Visa requirements for Serbian citizens

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Visa requirements for Serbian citizens are administrative entry restrictions by the authorities of other states placed on citizens of the Republic of Serbia. As of 26 March 2019, Serbian citizens had visa-free or visa on arrival access to 131 countries and territories, ranking the Serbian passport 38th overall in terms of travel freedom according to the Henley Passport Index.[1] The Serbian passport is one of 5 passports with the greatest improvement in rating since 2006.[2]

As of May 2019, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Brunei, Grenada, Mauritius, Seychelles, Serbia and United Arab Emirates are the only countries whose citizens may travel without a visa to China, Russia and the Schengen Area.

Inside of Serbian Passport

History[edit]

Before Serbia began issuing new biometric passports in 2008, its citizens travelled using old Federal Republic of Yugoslavia passports that at that time provided visa-free access (or visa on arrival) to only 19 countries.[3][4]

Some of the oldest bilateral agreements on visa-free travel still in force are with Argentina (1989), Belarus (1999), Cuba (1966), North Macedonia (1998), Seychelles (1984), Tunisia (1966) and Zambia (1985).[3]

Recent[edit]

Serbia and Russia signed visa-free travel agreement in February 2009.[5] Serbia signed a visa-free agreement with Israel in September 2009.[6] The European Union Schengen area countries lifted visas for Serbian citizens in December 2009.[7] Serbia and Turkey mutually abolished visa regime in July 2010.[8] Serbia signed an agreement on the abolishment of visas with Kazakhstan in August 2010.[9] Serbia and Ukraine mutually abolished visas in May 2011.[10] Japan abolished visas for Serbian citizens in May 2011.[11] Serbia and Albania mutually abolished visas in July 2011.[12] In August 2013 agreement on visa-free travel with Brazil came into force.[13] In July 2014 agreement on visa-free travel with Mongolia came into force.[14] In August 2015 agreement on visa-free travel with Moldova came into force.[15] In April 2016 Indonesia abolished visas for Serbian citizens for a maximum stay of 30 days.[16] In January 2017, agreement on mutual visa free travel between China and Serbia entered into force.[17] In November 2017 Iran abolished visas for Serbian citizens but reversed its decision in October 2018.[18][19] Colombia abolished visas for Serbian citizens in February 2018.[20] Serbia and Kyrgyzstan mutually abolished visas on 8 November 2018.[21] Uzbekistan abolished visas for Serbian citizens on 21st January 2019. United Arab Emirates abolished visas for Serbian citizens on 6 May 2019.[22]

Future[edit]

Possible inclusion of Serbia in the Visa Waiver Program of the United States was proposed by Serbia in 2009.[23] Serbian adjusted visa refusal rate remains above the threshold (3%).[24]

The British Embassy in Serbia announced that visas could be abolished for Serbian citizens in 2011.[25] However, in 2013, the Home Office announced it had no intention of abolishing visas for Serbian citizens.[26]

Serbian and Australian officials held talks on facilitation measures for the issuance of Australian visas for Serbian citizens in 2012.[27]

In June 2014 New Zealand announced an introduction of a facilitated visa regime for Serbian citizens.[28]

In October 2014, Serbia and Armenia agreed to sign an agreement to mutually abolish visas.[29]

In November 2016 Serbian foreign minister held talks with Canadian officials on the beginning of visa liberalisation for Serbian citizens.[30]

Serbian authorities have also held talks with several countries on concluding visa abolition agreements in the future including with Azerbaijan, Bahrain, Guatemala, Iran, Jamaica, Kuwait, Oman, Panama, Paraguay, Qatar, South Africa, Tajikistan, Venezuela and Vietnam but have not yet concluded them.[31][32][33][34][35][36][37][38] Serbia subsequently abolished visa requirements for some of those countries unilaterally.

Visa requirements map[edit]

Visa requirements for Serbian citizens
  Serbia
  Visa free access
  Visa on arrival
  eVisa
  Visa available both on arrival or online
  Visa required prior to arrival

Visa requirements[edit]

Country Visa requirement Allowed stay Notes (excluding departure fees) Reciprocity
 Afghanistan Visa required[39]
 Albania Visa not required[40] 90 days
 Algeria Visa required[41]
 Andorra Visa not required[42]
 Angola Visa required[43]
 Antigua and Barbuda Electronic Entry Visa[44]
  • Permanent residents of the United States and Canada and holders of valid visas of the United States, Canada, Schengen Area and the United Kingdom do not require a visa.
X
 Argentina Visa not required[45] 90 days
 Armenia eVisa / Visa on arrival[46] 120 days X
 Australia Visa required[47][48]
  • May apply online (Online Visitor e600 visa).
X
 Austria Visa not required[49] 90 days
 Azerbaijan eVisa[50] 30 days[51] X
 Bahamas Visa required[52] X
 Bahrain Visa required[55] X
 Bangladesh Visa on arrival[56] 30 days
  • Not available at all entry points.[57]
X
 Barbados Visa required[58] X
 Belarus Visa not required[59] 30 days
 Belgium Visa not required[60] 90 days
 Belize Visa required[61]
 Benin eVisa / Visa on arrival[62][63] 30 days / 8 days
  • Must have an international vaccination certificate.
X
 Bhutan Visa required[64]
  • Pre-approved visa can be picked up on arrival.
 Bolivia Visa on arrival[65][66] 90 days X
 Bosnia and Herzegovina Visa not required[67] 90 days
  • 90 days within any 6-month period
  • ID card valid
 Botswana Visa required[68]
 Brazil Visa not required[69] 90 days
 Brunei Visa required[70]
 Bulgaria Visa not required[71] 90 days
 Burkina Faso Visa required[72]
 Burundi Visa required[73] X
 Cambodia eVisa / Visa on arrival[74] 30 days
  • Visa is also obtainable online.[75]
X
 Cameroon Visa required[76]
  • Pre-approved visa can be picked up on arrival.
 Canada Visa required[77] X
 Cape Verde Visa on arrival[79]
  • Not available at all entry points.[80]
X
 Central African Republic Visa required[81]
 Chad Visa required[82]
 Chile Visa not required[83] 90 days
 China Visa not required[84] 30 days[85]
 Colombia Visa not required[20] 90 Days
 Comoros Visa on arrival[86] X
 Republic of the Congo Visa required[87]
 Democratic Republic of the Congo Visa required[88]
 Costa Rica Visa not required[89] 90 days
 Côte d'Ivoire eVisa[90] 3 months X
 Croatia Visa not required[91] 90 days
 Cuba Visa not required[92] 90 days
 Cyprus Visa not required[93] 90 days
 Czech Republic Visa not required[94] 90 days
 Denmark Visa not required[95] 90 days
 Djibouti eVisa[96] 31 days X
 Dominica Visa not required[97] 21 days
 Dominican Republic Visa not required[98] 90 days X
 Ecuador Visa not required[99] 90 days X
 Egypt eVisa / Visa on arrival[100][101] 30 days X
 El Salvador Visa required[102]
  • Not required for holders of a valid visa issued by Canada, the USA or a Schengen Member State.
 Equatorial Guinea Visa required[103]
 Eritrea Visa required[104]
  • Pre-approved visa can be picked up on arrival.
 Estonia Visa not required[105] 90 days
 Eswatini Visa not required[106] 30 days X
 Ethiopia eVisa[107] up to 90 days X
 Fiji Visa not required[108] 4 months X
 Finland Visa not required[109] 90 days
 France Visa not required[110] 90 days
 Gabon eVisa[111] X
 Gambia Visa not required[112] 90 days X
 Georgia Visa not required[113] 1 year
 Germany Visa not required[114] 90 days
 Ghana Visa required[115]
  • Pre-approved visa can be picked up on arrival.
 Greece Visa not required[116] 90 days
 Grenada Visa required[117]
  • Holders of a pre-clearance letter may collect visa upon arrival.
X
 Guatemala Visa required[118]
  • Not required for holders of a valid visa issued by Canada, the USA or a Schengen Member State.
 Guinea Visa required[119]
 Guinea-Bissau eVisa / Visa on arrival[120] 90 days X
 Guyana Visa required[121] 30 days
  • Conditional visa granted on arrival.
 Haiti Visa not required[122] 90 days X
 Honduras Visa required[123]
  • Not required for holders of a valid visa issued by Canada, the USA or a Schengen Member State.
 Hungary Visa not required[124] 90 days
 Iceland Visa not required[125] 90 days
 India e-Visa[126] 60 days
  • e-Visa holders must arrive via 26 designated airports[Note 3] or 3 designated seaports.[Note 4][127]
  • An Indian e-Tourist Visa can only be obtained twice in one calendar year.
X
 Indonesia Visa not required[128][129] 30 days
 Iran Visa on arrival[130][131] 30 days X
 Iraq Visa required[132]
 Ireland Visa required[133]
  • Visa is issued free of charge.[134]
  • Visa waiver for UK 'C' visa holders until October 2021. Entry permitted only if first point of entry to the Common Travel Area is in the UK.[135]
X
 Israel Visa not required[136] 3 months
 Italy Visa not required[137] 90 days
 Jamaica Visa on arrival[138] 30 days X
 Japan Visa not required[139] 90 days
 Jordan Visa on arrival[140]
  • Conditions apply.[141]
  • Not available at all entry points.[142]
X
 Kazakhstan Visa not required[143] 30 days
 Kenya eVisa / Visa on arrival[144] 3 months X
 Kiribati Visa required[145]
 North Korea Visa required[146]
 South Korea Visa not required[147] 90 days[148]
 Kuwait eVisa / Visa on arrival[149] 3 months X
 Kyrgyzstan Visa not required[150] 90 days
  • 90 days within 180 days
 Laos Visa on arrival[151] 30 days
  • Conditions apply.
  • Available at international airports Luangphabang, Pakse, Savannakhet and Vientiane, and at 4 land borders Friendship Bridge,[Note 5] and at 13 border crossings[Note 6] as well as Tanalaeng train station in Vientiane, which connects to the train station in Nongkai, Thailand.[152]
  • Entry points Lalai, Lantui, Meuang mom, Pakxan, and Phoudou are open only to visa holders.
  • Extendable up to 60 days.
X
 Latvia Visa not required[153] 90 days
 Lebanon Visa on arrival[154] 1 month
  • Extendable for 2 additional months.
  • Granted free of charge at Beirut International Airport or any other port of entry if there is no Israeli visa or seal, holding a telephone number, an address in Lebanon, and a non refundable return or circle trip ticket.
X
 Lesotho eVisa[155][156] X
 Liberia Visa required[157]
  • Pre-approved visa can be picked up on arrival.
 Libya Visa required[158]
  • Pre-approved visa can be picked up on arrival.
 Liechtenstein Visa not required[159] 90 days
 Lithuania Visa not required[160] 90 days
 Luxembourg Visa not required[161] 90 days
 Madagascar Visa on arrival[162] 30 days
  • Free of charge
X
 Malawi Visa on arrival[163] X
 Malaysia eVisa[164][165] 30 days X
 Maldives Visa on arrival[166] 30 days X
 Mali Visa required[167]
 Malta Visa not required[168] 90 days
 Marshall Islands Visa required[169] X
 Mauritania Visa on arrival[170] X
 Mauritius Visa on arrival[171] 60 days X
 Mexico Visa required[172]
  • Visa not required for holders of valid visa or permanent residence issued by the USA, Canada, Japan, United Kingdom, or Schengen area.[173]
  • Visa is also issued free of charge for Serbian citizens.
X
 Micronesia Visa not required[174] 30 days X
 Moldova Visa not required[175] 90 days
  • 90 days within any 180 day period
 Monaco Visa not required[176]
 Mongolia Visa not required[177] 90 days
 Montenegro Visa not required[178] 3 months
 Morocco Visa required[179]
 Mozambique Visa on arrival[180] 30 days X
 Myanmar eVisa[181] 28 days X
 Namibia Visa required[182]
 Nauru Visa required[183]
   Nepal Visa on arrival[184] 90 days X
 Netherlands Visa not required[185] 90 days
 New Zealand Visa required[186] X
 Nicaragua Visa on arrival[187] 90 days
  • Not required for holders of a valid visa issued by Canada, the USA or a Schengen Member State.
X
 Niger Visa required[188]
 Nigeria Visa required[189]
  • Pre-approved visa can be picked up on arrival.
 North Macedonia Visa not required[190] 60 days
 Norway Visa not required[191] 90 days
 Oman eVisa[192] 30 days X
 Pakistan Online Visa[193] X
 Palau Visa on arrival[194] 30 days X
 Panama Visa not required[195] 180 days X
 Papua New Guinea Visa required[196]
 Paraguay Visa required[197] X
 Peru Visa not required[198] 183 days
 Philippines Visa required[199]
 Poland Visa not required[200] 90 days
 Portugal Visa not required[201] 90 days
 Qatar Visa not required[202] 90 days
 Romania Visa not required[203] 90 days
 Russia Visa not required[204] 30 days
 Rwanda eVisa / Visa on arrival[205] 30 days X
 Saint Kitts and Nevis eVisa[206] X
 Saint Lucia Visa required[207]
 Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Visa not required[208] 1 month
 Samoa Entry Permit on arrival[209] 60 days X
 San Marino Visa not required[210]
 São Tomé and Príncipe eVisa[211] X
 Saudi Arabia Visa required[212]
 Senegal Visa required[213]
 Seychelles Visa not required[214][215] 90 days
 Sierra Leone Visa required[216]
  • Pre-approved visa can be picked up on arrival.
 Singapore Visa not required[217] 30 days
 Slovakia Visa not required[218] 90 days
 Slovenia Visa not required[219] 90 days
 Solomon Islands Visa required[220]
 Somalia Visa on arrival[221] 30 days
 South Africa Visa required[222]
 South Sudan Visa required[223]
 Spain Visa not required[224] 90 days
 Sri Lanka eVisa / Visa on arrival[225] 30 days X
 Sudan Visa required[226]
 Suriname Visa not required[227] 30 days
  • For single entry stay up to 90 days a tourist card may be obtained online or on arrival.[228]
  • For multiple entries up to 90 days an E-Visa is available.[229]
 Sweden Visa not required[230] 90 days
  Switzerland Visa not required[231] 90 days
 Syria Visa required[232]
 Tajikistan eVisa[233][234] 45 days X
 Tanzania eVisa / Visa on arrival[235][236] 3 months X
 Thailand Visa required[237]
 Timor-Leste Visa on arrival[238] 30 days
  • Not available at all entry points.[239]
X
 Togo Visa on arrival[240] 7 days X
 Tonga Visa required[241]
 Trinidad and Tobago Visa not required[242] 30 days
 Tunisia Visa not required[243] 3 months
 Turkey Visa not required[244] 3 months
 Turkmenistan Visa required[245]
  • Pre-approved visa can be picked up on arrival.
 Tuvalu Visa on arrival[246] 1 month X
 Uganda eVisa / Visa on arrival[247]
  • Determined at the port of entry.
  • May apply online.[248]
X
 Ukraine Visa not required[249] 30 days
  • 30 days within any 60 day period (a blilateral, reciprocal agreement has been signed to extend this to 90 days [250]
 United Arab Emirates Visa not required[251] 90 days
 United Kingdom Visa required[252] X
 United States Visa required[254] X
 Uruguay Visa not required[255] 90 days
 Uzbekistan Visa not required[256] 30 days X
 Vanuatu Visa not required[257] 30 days X
  Vatican City Visa not required[258]
 Venezuela Visa required[259]
 Vietnam eVisa[260] 30 days X
 Yemen Visa required[261]
 Zambia Visa not required[262] 90 days X
 Zimbabwe Visa on arrival[263] 3 months X

Territories[edit]

Visa requirements for Serbian citizens for visits to various territories, disputed areas, partially recognised countries and restricted zones:

Europe
Visitor to Visa requirement Notes (excluding departure fees)
 Abkhazia Visa required[264]
Mount Athos Special permit required Special permit required (4 days: 25 euro for Orthodox visitors, 35 euro for non-Orthodox visitors, 18 euro for students). There is a visitors' quota: maximum 100 Orthodox and 10 non-Orthodox per day and women are not allowed.[265][266]
Autonomous Republic of Crimea Crimea Visa not required Territory accessed under Russian visa policy.[267]
 Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus Visa not required 3 months[268][269]
United Nations UN Buffer Zone in Cyprus Access Permit required[270] Access Permit is required for travelling inside the zone, except Civil Use Areas.
 Faroe Islands Visa not required[271] 90 days
 Gibraltar Visa required[272]
 Guernsey Visa required[273]
 Isle of Man Visa required[274]
Norway Jan Mayen Permit required Permit issued by the local police required for staying for less than 24 hours[275] and permit issued by the Norwegian police for staying for more than 24 hours.[276]
 Jersey Visa required[277]
 Nagorno-Karabakh Republic Visa required[278][279] Travellers with Nagorno-Karabakh visa (expired or valid) or evidence of travel to Nagorno-Karabakh (stamps) will be permanently denied entry to Azerbaijan.[280]
 Russia Special authorization required Several closed cities and regions in Russia require special authorization.[281]
 South Ossetia Visa not required Multiple entry visa to Russia and three-day prior notification are required to enter South Ossetia.[282][283]
 Transnistria Visa not required Registration required after 24h.[284][285]
Africa
Visitor to Visa requirement Notes (excluding departure fees)
 British Indian Ocean Territory Special permit required Special permit required.[286]
 Eritrea outside Asmara Travel permit required To travel in the rest of the country, a Travel Permit for Foreigners is required (20 Eritrean nakfa).[287]
 Mayotte Visa not required[288] 90 days
 Réunion Visa not required[289] 90 days
 Ascension Island eVisa[290][291]
  • 3 months within any year period
 Saint Helena eVisa[292]
 Tristan da Cunha Permission required Permission to land required for 15/30 pounds sterling (yacht/ship passenger) for Tristan da Cunha Island or 20 pounds sterling for Gough Island, Inaccessible Island or Nightingale Islands.[293]
 Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic Undefined visa regime in the Western Sahara controlled territory.
 Somaliland Visa on arrival 30 days for 30 US dollars, payable on arrival.[294][295]
 Sudan Travel permit required All foreigners traveling more than 25 kilometers outside of Khartoum must obtain a travel permit.
Sudan Darfur Travel permit required Separate travel permit is required.[296]
Asia
Visitor to Visa requirement Notes (excluding departure fees)
 Hong Kong Visa not required 14 days[297]
 India PAP/RAP PAP/RAP required Protected Area Permit (PAP) required for whole states of Nagaland and Sikkim and parts of states Manipur, Arunachal Pradesh, Uttaranchal, Jammu and Kashmir, Rajasthan, Himachal Pradesh. Restricted Area Permit (RAP) required for all of Andaman and Nicobar Islands and parts of Sikkim. Some of these requirements are occasionally lifted for a year.[298][299][300][301][302][303]
 Kazakhstan Special permission required Special permission required for the town of Baikonur and surrounding areas in Kyzylorda Oblast, and the town of Gvardeyskiy near Almaty.[304]
Iran Kish Island Visa not required Visitors to Kish Island do not require a visa.[305]
 Macao Visa not required 90 days[306]
Maldives Maldives Permission required With the exception of the capital Malé, tourists are generally prohibited from visiting non-resort islands without the express permission of the Government of Maldives.[307]
 North Korea outside Pyongyang Special permit required People are not allowed to leave the capital city, tourists can only leave the capital with a governmental tourist guide (no independent moving)
 Palestine Visa not required[308] Arrival by sea to Gaza Strip not allowed.[309]
 Taiwan Visa required[310]
Tajikistan Gorno-Badakhshan Autonomous Province OIVR permit required OIVR permit required (15+5 Tajikistani Somoni) and another special permit (free of charge) is required for Lake Sarez.[311][312][313]
China Tibet Autonomous Region TTP required Tibet Travel Permit required (10 US Dollars).[314][315][316]
 Turkmenistan Special permit required A special permit, issued prior to arrival by Ministry of Foreign Affairs, is required if visiting the following places: Atamurat, Cheleken, Dashoguz, Serakhs and Serhetabat.[317]
United Nations Korean Demilitarized Zone Restricted zone.
United Nations UNDOF Zone and Ghajar Restricted zone.
Vietnam Phú Quốc Visa not required 30 days[318]
 Yemen Special permission required Special permission needed for travel outside Sana’a or Aden.[319]
Americas
Visitor to Visa requirement Notes (excluding departure fees)f
 Anguilla Visa required[320]
 Aruba Visa not required[321] 30 days
 Bermuda Visa required[322]
Netherlands Bonaire, St. Eustatius and Saba Visa not required[323] 90 days
 British Virgin Islands Visa required[324]
 Cayman Islands Visa required[325] Transit visa required.
 Curacao Visa not required[326] 90 days
 French Guiana Visa not required[327] 90 days
France French West Indies Visa not required 90 days; includes overseas departments of Guadeloupe and Martinique and overseas collectivities of Saint Martin and Saint Barthélemy
 Greenland Visa not required[328] 90 days
 Montserrat Electronic visa[329][330]
 Puerto Rico Visa required[331]
 Saint Pierre and Miquelon Visa not required 90 days
 Sint Maarten Visa not required[332] 90 days
 Turks and Caicos Islands Visa required[333]
 U.S. Virgin Islands Visa required[334]
Oceania
Visitor to Visa requirement Notes (excluding departure fees)
 American Samoa Entry permit required[335]
Australia Ashmore and Cartier Islands Special authorisation required Special authorisation required.[336]
France Clipperton Island Special permit required Special permit required.[337]
 Cook Islands Visa not required 31 days[338]
Fiji Lau Province Special permission required Special permission required.[339]
 French Polynesia Visa not required[340] 90 days
 Guam Visa required[341]
 New Caledonia Visa not required[342] 90 days
 Niue Visa on arrival 30 days[343]
 Northern Mariana Islands Visa required[344]
 Pitcairn Islands Visa not required 14 days visa free and landing fee 35 USD or tax of 5 USD if not going ashore.[345][346][347]
 Tokelau Visa required
United States United States Minor Outlying Islands Special permits required Special permits required for Baker Island, Howland Island, Jarvis Island, Johnston Atoll, Kingman Reef, Midway Atoll, Palmyra Atoll and Wake Island.[348][349][350][351][352][353][354]
 Wallis and Futuna Visa not required 90 days
South America
Visitor to Visa requirement Notes (excluding departure fees)
Bandera Provincia Galápagos.svg Galápagos Pre-registration required Online pre-registration is required. Transit Control Card must also be obtained at the airport prior to departure.[355]
South Atlantic and Antarctica
Visitor to Visa requirement Notes (excluding departure fees)
 Falkland Islands Visa required[356]
 South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands Permit required Pre-arrival permit from the Commissioner required (72 hours/1 month for 110/160 pounds sterling).[357][358]
Antarctica Special permits required for  British Antarctic Territory,  French Southern and Antarctic Lands,  Argentine Antarctica, Australia Australian Antarctic Territory, Antártica Chilena Province Chilean Antarctic Territory, Australia Heard Island and McDonald Islands, Norway Peter I Island, Norway Queen Maud Land, New Zealand Ross Dependency.[359][360][361][362][363][364][365][366][367][368][369][370]

Diplomatic and official passports only[edit]

Countries allowed stay
 Azerbaijan[371] 90 days
 Bangladesh[372] 30 days
 Bolivia[373] 90 days
 China[374] 90 days
 El Salvador[375] 90 days
 Ethiopia[376] 90 days
 Guatemala[377] 90 days
 Honduras[378] 90 days
 India[379] 90 days
 Iran[380] 90 days
 Jordan[381] 90 days
 Kyrgyzstan[382] 90 days
 Laos[383] 90 days
 Lebanon[384] 90 days
 North Korea[385] 90 days
 Mali[386] 30 days
 Mexico[387] 180 days
 Morocco[388] 90 days
 Kuwait[389] 90 days
 Nicaragua[390] 90 days
 Pakistan[391] 30 days
 Russia[392] 90 days
 Thailand[393] 90 days
 Ukraine[394] 90 days
 United Arab Emirates[395] 90 days
 Vietnam[396] 90 days
 Zimbabwe[397] 90 days

Kosovo[edit]

The Constitution of Serbia recognises Kosovo as Serbian sovereign territory. Nevertheless, in reality, the Serbian authorities do not exercise effective control over the territory. In an agreement, facilitating visa free travel to the Schengen area, Serbia agreed with the EU to form the Serbian Coordination Directorate,[398] responsible for issuing Serbian passports to the Kosovo resident Serbian citizens. These passports are treated differently from the regular Serbian passports and their holders are required to obtain entry visas[399] for most territories and countries for which holders of the regular Serbian passport do not require a visa. All Serbian citizens resident in Kosovo, regardless of their ethnicity, are entitled to these special passports.

The UN administration in Kosovo UNMIK used to issue its own travel documents with the last ones being issued in July 2008.[400][401] This document was recognised by several countries, but was in general refused at borders.[402] The UNMIK travel documents were valid for two years, consequently there are no longer any valid UNMIK travel documents in circulation. Serbia didn't recognise the validity of the UN issued document nor does it recognise the Kosovan passport, which is officially recognised by 112 UN member states and is de facto accepted by other states.[403]

Serbian Government and the Kosovan Authorities are actively negotiating various issues of mutual importance among which is what travel documents can be used for crossing the Serbia-Kosovo Administrative Line[404]

Serbian ID as optional passport replacement[edit]

The front of a Lična karta

Serbian identity card can be used instead of a passport for travel to some neighboring countries of Serbia that have signed special agreements with the Serbian Government:

Countries (and territories) Agreement / Stay
 Bosnia and Herzegovina[405] 90 days
 Montenegro[406] 30 days
 North Macedonia[407] 90 days

Non-visa restrictions[edit]

Many countries have entry restrictions on foreigners that go beyond the common requirement of having either a valid visa or a visa exemption. Such restrictions may be health related or impose additional documentation requirements on certain classes of people for diplomatic or political purposes.

Passport validity length[edit]

In the absence of specific bilateral agreements, countries requiring passports to be valid for at least 6 more months on arrival include Afghanistan, Algeria, Anguilla, Bahrain,[408] Bhutan, Botswana, British Virgin Islands, Brunei, Cambodia, Cameroon, Cape Verde, Cayman Islands, Central African Republic, Chad, Comoros, Costa Rica, Côte d'Ivoire, Curaçao, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Equatorial Guinea, Fiji, Gabon, Guinea Bissau, Guyana, Haiti, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Israel,[409] Jordan, Kenya, Kiribati, Kuwait, Laos, Madagascar, Malaysia, Maldives, Marshall Islands, Mongolia, Myanmar, Namibia, Nepal, Nicaragua, Nigeria, Oman, Palau, Papua New Guinea, Philippines, Qatar, Rwanda, Samoa, Saudi Arabia, Singapore, Solomon Islands, Somalia, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Suriname, Tanzania, Thailand, Timor-Leste, Tokelau, Tonga, Tuvalu, Uganda, United Arab Emirates, Vanuatu, Venezuela, and Vietnam.[410]

Turkey requires passports to be valid for at least 150 days upon entry.

Countries requiring passports valid for at least 4 months on arrival include Micronesia and Zambia.

Countries requiring passports with a validity of at least 3 months beyond the date of intended departure include European Union countries (except the Republic of Ireland and the United Kingdom); Iceland, Liechtenstein, Norway, Switzerland (all with an exception made for EEA and Swiss nationals). Azerbaijan, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Montenegro, Nauru, Moldova, and New Zealand also require 3 months validity beyond the date of the bearer's intended departure.

Countries requiring passports valid for at least 3 months validity upon arrival include Albania, Honduras, North Macedonia, Panama, and Senegal.

Bermuda requires passports to be valid for at least 45 days upon entry.

Countries that require a passport validity of at least one month beyond the date of intended departure include Eritrea, Hong Kong, Lebanon, Macau, and South Africa.

Other countries require either a passport valid on arrival or a passport valid throughout the period of the intended stay. Some countries have bilateral agreements with other countries to shorten the period of passport validity required for each other's citizens[411][412] or even accept passports that have already expired (but not been cancelled).[413]

Blank passport pages[edit]

Many countries require a minimum number of blank pages in the passport being presented, generally one or two pages.[414] Endorsement pages, which often appear after the visa pages, are not counted as being available.

Vaccination[edit]

An International Certificate of Vaccination required to prove that someone has been vaccinated against yellow fever

Many African countries, including Angola, Benin, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Republic of the Congo, Côte d'Ivoire, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Ghana, Guinea, Liberia, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Rwanda, São Tomé and Príncipe, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Uganda, and Zambia, require all incoming passengers to have a current International Certificate of Vaccination.

Some other countries require vaccination only if the passenger is coming from an infected area or has visited one recently.[415]

Israeli stamps[edit]

Israeli border control Entry Permit (issued as a stand-alone document rather than a stamp affixed in a passport)

Kuwait,[416] Lebanon,[417] Libya,[418] Saudi Arabia,[419] Sudan,[420] Syria,[421] and Yemen[422] do not allow entry to people with passport stamps from Israel or whose passports have either a used or an unused Israeli visa, or where there is evidence of previous travel to Israel such as entry or exit stamps from neighbouring border posts in transit countries such as Jordan and Egypt.

To circumvent this Arab League boycott of Israel, the Israeli immigration services have now mostly ceased to stamp foreign nationals' passports on either entry to or exit from Israel. Since 15 January 2013, Israel no longer stamps foreign passports at Ben Gurion Airport, giving passengers a card instead that reads: "Since January 2013 a pilot scheme has been introduced whereby visitors are given an entry card instead of an entry stamp on arrival. You should keep this card with your passport until you leave. This is evidence of your legal entry into Israel and may be required, particularly at any crossing points into the Occupied Palestinian Territories." [423] Passports are still (as of 22 June 2017) stamped at Erez when travelling into and out of Gaza. Also, passports are still stamped (as of 22 June 2017) at the Jordan Valley/Sheikh Hussein and Yitzhak Rabin/Arava land borders with Jordan.

Iran refuses admission to holders of passports containing an Israeli visa or stamp that is less than 12 months old.

Armenian ethnicity[edit]

Due to a state of war existing between Armenia and Azerbaijan, the government of Azerbaijan not only bans entry of citizens from Armenia, but also all citizens and nationals of any other country who are of Armenian descent, to the Republic of Azerbaijan[424][425] (although there have been exceptions, notably for Armenia's participation at the 2015 European Games held in Azerbaijan).

Azerbaijan also strictly bans any visit by foreign citizens to the separatist region of Nagorno-Karabakh[426] (the de facto independent Republic of Artsakh), its surrounding territories, and the Azerbaijani exclaves of Karki, Yuxarı Əskipara, Barxudarlı, and Sofulu which are de jure part of Azerbaijan but under control of Armenia, without the prior consent of the government of Azerbaijan. Foreign citizens who enter these territories will be permanently banned from entering the Republic of Azerbaijan[427] and will be included in their "list of personae non gratae".[428] As of January 2019, the list contains 795 persons.

Upon request, the authorities of the largely unrecognized Republic of Artsakh may attach their visa and/or stamps to a separate piece of paper in order to avoid detection of travel to their country.

Criminal record[edit]

Some countries, including Australia, Canada, Fiji, New Zealand and the United States,[429] routinely deny entry to non-citizens who have a criminal record.

Persona non grata[edit]

The government of a country can declare a diplomat persona non grata, banning their entry into that country. In non-diplomatic use, the authorities of a country may also declare a foreigner persona non grata permanently or temporarily, usually because of unlawful activity.

Biometrics[edit]

A fingerprint scanner at Dulles International Airport collects biometric data on visitors, which can be used for confirming identities.

Several countries mandate that all travellers, or all foreign travellers, be fingerprinted on arrival and will refuse admission to or even arrest those travellers that refuse to comply. In some countries, such as the United States, this may apply even to transit passengers who merely wish to quickly change planes rather than go landside.[430]

Fingerprinting countries include Afghanistan,[431][432] Argentina,[433] Brunei, Cambodia,[434] China,[435] Ethiopia,[436] Ghana, India, Japan[437][438], Kenya (fingerprints and photo) [439], Malaysia upon entry and departure,[440] Paraguay, Saudi Arabia,[441] Singapore, South Korea,[442] Taiwan, Uganda[443] and the United States.

Many countries also require a photo be taken of people entering the country. The United States, which does not fully implement exit control formalities at its land frontiers (although long mandated by its legislature),[444] [445] [446] intends to implement facial recognition for passengers departing from international airports to identify people who overstay their visa.[447]

Together with fingerprint and face recognition, iris scanning is one of three biometric identification technologies internationally standardised since 2006 by the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) for use in e-passports[448] and the United Arab Emirates conducts iris scanning on visitors who need to apply for a visa.[449][450]

See also[edit]

References and Notes[edit]

References
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Notes
  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad Holders of biometric passports only.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad Excluding holders of Serbian passports issued by the Serbian Coordination Directorate.
  3. ^
  4. ^
  5. ^
    • Vientiane
    • Savannakhet
    • Khammuan
    • Bokeo
  6. ^
    • Panghok - Taichang (Vietnam)
    • Samliemkham - (Thailand and Myanmar)
    • Nonghaed - Nam kanh (Vietnam)
    • Nam phao - Cau treo (Vietnam)
    • Na pao - Cha lo (Vietnam)
    • Daensavan - Lao bao (Vietnam)
    • Veunkham - Nong nok khian (Cambodia)
    • Vang tao - Chongmek (Thailand)
    • Boten - Bo han (China)
    • Nam ngeun - Huay konl (Thailand)
    • Namheuang - Nakaseng (Thailand)
    • Nam soy - Na meo (Vietnam)
    • Phoukeua - Kontoum (Vietnam)

External links[edit]