Bisayan languages

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Bisayan
Bisaya
Binisaya
Visayan
EthnicityVisayans
Geographic
distribution
Visayas, most parts of Mindanao, Masbate, and Mimaropa in the Philippines, Sabah in Malaysia and immigrant communities
Linguistic classificationAustronesian
Subdivisions
  • Asi
    Cebuan
    Central Bisayan
    West Bisayan
    South Bisayan
Glottologbisa1268[1]
Visayan languages map.png
Geographic extent of Bisayan languages based on Ethnologue and the National Statistics Office 2000 Census of Population and Housing

Cebuan

Central Bisayan

  Waray
  Ati

West Bisayan

Asi

  Asi

South Bisayan

  Tausug

Other legend

  Widespread/L2 use of Cebuano
  Widespread/L2 use of Hiligaynon

The Bisayan languages or the Visayan languages[2] are a subgroup of the Austronesian languages spoken in the Philippines. They are most closely related to Tagalog and the Bikol languages, all of which are part of the Central Philippine languages. Most Bisayan languages are spoken in the whole Visayas section of the country, but they are also spoken in the southern part of the Bicol Region (particularly in Masbate), islands south of Luzon, such as those that make up Romblon, most of the areas of Mindanao and the province of Sulu located southwest of Mindanao. Some residents of Metro Manila also speak one of the Bisayan languages.

Over 30 languages constitute the Bisayan language family. The Bisayan language with the most speakers is Cebuano, spoken by 20 million people as a native language in Central Visayas, parts of Eastern Visayas, and most of Mindanao. Two other well-known and widespread Bisayan languages are Hiligaynon (Ilonggo), spoken by 10 million in most of Western Visayas and SOCCSKSARGEN; and Waray-Waray, spoken by 3 million in Eastern Visayas. Prior to colonization, the script and calligraphy of most of the Visayan peoples was the badlit, distinct from the Tagalog baybayin.

Nomenclature[edit]

Native speakers of most Bisayan languages, especially Cebuano, Hiligaynon and Waray, not only refer to their language by their local name, but also by Bisaya or Binisaya, meaning Bisayan language. This is misleading or may lead to confusion as different languages may be called Bisaya by their respective speakers despite their languages being mutually unintelligible. However, languages that are classified within the Bisayan language family but spoken natively in places outside of the Visayas do not use the self-reference Bisaya or Binisaya. To speakers of Cuyonon, Surigaonon, Butuanon and Tausug, the term Visayan usually refers to either Cebuano or Hiligaynon.

There have been no proven accounts to verify the origins of Bisaya. However, there is an ethnic group in Malaysia and Brunei who call themselves with the same name. However, these ethnic groups in the Philippines must not be confused with those in Borneo.

Evidence[edit]

David Zorc lists the following innovations as features defining the Bisayan languages as a group (Zorc 1977:241).[3] Tausug is noted to have diverged early from the group and may have avoided some sound changes that affected the others.

  1. *lC, *Cl > *Cl (where C is any consonant not *h, *q, or *l)
  2. *qC, *Cq > *Cq (MOST) *qC, *Cq > *qC (Tausug, and most Bik)
Reflexes of PCPh and PPh
*qaldaw *qalsəm *qitlug *baqguh
Tagalic *qa:daw

(Tag: araw)

*qa:səm

(Tag: asim)

*qitlug

(Tag: itlog)

*ba:guh
Bikol *qaldaw

(Naga: aldaw)

*qalsəm

(Naga: alsom)

*qitlug

(Iriga: itlog)

*ba:guh (Iriga)
Bisayan *qadlaw

(ALL: adlaw)

*qasləm

(Kin: aslëm,

Ceb: aslum)

*qitlug

(MOST: itlog)


Internal classification[edit]

David Zorc gives the following internal classification for the Bisayan languages (Zorc 1977:32).[3] The five primary branches are South, Cebuan, Central, Banton, and West. However, Zorc notes that the Bisayan language family is more like a dialect continuum rather than a set of readily distinguishable languages. The South Bisayan languages are considered to have diverged first, followed by Cebuan and then the rest of the three branches. Also, in the Visayas section, the province of Romblon has the most linguistic diversity, as languages from three primary Bisayan branches are spoken there: Romblomanon from Central Bisayan, Inunhan from Western Bisayan and Banton (which has an independent Bisayan branch).

Notably, Baybayanon and Porohanon have Warayan substrata, indicating a more widespread distribution of Waray before Cebuano speakers started to expand considerably starting from the mid-1800s.[4]

A total of 36 varieties are listed below. Individual languages are marked by italics.

The auxiliary language of Eskayan is grammatically Bisayan, but has essentially no Bisayan (or Philippine) vocabulary.

Magahat and Karolanos, both spoken in Negros, are unclassified within Bisayan.[5]

Ethnologue classification[edit]

Ethnologue classifies the 25 Bisayan languages into five subgroups:

Language family No. of Languages Languages
Banton 1 Bantoanon
Cebuan 1 Cebuano
Central Bisayan 1 Bantayanon
Peripheral 5 Ati, Capiznon, Hiligaynon, Masbateño, Porohanon
Romblon 1 Romblomanon
Warayan 3 Baybayanon, Kabalian, Northern Sorsoganon
Gubat 1 Southern Sorsoganon
Samar-Waray 1 Waray
South Bisayan 2 Surigaonon, Tandaganon
Butuan-Tausug 2 Butuanon, Tausug
West Bisayan 1 Caluyanon
Aklan 2 Aklanon, Malaynon
Karay-an 1 Karay-a
Cuyan 2 Cuyonon, Ratagnon
North-Central 1 Inonhan
Total 25

Names and locations[edit]

Zorc (1977: 14-15) lists the following names and locations of Bisayan languages. The recently documented languages Karolanos, Magahat, and Kabalian are not listed in Zorc (1977).

Subgroup Language Other names Location(s)
Banton Banton Banton Island, Romblon
Banton Sibale Banton Sibale (Maestre de Campo) Island, Romblon
Banton Odionganon Corcuera Island dialect Odiongan area, Tablas Island, Romblon
Western Alcantaranon Alcantara, Tablas Island, Romblon
Western Dispoholnon San Andres (Despujols), Tablas Island
Western Looknon Inunhan Look and Santa Fe, Tablas Island
Western Datagnon Ratagnun, Latagnun Ilin Island and Magsaysay, Occidental Mindoro
Western Santa Teresa Barrio Santa Teresa of Magsaysay, Occidental Mindoro
Western Bulalakawnon Bulalacao (San Pedro), southern Oriental Mindoro
Western Semirara Semirara Island Group
Western Cuyonon Cuyuno Cuyo Island, except Agutaya; coastal area around Puerto Princesa, Palawan; Culion and Busuanga Islands
Western Aklanon Akeanon, Aklano, Aklan Aklan and northern Capiz, Panay Island
Western Pandan Pandan area, Antique, including the Buruanga, Aklan area of Panay
Western Kinaray-a Antiqueño, Hinaray-a, Sulud, Panayano most of Antique, Panay Island; most inland areas of Iloilo and Capiz; southern Guimaras Island off of Iloilo
Western Gimaras Guimaras Island, Iloilo
Central Romblomanon Romblon and Sibuyan Island; San Agustin area, Tablas Island
Central Bantayan Bantayan Island
Central Capiznon Capiz and northeastern Iloilo, Panay Island
Central Hiligaynon Ilonggo most of Iloilo, Panay Island; western Guimaras and Negros Occidental
Central Kawayan Cauayan, Negros Occidental
Central Masbate Masbate Masbate and Ticao Island
Central Camotes Camotes Island, between Cebu and Leyte
Central Northern Samar Samareño, Waray-Waray northern Samar
Central Samar-Leyte Samareño, Waray-Waray, Sinamar central Samar; northern half of Leyte
Central Waray Samareño, Waray-Waray, Binisayâ southern Samar Island, Eastern Samar
Central Sorsogon Sorsogonon, Bikol northern Sorsogon, Bikol
Central Gubat Sorsogonon southern Sorsogon, Bikol (including Gubat)
Cebuan Cebuano Sugbuanon, Sugbuhanon, Cebuan, Sebuano Cebu Island; Negros Oriental; eastern Visayas and the coastal areas of northern and eastern Mindanao
Cebuan Boholano Bol-anon Bohol Island
Cebuan Leyte Kanâ, Leyteño central western Leyte; immigrants to Dinagat Island
Southern Butuanon Butuan City, Agusan del Norte area
Southern Surigaonon Jaun Bisayâ Surigao del Norte
Southern Jaun-Jaun Siargaonon Siargao Island, Surigao del Norte
Southern Kantilan Cantilan and Madrid, Surigao del Sur
Southern Naturalis Tandag and Tago, Surigao del Sur
Southern Tausug Moro, Taw Sug Jolo Island; southern and western Palawan

Comparisons[edit]

The following comparisons are from data gathered by Zorc (1997).

Personal-Noun Case Markers[edit]

Subgroup Variety Singular Plural
NOM ERG OBL NOM ERG OBL
Banton Banton si ni kang sa na kaná
Banton Sibale si ni kang sína nína kína
Banton Odionganon si ni kang sa na kaná
Western, Inonhan Alcantaranon
Western, Inonhan Dispoholnon si ni kay sánday nánday kánday
Western, Inonhan Looknon si ni kay sánday nánday kánday
Western, Kuyan, Ratagnon Datagnon si ni ki sánda nánda kanánda
Western, Kuyan, Ratagnon Santa Teresa si ni kay sánday nánday kánday
Western, Inonhan Bulalakawnon si ni kay sánday nánday kánday
Western, Kuyan, Caluyanon Semirara si ni kay sánday nánday kánday
Western, Kuyan Cuyonon si ni ki sanda nanda kanda
Western Aklanon sánday nánday kánday
Western, Kinaray-a Pandan si ni kay sánday nánday kánday
Western, Kinaray-a Kinaray-a si ni kay sánday nánday kánday
Western, Kinaray-a Gimaras
Central Romblomanon siná niná kiná
Central, Peripheral Bantayan
Central, Peripheral Capiznon si ni kay sánday nánday kánday
Central, Peripheral Hiligaynon si ni kay silá ni níla ni sa íla ni
Central, Peripheral Kawayan
Central, Peripheral Masbate si ni kan sinda ninda kanda
Central, Peripheral Camotes
Central, Warayan, Waray Northern Samar si ni kan sirá nirá kánda
Central, Warayan, Waray Samar-Leyte si ni kan sirá níra kánda
Central, Warayan, Waray Waray hi ni kan hirá níra kánda
Central, Peripheral Sorsogon (Central Sorsoganon) si ni kan sirá nirá kánda
Central, Warayan Gubat (South Sorsoganon) si ni kan sirá nirá kánda
Cebuan Cebuano si ni kang silá si

siláng

níla ni

níang

sa íla ni,

sa ílang

Cebuan Boholano si ni kang síla níla kaníla
Cebuan Leyte silang nilang sa ilang
Southern, Butuan-Tausug Butuanon si ni kang síla níla kánda
Southern, Surigaonon Surigaonon si ni kay síla níla kaníla
Southern, Surigaonon Jaun-Jaun si ni kan síla si níla ni díla ni
Southern, Surigaonon Kantilan
Southern, Tandaganon Naturalis
Southern, Butuan-Tausug Tausug hi hi kan hinda hinda kanda

Common-Name Case Markers[edit]

Subgroup Variety NOM ERG OBL
Indefinite Definite Indefinite Definite
Past Nonpast Past Nonpast Future
Banton Banton -y kag it ittong sa
Banton Sibale -y kag it itkag sa
Banton Odionganon -y kag it ittong sa
Western, Inonhan Alcantaranon ang it tang sa
Western, Inonhan Dispoholnon ang it kang sa
Western, Inonhan Looknon ang it tang sa
Western, Kuyan, Ratagnon Datagnon ang # ang sa
Western, Kuyan, Ratagnon Santa Teresa ang kang sa
Western, Inonhan Bulalakawnon ang it tang sa
Western, Kuyan, Caluyanon Semirara ang kang sa
Western, Kuyan Cuyonon ang i i-ang sa
Western Aklanon -y ro~do it ku sa
Western, Kinaray-a Pandan ang it kang sa
Western, Kinaray-a Kinaray-a ang ti kang sa
Western, Kinaray-a Gimaras ang ti kang sa
Central Romblomanon ang ning nang sa
Central, Peripheral Bantayan ang sing sang sa
Central, Peripheral Capiznon ang sing sang sa
Central, Peripheral Hiligaynon ang sing sang sa
Central, Peripheral Kawayan ang sing sang sa
Central, Peripheral Masbate an sin san sa
Central, Peripheral Camotes in an sin san sa
Central, Warayan, Waray Northern Samar i a si(n) sa(n) sa
Central, Warayan, Waray Samar-Leyte in an it sin san sit sa
Central, Warayan, Waray Waray in an it hin han hit ha
Central, Peripheral Sorsogon (Central Sorsoganon) an sin san sa
Central, Warayan Gubat (South Sorsoganon) an sin san sa
Cebuan Cebuano, -y ang ug sa sa
Cebuan Boholano ang ug sa sa
Cebuan Leyte ang ug sa sa
Southern, Butuan-Tausug Butuanon ang hung sa
Southern, Surigaonon Surigaonon ang nang sa
Southern, Surigaonon Jaun-Jaun an nan sa
Southern, Surigaonon Kantilan ang nang sa
Southern, Tandaganon Naturalis ang nang sa
Southern, Butuan-Tausug Tausug in sin ha


Reconstruction[edit]

David Zorc's reconstruction of Proto-Bisayan had 15 consonants and 4 vowels (Zorc 1977:201).[3] Vowel length, primary stress (penultimate and ultimate), and secondary stress (pre-penultimate) are also reconstructed by Zorc.

Proto-Bisayan Consonants
Bilabial Dental Palatal Velar Glottal
Plosive Voiceless p t k ʔ
Voiced b d ɡ
Nasal m n ŋ
Fricative s h
Lateral l
Approximant w j
Proto-Bisayan Vowels
Height Front Central Back
Close i /i/ u /u/
Mid ə /ə/
Open a /a/

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Bisayan". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  2. ^ Adelaar, Alexander (2005). "The Austronesian languages of Asia and Madagascar: a historical perspective". In Adelaar, Alexander; Himmelamnn, Nikolaus (eds.). The Austronesian languages of Asia and Madagascar. London: Routledge. pp. 1–42., page 16.
  3. ^ a b c Zorc, David Paul (1977). The Bisayan Dialects of the Philippines: Subgrouping and Reconstruction. Canberra, Australia: Dept. of Linguistics, Research School of Pacific Studies, Australian National University. doi:10.15144/PL-C44. ISBN 0858831570.
  4. ^ Lobel, Jason (2009). Concise Encyclopedia of Languages of the World. Oxford: Elsevier. pp. 914–917.
  5. ^ Lobel, Jason William. 2013. Philippine and North Bornean languages: issues in description, subgrouping, and reconstruction. Ph.D. dissertation. Manoa: University of Hawai'i at Manoa.

External links[edit]