not required[105] 90 days
 Jordan Free visa on arrival[106]
  • Conditions apply.[107]
  • Iris scan is taken on arrival and departure[108]
 Kazakhstan Visa not required[109] 30 days[110]
 Kenya eVisa / Visa on arrival[111] 3 months
 Kiribati Visa not required[112] 90 days
  • 90 days within any 180 day period
 North Korea Visa required[113]
  • Tourist visa approved via tour agencies.
 South Korea Visa not required[114] 90 days
 Kuwait eVisa / Visa on arrival[115] 3 months
 Kyrgyzstan Visa not required[116] 60 days
 Laos eVisa / Visa on arrival[117][118] 30 days
  • Visa on arrival is available at Luangphabang, Pakse, Savannakhet and Vientiane international airports, the 4 Thai-Lao Friendship Bridges,[Note 3] 13 border crossings,[Note 4] and Tanalaeng train station in Vientiane.[119] Visa on arrival facilities will be gradually phased out starting in January 2020.[120]
  • eVisa may be used to enter Laos through Wattay International Airport and the First Thai–Lao Friendship Bridge
  • The Lalai, Lantui, Meuang mom, Pakxan, and Phoudou border crossings are open only to visa holders.
  • Visa on arrival is extendable up to 60 days.
 Latvia Visa not required[121]
 Lebanon Visa on arrival[122] 1 month
  • Extendable for 2 additional months
  • Granted free of charge at Beirut International Airport or any other port of entry if there is no Israeli visa or seal, holding a telephone number, an address in Lebanon, and a non refundable return or circle trip ticket.
 Lesotho Visa not required[123]
 Liberia Visa required[124]
 Libya Visa required[125]
 Liechtenstein Visa not required[126]
 Lithuania Visa not required[127]
 Luxembourg Visa not required[128]
 Madagascar eVisa / Visa on arrival[129] 90 days
 Malawi eVisa / Visa on arrival[130][131] 90 days
 Malaysia Visa not required[132] 3 months
 Maldives Free visa on arrival[133] 30 days
 Mali Visa required[134]
 Malta Visa not required[135]
 Marshall Islands Visa not required[136] 90 days
  • 90 days within any 180 day period
 Mauritania Visa on arrival[137]
 Mauritius Visa not required[138] 90 days
 Mexico Visa not required[139] 180 days
 Micronesia Visa not required[140] 90 days
  • 90 days within any 180 day period
 Moldova Visa not required[141] 90 days
  • 90 days within any 180 day period
  • ID card valid
 Monaco Visa not required[142]
 Mongolia Visa required[143]
 Montenegro Visa not required[144] 90 days
 Morocco Visa not required[145] 90 days
 Mozambique Visa on arrival[146] 30 days[147]
 Myanmar eVisa / Free visa on arrival[148] 28 days
 Namibia Visa not required[149] 3 months
  • 3 months within a calendar year
 Nauru Visa required[150]
   Nepal Visa on arrival[151] 90 days
 Netherlands Visa not required[152]
 New Zealand Electronic Travel Authority[153] 3 months
  • International Visitor Conservation and Tourism Levy must be paid upon requesting an Electronic Travel Authority.[154]
  • Holders of an Australian Permanent Resident Visa or Resident Return Visa may be granted a New Zealand Resident Visa on arrival permitting indefinite stay (pursuant to the Trans-Tasman Travel Arrangement), subject to meeting character requirements and obtaining an Electronic Travel Authority prior to departure.[155] Such travellers are not required to pay the International Visitor Conservation and Tourism Levy.[154]
 Nicaragua Visa not required[156] 90 days
 Niger Visa required[157]
 Nigeria Visa required[158]
 North Macedonia Visa not required[159] 90 days
 Norway Visa not required[160]
 Oman Visa not required[161] 10 days
  • Visitors must have a confirmed hotel reservation, health insurance and a return ticket[162]
  • Holders of a visa or entrance stamp of the Emirate of Dubai that is valid for at least 21 days are visa exempt.[163]
  • Holders of a visa for Qatar that is valid for travel to Oman and valid for at least one month are visa exempt when arriving directly from Qatar.[164]
  • Iris scan is taken on arrival.[108]
 Pakistan Electronic Travel Authorization[165]
  • Electronic Travel Authorization to obtain a visa on arrival for tourism purposes.[166]
  • Electronic Travel Authorization to obtain a visa on arrival for business purposes.[167]
  • Online Visa eligible.[168]
 Palau Visa not required[169] 90 days
  • 90 days within any 180 day period
 Panama Visa not required[170] 180 days
 Papua New Guinea eVisa / Free visa on arrival[171] 60 days
 Paraguay Visa not required[172] 90 days
 Peru Visa not required[173] 90 days
  • 90 days within any 6-month period[174]
 Philippines Visa not required[175] 30 days
 Poland Visa not required[176]
 Portugal Visa not required[177]
 Qatar Visa not required[178] 90 days
 Romania Visa not required[179]
 Russia eVisa[180] 16 days
  • e-Visa holders must arrive and departure via 29 checkpoints[181]
  • 72-hours visa free visit when entering by regular ferry via port of St. Petersburg, provided that a passenger spends the night on-board or in accommodation specifically approved by the travel agency.[182]
 Rwanda eVisa / Visa on arrival[183] 30 days
 Saint Kitts and Nevis Visa not required[184] 3 months
 Saint Lucia Visa not required[185] 90 days
  • 90 days within any 180 day period
 Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Visa not required[186] 90 days
  • 90 days within any 180 day period
 Samoa Visa not required[187] 90 days
  • 90 days within any 180 day period
 San Marino Visa not required[188]
 São Tomé and Príncipe Visa not required[189] 15 days
 Saudi Arabia eVisa / Visa on arrival[190][191] 90 days
 Senegal Visa not required[192] 90 days
 Serbia Visa not required[193]
  • 90 days within any 6-month period
  • ID card valid
 Seychelles Visa not required[194] 3 months
 Sierra Leone Visa on arrival[195]
 Singapore Visa not required[196] 90 days
 Slovakia Visa not required[197]
 Slovenia Visa not required[198]
 Solomon Islands Visa not required[199] 90 days
  • 90 days within any 180 day period
 Somalia Visa on arrival[200]
 South Africa Visa not required[201] 90 days
 South Sudan Electronic Visa[202]
  • Obtainable online[203]
  • Printed visa authorization must be presented at the time of travel[203]
 Spain Visa not required[68]
 Sri Lanka eVisa / Visa on arrival[204] 30 days
 Sudan Visa required[205]
 Suriname E-tourist card[206] 90 days
  • Multiple entry eVisa is also available.[207]
 Sweden Visa not required[208]
  Switzerland Visa not required[209]
 Syria Visa required[210]
 Tajikistan Visa on arrival[211] 45 days
 Tanzania eVisa / Visa on arrival[213][214] 3 months
 Thailand Visa not required[215] 30 days
  • Maximum two visits annually if not arriving by air.
 Timor-Leste Visa not required[216] 90 days
  • 90 days within any 180 day period
 Togo Visa on arrival[217] 7 days
 Tonga Visa not required[218] 90 days
  • 90 days within any 180 day period
 Trinidad and Tobago Visa not required[219] 90 days
  • 90 days within any 180 day period
 Tunisia Visa not required[220] 3 months
 Turkey Visa not required[45] 3 months
 Turkmenistan Visa required[223]
 Tuvalu Visa not required[224] 90 days
  • 90 days within any 180 day period
 Uganda eVisa / Visa on arrival[225]
 Ukraine Visa not required[227] 90 days
  • 90 days within any 180 day period
 United Arab Emirates Visa not required[228] 90 days
 United Kingdom Visa not required[231] 6 months
 United States Visa Waiver Program[232] 90 days
  • On arrival from overseas; ESTA (valid for 2 years when issued) required if arriving by air or cruise ship.[233]
 Uruguay Visa not required[234] 90 days
 Uzbekistan Visa not required[235] 30 days
 Vanuatu Visa not required[236] 90 days
  • 90 days within any 180 day period
  Vatican City Visa not required[237]
 Venezuela Visa not required[238] 90 days
 Vietnam Visa not required[239] 15 days
  • A single entry eVisa valid for 30 days is also available.[240]
 Yemen Visa required[241]
 Zambia eVisa / Visa on arrival[242] 90 days
 Zimbabwe eVisa / Visa on arrival[243] 3 months

Territories, disputed areas or administrative subdivisions with different visa policies[edit]

Visa requirements for Italian citizens for visits to various territories, disputed areas, partially recognized countries not mentioned in the list above, recognized administrative subdivisions that operate on different visa policies and restricted zones:

Africa
Visitor to Visa requirement Allowed stay Notes (excluding departure fees)
 Eritrea outside Asmara Travel permit required To travel in the rest of the country, a Travel Permit for Foreigners is required (20 Eritrean nakfa).[244]
 Ascension Island eVisa[245][246] 3 months 3 months within any year period.
 Saint Helena Visitor's Pass required Visitor's Pass granted on arrival valid for 4/10/21/60/90 days for 12/14/16/20/25 pound sterling.[247]
 Tristan da Cunha Permission required Permission to land required for 15/30 pounds sterling (yacht/ship passenger) for Tristan da Cunha Island or 20 pounds sterling for Gough Island, Inaccessible Island or Nightingale Islands.[248]
 Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic Undefined Undefined visa regime in the Western Sahara controlled territory.
 Somaliland Visa on arrival 30 days 30 US dollars, payable on arrival.[249][250]
Asia
Visitor to Visa requirement Allowed stay Notes (excluding departure fees)
 British Indian Ocean Territory Special permit required Special permit required.[251]
China Hainan Visa on arrival Visa on arrival for 15 days. Available at Haikou Meilan International Airport and Sanya Phoenix International Airport. Visa not required for 15 days for traveling as part of a tourist group (5 or more people).[252][253]
 Hong Kong Visa not required 90 days[254]
 India PAP/RAP PAP/RAP required Protected Area Permit (PAP) required for whole states of Nagaland and Sikkim and parts of states Manipur, Arunachal Pradesh, Uttaranchal, Jammu and Kashmir, Rajasthan, Himachal Pradesh. Restricted Area Permit (RAP) required for all of Andaman and Nicobar Islands and parts of Sikkim. Some of these requirements are occasionally lifted for a year.[255][256][257][258][259][260]
 Iraqi Kurdistan Visa on arrival 30 days[261]
Iran Iran Free Trade Zones Visa not required 14 days Holders of normal passports traveling as tourists can enter the following Iran trade zones without a visa with a maximum stay of 2 weeks (extendable): Arvand Free Zone, Aras Free Zone, Chabahar Free Trade-Industrial Zone, Maku, Qeshm Island, Kish Island, Anzali.[262][263][264]
 Macao Visa not required 90 days[265]
Malaysia Sabah and Sarawak Visa not required These states have their own immigration authorities and passport is required to travel to them, however the same visa applies.[266]
Saudi Arabia Mecca and Medina Special access required Non-Muslims and those following the Ahmadiyya religious movement are strictly prohibited from entry.
India North Sentinel Island Restricted zone
 Palestine Visa not required Arrival by sea to Gaza Strip not allowed.[267][268]
Taiwan Taiwan Visa not required 90 days[269] Visitors fingerprinted.
Tajikistan Gorno-Badakhshan Autonomous Province OIVR permit required OIVR permit required (15+5 Tajikistani Somoni) and another special permit (free of charge) is required for Lake Sarez.[270][271][272][273]
China Tibet Autonomous Region TTP required Tibet Travel Permit required (10 US Dollars).[274][275][276]
Turkmenistan Closed cities of Turkmenistan Special permit required A special permit, issued prior to arrival by Ministry of Foreign Affairs, is required if visiting the following places: Atamurat, Cheleken, Dashoguz, Serakhs and Serhetabat.[277]
United Nations Korean Demilitarized Zone Restricted zone
United Nations UNDOF Zone and Ghajar Restricted zone
Vietnam Phú Quốc Visa not required 30 days[278]
Caribbean and North Atlantic
Visitor to Visa requirement Allowed stay Notes (excluding departure fees)
 Anguilla Visa not required 3 months[279]
 Aruba Visa not required 30 days[280]
 Bermuda Visa not required 6 months Decided on arrival.[281]
Caribbean Netherlands Bonaire, St. Eustatius and Saba Visa not required 90 days[282]
 British Virgin Islands Visa not required 30 days Extensions possible.[283]
 Cayman Islands Visa not required 6 months[284]
Colombia San Andrés and Leticia Tourist Card on arrival Visitors arriving at Gustavo Rojas Pinilla International Airport and Alfredo Vásquez Cobo International Airport must buy tourist cards on arrival.[285]
 Curaçao Visa not required 90 days.[286]
 Montserrat Visa not required 6 months
 Puerto Rico Visa not required 90 days Visa not required under the Visa Waiver Program, for 90 days on arrival from overseas for 2 years. ESTA required.[287]
 Sint Maarten Visa not required 90 days[288]
 Turks and Caicos Islands Visa not required 90 days[289]
 U.S. Virgin Islands Visa not required 90 days Visa not required under the Visa Waiver Program, for 90 days on arrival from overseas for 2 years. ESTA required.[290]
Europe
Visitor to Visa requirement Allowed stay Notes (excluding departure fees)
 Abkhazia Visa required[291]
 Artsakh Visa required[292][293] Visa issued for single entry for 21 days/1/2/3 months or multiple entry visa for 1/2/3 months.[294][295] Travellers with Artsakh visa (expired or valid) or evidence of travel to Artsakh (stamps) will be permanently denied entry to Azerbaijan.[296]
Flag of the Greek Orthodox Church.svg Mount Athos Special permit required Special permit required (4 days: 25 euro for Orthodox visitors, 35 euro for non-Orthodox visitors, 18 euro for students). There is a visitors' quota: maximum 100 Orthodox and 10 non-Orthodox per day and women are not allowed.[297][298]
Ukraine ATO zone Special permission required[299]
Belarus Brest and Grodno Visa not required 10 days[300]
 Crimea Visa required Visa issued by Russia is required.[301]
 Novorossiya Restricted area Crossing from Ukraine requires visit purpose to be explained to Ukrainian passport control on exit and those who entered from Russia are not allowed to proceed further into Ukraine.[302]
 Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus Visa not required 3 months[303][304] ID Card valid.[305]
United Nations UN Buffer Zone in Cyprus Access Permit required[306] Access Permit is required for travelling inside the zone, except Civil Use Areas.[307]
 Gibraltar Visa not required[308] ID Card valid.[309]
 Guernsey Visa not required[310]
 Isle of Man Visa not required[311]
Norway Jan Mayen Permit required[308] 24 hours Permit issued by the local police required for staying for less than 24 hours[312] and permit issued by the Norwegian police for staying for more than 24 hours.[313]
 Jersey Visa not required[314]
 Kosovo Visa not required 90 days[315] Biometric ID Card valid.[316]
Russia Closed cities of Russia Special authorization required Several closed cities and regions in Russia require special authorization.[317]
 South Ossetia Visa not required Multiple entry visa to Russia and three-day prior notification are required to enter South Ossetia.[318][319]
 Svalbard Visa not required[320] Unlimited Svalbard Treaty
 Transnistria Visa not required 24 hours Registration required after 24h.[321][322]
Oceania
Visitor to Visa requirement Allowed stay Notes (excluding departure fees)
American Samoa American Samoa Visa not required 30 days Electronic authorization for 30 days.[323]
Australia Ashmore and Cartier Islands Special authorisation required[324]
France Clipperton Island Special permit required[325]
 Cook Islands Visa not required 31 days[326]
Fiji Lau Province Special permission required[327]
Guam Guam Visa not required 90 days Visa not required under the Visa Waiver Program, for 90 days on arrival from overseas for 2 years. ESTA required.[328]
 Niue Visa on arrival 30 days[329] Visa on arrival valid for 30 days is issued free of charge.[330]
Northern Mariana Islands Northern Mariana Islands Visa not required[331]
 Pitcairn Islands Visa not required 14 days Visa free and landing fee US$35 or tax of US$5 if not going ashore.[332][333][334]
 Tokelau Entry permit required[335]
United States United States Minor Outlying Islands Special permits required Special permits required for Baker Island, Howland Island, Jarvis Island, Johnston Atoll, Kingman Reef, Midway Atoll, Palmyra Atoll and Wake Island.[336][337][338][339][340][341][342]
South America
Visitor to Visa requirement Allowed stay Notes (excluding departure fees)
Bandera Provincia Galápagos.svg Galápagos Pre-registration required Online pre-registration is required. Transit Control Card must also be obtained at the airport prior to departure.[343]
South Atlantic and Antarctica
Visitor to Visa requirement Allowed stay Notes (excluding departure fees)
 Falkland Islands Visitor Permit on arrival 30 days Visitor Permit valid for 4 weeks is issued on arrival.[344]
 South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands Permit required 72 hours/30 days Pre-arrival permit from the Commissioner required (72 hours/1 month for 110/160 pounds sterling).[345][346]
 Antarctica Special permits required Special permits required for  British Antarctic Territory,  French Southern and Antarctic Lands,  Argentine Antarctica, Australia Australian Antarctic Territory, Antártica Chilena Province Chilean Antarctic Territory, Australia Heard Island and McDonald Islands, Norway Peter I Island, Norway Queen Maud Land, New Zealand Ross Dependency.[347][348][349][350][351][352][353][354][355][356][357][358]

Non-ordinary passports[edit]

Holders of various categories of official Italian passports have additional visa-free access to the following countries - Algeria (diplomatic or service passports), Angola (diplomatic or service passports), Azerbaijan (diplomatic or service passports), Egypt (diplomatic, official, service or special passports), Kazakhstan (diplomatic passports), Kuwait (diplomatic passports), Libya (diplomatic, official or service passports), Niger (diplomatic passports), Qatar (diplomatic, service or special passports), Uganda (diplomatic passports), Russia (diplomatic passports) and Vietnam (diplomatic passports) . Holders of diplomatic or service passports of any country have visa-free access to Cape Verde, Ethiopia, Mali and Zimbabwe.

Right to consular protection in non-EU countries[edit]

Diplomatic missions of Italy

When in a non-EU country where there is no Italian embassy Italian citizens, as EU citizens, have the right to get consular protection from the embassy of any other EU country present in that country.

See also List of diplomatic missions of Italy.

Non-visa restrictions[edit]

Blank passport pages[edit]

Many countries require a minimum number of blank pages to be available in the passport being presented, typically one or two pages.[359] Endorsement pages, which often appear after the visa pages, are not counted as being available.

Vaccination[edit]

An International Certificate of Vaccination or Prophylaxis is required to prove that someone has been vaccinated against yellow fever

Many African countries, including Benin, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Republic of the Congo, Côte d'Ivoire, Gabon, Guinea-Bissau, Kenya, Liberia, Niger, Rwanda, Sierra Leone and Togo, require all incoming passengers older than nine months to one year[360] to have a current International Certificate of Vaccination or Prophylaxis, as does the South American territory of French Guiana.[361]

Some other countries require vaccination only if the passenger is coming from an infected area or has visited one recently or has transited for 12 hours in those countries: Algeria, Botswana, Cabo Verde, Chad, Djibouti, Egypt, Ethiopia, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Lesotho, Libya, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Madagascar, Malawi, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mozambique, Namibia, Nigeria, Papua New Guinea, Seychelles, Somalia, South Africa, Sudan, Swaziland, Tunisia, Uganda, United Republic of Tanzania, Zambia and Zimbabwe.[362][363]

An increasing number of countries have been imposing additional COVID-19 related health restrictions such as quarantine measures and testing requirements. Many countries increasingly consider the vaccination status of travellers with regard to quarantine requirements or when deciding to allow them entry at all.[364] This is justified by research that shows that the efficacy of the BioNTech vaccine lasts for six months or so.[365]

Passport validity length[edit]

In the absence of specific bilateral agreements, countries requiring passports to be valid for at least 6 more months on arrival include Afghanistan, Algeria, Anguilla, Bahrain,[366] Bhutan, Botswana, British Virgin Islands, Brunei, Cambodia, Cameroon, Cape Verde, Cayman Islands, Central African Republic, Chad, Comoros, Costa Rica, Côte d'Ivoire, Curaçao, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Equatorial Guinea, Fiji, Gabon, Guinea Bissau, Guyana, Haiti, India, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Israel,[367] Jordan, Kenya, Kiribati, Kuwait, Laos, Madagascar, Malaysia, Marshall Islands, Mongolia, Myanmar, Namibia, Nepal, Nicaragua, Nigeria, Oman, Palau, Papua New Guinea, Peru.[368] Philippines,[369] Qatar, Rwanda, Samoa, Saudi Arabia, Singapore, Solomon Islands, Somalia, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Suriname, Tanzania, Thailand, Timor-Leste, Tokelau, Tonga, Turkey, Tuvalu, Uganda, United Arab Emirates, Vanuatu, Venezuela, and Vietnam.[370]

Countries requiring passports valid for at least 4 months on arrival include Micronesia and Zambia.

Countries requiring passports with a validity of at least 3 months beyond the date of intended departure include Azerbaijan, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Montenegro, Nauru, Moldova and New Zealand. Similarly, the EEA countries of Iceland, Liechtenstein, Norway, all European Union countries (except the Republic of Ireland) together with Switzerland also require 3 months validity beyond the date of the bearer's intended departure unless the bearer is an EEA or Swiss national.

Countries requiring passports valid for at least 3 months on arrival include Albania, Honduras, North Macedonia, Panama, and Senegal.

Bermuda requires passports to be valid for at least 45 days upon entry.

Countries that require a passport validity of at least one month beyond the date of intended departure include Eritrea, Hong Kong, Lebanon, Macau, the Maldives[371] and South Africa.

Other countries, such as Japan,[372] Ireland and the United Kingdom,[373] require a passport valid throughout the period of the intended stay.

Very few countries, such as Paraguay, just require a passport valid on arrival.

Some countries have bilateral agreements with other countries to shorten the period of passport validity required for each other's citizens[374][375] or even accept passports that have already expired (but not been cancelled).[376]

Criminal record[edit]

Some countries, including Australia, Canada, Fiji, New Zealand and the United States,[377] routinely deny entry to non-citizens who have a criminal record while others impose restrictions depending on the type of conviction and the length of the sentence.

Persona non grata[edit]

The government of a country can declare a diplomat persona non grata, banning their entry into that country. In non-diplomatic use, the authorities of a country may also declare a foreigner persona non grata permanently or temporarily, usually because of unlawful activity.[378]

Israeli stamps[edit]

Israeli border control Entry Permit (issued as a stand-alone document rather than a stamp affixed in a passport)

Kuwait,[379] Lebanon,[380] Libya,[381] Syria,[382] and Yemen[383] do not allow entry to people with passport stamps from Israel or whose passports have either a used or an unused Israeli visa, or where there is evidence of previous travel to Israel such as entry or exit stamps from neighbouring border posts in transit countries such as Jordan and Egypt.

To circumvent this Arab League boycott of Israel, the Israeli immigration services have now mostly ceased to stamp foreign nationals' passports on either entry to or exit from Israel (unless the entry is for some work-related purposes). Since 15 January 2013, Israel no longer stamps foreign passports at Ben Gurion Airport. Passports are still (as of 22 June 2017) stamped at Erez when passing into and out of Gaza.[citation needed]

Iran refuses admission to holders of passports containing an Israeli visa or stamp that is less than 12 months old.

Armenian ethnicity[edit]

Entry Permit to Nagorno-Karabakh issued in Yerevan as a stand-alone document rather than a visa affixed in a passport

Due to a state of war existing between Armenia and Azerbaijan,[384][385][386] Armenian citizens and other foreign nationals of Armenian descent are likely to encounter difficulties when attempting to enter the Republic of Azerbaijan.[387][388][389]

Azerbaijan bans visits by foreign citizens to the separatist region of Nagorno-Karabakh[389] (the de facto independent Republic of Artsakh), its surrounding territories, and the Azerbaijani exclaves of Karki, Yuxarı Əskipara, Barxudarlı, and Sofulu which are de jure part of Azerbaijan but under the control of Armenia, without the prior consent of the government of Azerbaijan. Foreign citizens who enter these territories will be permanently banned from entering the Republic of Azerbaijan[390] and will be included in their "list of personae non gratae".[391] As of 2 September 2019, the list mentioned 852 people.

Biometrics[edit]

A fingerprint scanner at Dulles International Airport collects biometric data on visitors, which can be used for confirming identities.

Several countries mandate that all travellers, or all foreign travellers, be fingerprinted on arrival and will refuse admission to or even arrest travellers who refuse to comply. In some countries, such as the United States, this may apply even to transit passengers who merely wish to quickly change planes rather than go landside.[392]

Fingerprinting countries include Afghanistan,[393][394] Argentina,[395] Brunei, Cambodia,[396] China,[397] Ethiopia,[398] Ghana, Guinea,[399] India, Japan,[400][401] Kenya (both fingerprints and a photo are taken),[402] Malaysia upon entry and departure,[403] Mongolia, Paraguay, Saudi Arabia,[404] Singapore, South Korea,[405] Taiwan, Thailand,[406] Uganda,[407] the United Arab Emirates and the United States.

Many countries also require a photo be taken of people entering the country. The United States, which does not fully implement exit control formalities at its land frontiers (although long mandated by domestic legislation),[408][409][410] intends to implement facial recognition for passengers departing from international airports to identify people who overstay their visa.[411]

Together with fingerprint and face recognition, iris scanning is one of three biometric identification technologies internationally standardised since 2006 by the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) for use in e-passports[412] and the United Arab Emirates conducts iris scanning on visitors who need to apply for a visa.[413][414] The United States Department of Homeland Security has announced plans to greatly increase the biometric data it collects at US borders.[415] In 2018, Singapore began trials of iris scanning at three land and maritime immigration checkpoints.[416][417]


See also[edit]

References and Notes[edit]

References
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  388. ^ "Citing ethnicity, Azerbaijan bars photojournalist". Committee to Protect Journalists. Retrieved 2 May 2021. Diana Markosian, a freelance photographer for Bloomberg Markets magazine was denied entry to Azerbaijan last week by authorities who cited her ethnicity as a reason, international news reports said. On June 27, border guards at the Heydar Aliyev International Airport in Baku detained Markosian on arrival from the Latvian capital, Riga, then expelled her the next day, according to press reports and CPJ interviews. Markosian told CPJ that the border guards took her passport, saying that she had an Armenian last name and that they "needed to clarify something." Then they put her in the airport's transit zone where she spent 16 hours until she was put on a flight to Tbilisi, Georgia. Markosian holds both U.S. and Russian citizenship, she told CPJ. A government spokesman told the Baku-based news agency APA that Markosian was deported because authorities would be unable to provide her with "security" since she is an ethnic Armenian.
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  409. ^ Lipton, Eric (21 May 2013). "U.S. Quietly Monitors Foreigners' Departures at the Canadian Border". The New York Times. Retrieved 25 April 2019. Long demanded by lawmakers in Congress, it is considered a critical step to developing a coherent program to curb illegal immigration, as historically about 30 percent to 40 percent of illegal immigrants in the United States arrived on tourist visas or other legal means and then never left, according to estimates by Homeland Security officials.
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  415. ^ Roberts, Jeff John (12 September 2016). "Homeland Security Plans to Expand Fingerprint and Eye Scanning at Borders". Fortune. Fortune Media IP Limited. Retrieved 24 April 2019. Unlike with documents, it’s very hard for a traveler to present a forged copy of a fingerprint or iris. That’s why the U.S. Department of Homeland Security plans to vastly expand the amount of biometric data it collects at the borders. According to Passcode, a new program will ramp up a process to scan fingers and eyes in order to stop people entering and exiting the country on someone else’s passport.
  416. ^ "Singapore tests eye scans at immigration checkpoints". Reuters. 6 August 2018. Retrieved 24 April 2019. Singapore has started scanning travellers’ eyes at some of its border checkpoints, its immigration authority said on Monday, in a trial of expensive technology that could one day replace fingerprint verification.
  417. ^ Lee, Vivien (6 August 2018). "5 Reasons We Prefer Iris Scans To Fingerprint Checks At Our Borders In Singapore". Retrieved 24 April 2019. The iris technology could potentially scan irises covertly, as opposed to the scanning of thumbprints which necessitates active participation.
Notes
  1. ^
  2. ^
  3. ^
    • Vientiane
    • Savannakhet
    • Khammuan
    • Bokeo
  4. ^
    • Panghok - Taichang (Vietnam)
    • Samliemkham - (Thailand and Myanmar)
    • Nonghaed - Nam kanh (Vietnam)
    • Nam phao - Cau treo (Vietnam)
    • Na pao - Cha lo (Vietnam)
    • Daensavan - Lao bao (Vietnam)
    • Veunkham - Nong nok khian (Cambodia)
    • Vang tao - Chongmek (Thailand)
    • Boten - Bo han (China)
    • Nam ngeun - Huay konl (Thailand)
    • Namheuang - Nakaseng (Thailand)
    • Nam soy - Na meo (Vietnam)
    • Phoukeua - Kontoum (Vietnam)