|Native name: Kabisay-an
Location of the islands within the Philippines
|Location||South East Asia|
|Major islands||Bohol, Cebu, Leyte, Negros, Panay, and Samar|
|Area||61,077 km2 (23,582 sq mi)|
|Highest elevation||2,435 m (7,989 ft)|
|Regions||Central Visayas, Eastern Visayas, Negros Island Region and Western Visayas.|
|Largest settlement||Cebu City|
|Population||18,003,940 (as of 2010)|
|Density||278 /km2 (720 /sq mi)|
|Ethnic groups||ethnic groups.|
The Visayas // və-SY-əz or Visayan Islands (Visayan languages: Kabisay-an, Tagalog: Kabisayaan), is one of the three principal geographical divisions of the Philippines, along with Mindanao and Luzon. It consists of several islands, primarily surrounding the Visayan Sea, although the Visayas are considered the northeast extremity of the entire Sulu Sea. Residents are known as the Visayans.
A theory proposed by some scholars states that the term Visayas was derived from the name of a 7th-century thalassocratic Malay Srivijaya Empire. In Sanskrit, sri (श्री) means "fortunate," "prosperous," or "happy" and vijaya (विजय) means "victorious" or "excellence". In the 12th century, parts of the Sulu Archipelago and the Visayas Islands were either subject or tributaries of the empire.
The early people in the Visayas region were Austronesians and Negritos who migrated to the islands about 6,000 to 30,000 years ago. These early settlers were animist tribal groups. In the 12th century, settlers from the collapsing empires of Srivijaya, Majapahit and Brunei, led by the chieftain Datu Puti and his tribes, settled in the island of Panay and its surrounding islands. By the 14th century, Arab traders and their followers, venturing into Maritime Southeast Asia, converted some of these tribal groups to Islam. These tribes practiced a mixture of Hinduism, Buddhism, Islam and Animism beliefs. There is evidence of trade among other Asian people. The Visayans were thought to have kept close diplomatic relations with Malaysian and Indonesian kingdoms since the tribal groups of Cebu were able to converse with Enrique of Malacca using the Malay language when the Portuguese explorer Ferdinand Magellan arrived in 1521. The Visayas is subsequently home to several Prehispanic kingdoms like the Rajahnate of Cebu, the Kedatuan of Bohol and the Kedatuan of Madja-as. Among the archaeological proofs of the existence of this Hiligaynon nation are the artifacts found in pre-Hispanic tombs from many parts of the island, which are now in display at Iloilo Museum. There are also recent discoveries of burial artifacts of eight-foot inhabitants of Isla de Gigantes, including extra-large Lungon (wooden coffins) and pre-Hispanic potteries.
After the Magellan expedition, King Philip II of Spain sent Miguel López de Legazpi in 1543 and 1565 and claimed the islands for Spain. The Visayas region and many tribes began converting to Christianity and adopting western culture. By the 18th and 19th centuries, the effects of colonization on various ethnic groups soon turned sour and revolutions such as those of Francisco Dagohoy began to emerge.
Various personalities who fought against Spanish Colonial Government arose from the islands. Among the notable ones are Graciano Lopez Jaena from Iloilo, León Kilat, from Negros Oriental, Venancio Jakosalem Fernandez, from Cebu, and two personalities from Bohol by the name of Tamblot, who led the Tamblot Uprising in 1621 to 1622 and Francisco Dagohoy, the leader of the Bohol Rebellion that lasted from 1744 to 1829. Negros briefly had a state in the Visayas in the form of the Cantonal Republic of Negros before it was dissolved because of the American invasion of the Philippines.
In 2005, Palawan Island was transferred to Region VI (Western Visayas) by Executive Order 429. However this planned reorganization was held in abeyance. Hence, Palawan currently remains (as of June 2013) part of Region IV-B.
Historical legends and hypotheses
Historical documents written in 1907 by Visayan historian Pedro Alcántara Monteclaro in his book Maragtas tell the story of the ten leaders (Datus) who escaped from the tyranny of Rajah Makatunaw from Borneo and came to the islands of Panay. The chiefs and followers were said to be the ancestors (from the collapsing empires of Srivijaya and Majapahit) of the Visayan people. The documents were accepted by Filipino historians and found their way into the history of the Philippines. As a result, the arrival of Bornean tribal groups in the Visayas is celebrated in the festivals of the Ati-Atihan in Kalibo, Aklan and Binirayan in San José, Antique. Foreign historians such as William Scott maintains that the book contains a Visayan folk tradition. Panay boasts of the Hinilawod as its oldest and longest epic.
A contemporary theory based on a study of genetic markers in present-day populations is that Austronesian people from Taiwan populated the region of Luzon and headed south to the Visayas, Borneo, Indonesia, then to Pacific islands and to the east of the Indian Ocean. The study, though, may not explain inter-island migrations, which are also possible, such as Filipinos migrating to any other Philippine provinces.
According to Visayan folk traditions, the Visayas were populated by Malays from the collapsing empires of Srivijaya and Majapahit migrating from Borneo to Mindanao and to the Visayas, while other Malays crossed to Palawan through Sabah. Other Malays were suggested to have crossed from Samar island to the Bicol region in Luzon. The theory suggests that those ancient tribal groups who passed through Palawan may have migrated to what is now the island of Luzon.
A supplementary theory was that at that period, the Malay people were moving north from Mindanao to the Visayas and to Luzon.
The Visayas is composed of 16 provinces, each headed by a Governor. A governor is elected by popular vote and can serve a maximum of three terms consisting of three years each.
As for representation in the House of Representatives, the Visayas is represented by 44 congressmen elected in the same manner as the governors.
Western Visayas (Region VI)
Central Visayas (Region VII)
Central Visayas includes the islands of Cebu and Bohol. The regional center is Cebu City. Its provinces are:
Eastern Visayas (Region VIII)
Negros Island Region (NIR)
Negros Island Region (NIR) primarily consists of Negros island and minor islets. The regional center is yet to be designated. Its provinces are:
Cities and Municipalities
Below is a list of cities and major towns in the Visayas by population.
|Legal Class d||Income
|Cebu City||Cebu||Region 7||866,171||315.00||2749.75||Highly urbanized city||Special class||Capital of Cebu; regional center of Region 7|
|Bacolod||Negros Occidental||Region 18||511,820||162.67||3146.37||Highly urbanized city||1st class||Capital of Negros Occidental; de facto interim/temporary regional center of Region 18 (joint with Dumaguete)|
|Iloilo City||Iloilo||Region 6||424,619||78.34||6213.33||Highly urbanized city||1st class||Capital of Iloilo; regional center of Region 6|
|Lapu-Lapu||Cebu||Region 7||350,467||58.10||6032.13||Highly urbanized city||1st class|
|Mandaue||Cebu||Region 7||331,320||25.18||13158.06||Highly urbanized city||1st class|
|Tacloban||Leyte||Region 8||221,174||201.72||1096.44||Highly urbanized||1st class||Capital of Leyte; regional center of Region 8|
|Talisay||Cebu||Region 7||200,772||39.87||5035.67||Component city||3rd class|
|Ormoc||Leyte||Region 8||191,200||613.60||311.6||Independent component city||1st class|
|Kabankalan||Negros Occidental||Region 18||167,666||697.35||240.43||Component city||1st class|
|Bago||Negros Occidental||Region 18||163,045||401.20||406.39||Component city||2nd class|
|Toledo||Cebu||Region 7||157,078||216.28||726.27||Component city||3rd class|
|Roxas||Capiz||Region 6||156,197||95.07||1642.97||Component city||2nd class||Capital of Capiz|
|Cadiz||Negros Occidental||Region 18||151,500||542.57||279.23||Component city||2nd class|
|Sagay||Negros Occidental||Region 18||140,740||330.34||426.05||Component||3rd class|
|San Carlos||Negros Occidental||Region 18||129,981||451.50||287.89||Component city||2nd class|
|Silay||Negros Occidental||Region 18||120,999||214.80||563.31||Component city||3rd class|
|Dumaguete||Negros Oriental||Region 18||120,883||33.62||3595.57||Component city||3rd class||Capital of Negros Oriental; de facto interim/temporary regional center of Region 18 (joint with Bacolod)|
|Danao||Cebu||Region 7||119,252||107.30||1111.39||Component city||3rd class|
|Bayawan||Negros Oriental||Region 18||114,074||699.08||163.18||Component city||2nd class|
|Carcar||Cebu||Region 7||107,323||116.78||919.02||Component||4th class|
|Himamaylan||Negros Occidental||Region 18||103,006||367.04||280.64||Component city||3rd class|
|Baybay||Leyte||Region 8||102,841||459.30||223.91||Component city||n/a|
|Naga||Cebu||Region 7||101,571||101.97||996.09||Component city||n/a|
|Talisay||Negros Occidental||Region 18||97,571||223.73||436.11||Component city||4th class|
|Tagbilaran||Bohol||Region 7||96,792||331.80||291.72||Component city||3rd class||Capital of Bohol|
|Catbalogan||Samar||Region 8||94,317||274.22||343.95||Component city||n/a|
|Guihulngan||Negros Oriental||Region 18||93,675||388.56||241.08||Component city||n/a|
|Escalante||Negros Occidental||Region 18||93,005||192.76||482.49||Component city||n/a|
|Victorias||Negros Occidental||Region 18||88,299||133.92||659.34||Component city||4th class|
|Catarman||Northern Samar||Region 8||84,833||464.43||182.66||Municipality||1st class||Capital of Northern Samar|
|Maasin||Southern Leyte||Region 8||81,250||211.71||383.78||Component city||4th class||Capital of Southern Leyte|
|Passi||Iloilo||Region 6||79,633||251.39||316.77||Component city||3rd class|
|Tanjay||Negros Oriental||Region 18||79,098||267.05||296.19||Component city||4th class|
|Kalibo||Aklan||Region 6||74,619||45.75||1631.02||Municipality||1st class||Capital of Aklan|
|Bais||Negros Oriental||Region 18||74,722||319.64||227.51||Component city||3rd class|
|Bogo||Cebu||Region 7||69,911||103.52||675.34||Component city||4th class|
|Sipalay||Negros Occidental||Region 18||67,403||379.78||177.48||Component city||4th class|
|Borongan||Eastern Samar||Region 8||64,457||475.00||135.7||Component city||n/a||Capital of Eastern Samar|
|La Carlota||Negros Occidental||Region 18||63,852||137.29||465.09||Component city||4th class|
|Canlaon||Negros Oriental||Region 18||50,627||170.93||2.96||Component city||4th class|
|San Jose de Buenavista||Antique||Region 6||63,852||137.29||465.09||Municipality||1st class||Capital of Antique|
|Mabinay||Negros Oriental||Region 18||74,187||319.44||232.24||Municipality||1st class|
|Naval||Biliran||Region 8||48,799||108.24||450.84||Municipality||2nd class||Capital of Biliran|
|Jordan||Guimaras||Region 6||34,791||126.11||275.88||Municipality||3rd class||Capital of Guimaras|
|Siquijor||Siquijor||Region 7||25,231||82.06||307.47||Municipality||3rd class||Capital of Siquijor|
- ^a Highly urbanized cities (HUCs) and independent component cities are legally independent from any province, although they are often grouped with the province they belonged to prior to becoming cities. The province indicated for such cities, as grouped by the National Statistical Coordination Board, is in italics.
- ^b Population figures are from the 2010 Census Website.
- ^c Land area figures are taken from the National Statistical Coordination Board
- ^d Information on income class (as of June 2012) are from the National Statistical Coordination Board.
Languages spoken at home are primarily Visayan languages despite the usual misconception that these are dialects of a single language. Major languages include Hiligaynon or Ilonggo in much of Western Visayas, Cebuano in Central Visayas, and Waray in Eastern Visayas. Other dominant languages are Aklanon, Kinaray-a and Capiznon. Filipino, the national language based on Tagalog, is widely comprehensible but seldom used. English, an official language, is more widely known and is preferred as the second language most especially among urbanized Visayans. For instance, the latter is frequently used in schools, public signs and mass media.
|Look up visayas in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.|
|Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Visayas.|
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Visayas.|
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- "Visayan Islands" Merriam-Webster Dictionary. http://www.merriam-webster.com/concise/visayan%20islands
- C.Michael Hogan. 2011. Sulu Sea. Encyclopedia of Earth. Eds. P.Saundry & C.J.Cleveland. Washington DC
- "Executive Order No. 429". President of the Philippines. Retrieved 2009-05-18.
- "Administrative Order No. 129". President of the Philippines. Retrieved 2009-05-18.
- On May 23, 2005, Palawan and Puerto Princesa City were moved to Western Visayas by Executive Order No. 429. However, on August 19, 2005, President Arroyo issued Administrative Order No. 129 to hold the earlier EO 429 in abeyance pending a review. As of 2010[update], Palawan and the highly urbanized city of Puerto Princesa still remain a part of the MIMAROPA region.
- Jovito S. Abellana, "Bisaya Patronymesis Sri Visjaya" (Ms., Cebuano Studies Center, ca. 1960)
- Rasul, Jainal D. (2003). Agonies and Dreams: The Filipino Muslims and Other Minorities. Quezon City: CARE Minorities. pp. 77.
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- G. Nye Steiger, H. Otley Beyer, Conrado Benitez, A History of the Orient, Oxford: 1929, Ginn and Company, p. 120.
- In Panay, the existence of highly developed and independent principalities of Ogtong (Oton) and Araut (Dumangas) was well known to early Spanish settlers in the Philippines. The Augustinian historian Gaspar de San Agustin, for example, wrote about the existence of an ancient and illustrious nobility in Araut, in his book Conquistas de las Islas Filipinas (1565–1615). He said: "También fundó convento el Padre Fray Martin de Rada en Araut- que ahora se llama el convento de Dumangas- con la advocación de nuestro Padre San Agustín...Está fundado este pueblo casi a los fines del río de Halaur, que naciendo en unos altos montes en el centro de esta isla (Panay)...Es el pueblo muy hermoso, ameno y muy lleno de palmares de cocos. Antiguamente era el emporio y corte de la más lucida nobleza de toda aquella isla." Gaspar de San Agustin, O.S.A., Conquistas de las Islas Filipinas (1565-1615), Manuel Merino, O.S.A., ed., Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas: Madrid 1975, pp. 374-375.
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- Scott 1984, pp. 81–103.
- Cristian Capelli et al. (2001). "A Predominantly Indigenous Paternal Heritage for the Austronesian-Speaking Peoples of Insular Southeast Asia and Oceania" (PDF). American Journal of Human Genetics 68 (2): 432–443. doi:10.1086/318205. PMC 1235276. PMID 11170891.
- Scott, William Henry (1984). Prehispanic Source Materials for the study of Philippine History. New Day Publishers. ISBN 971-10-0226-4..