City of roses
|• City||12.44 km2 (4.80 sq mi)|
(31 December 2017)
|• Density||1,816/km2 (4,700/sq mi)|
|Time zone||UTC+1 (CET)|
|• Summer (DST)||UTC+2 (CEST)|
|Area code(s)||(+46) 498|
|Official name||Hanseatic Town of Visby|
|Criteria||Cultural: iv, v|
|Inscription||1995 (19th session)|
Visby (Swedish pronunciation: [ˈvǐːsbʏ]) is an urban area in Sweden and the seat of Gotland Municipality in Gotland County on the island of Gotland with 24,330 inhabitants as of 2017[update]. Visby is also the episcopal see for the Diocese of Visby. The Hanseatic city of Visby is arguably the best-preserved medieval city in Scandinavia, and, since 1995, it has been on the UNESCO World Heritage site list. Among the most notable historical remains are the 3.4 km (2.1 mi) long town wall that encircles the town center, and a number of church ruins.
Visby is a popular vacation destination for Scandinavians during the summer and receives thousands of tourists every year. It is by far the most-populous Swedish locality outside the Swedish mainland. The Gotland University is in Visby, and, since 1 July 2013, it is a department of Uppsala University under the name Uppsala University–Campus Gotland. Visby is also the sole county seat in Sweden accessible from the mainland only by boat and air.
The name "Visby" comes from the Old Norse Vis, (genitive singular of Vi) meaning "(pagan) place of sacrifices", and by, meaning "village". In the Gutasagan (mid 14th century) the place is referred to as just Wi meaning "holy place, place of worship".
The earliest history of Visby is uncertain, but it is known to have been a centre of merchandise around 900 AD. It was inhabited as early as the Stone Age, probably because of the access to fresh water and a natural harbour.
In the 12th century, Visby Cathedral, dedicated to Saint Mary, was constructed. It was reshaped in the 13th century to its current appearance, and was officially opened in 1225, by the bishop of the Swedish city of Linköping (in regional map). Several other churches were also constructed in the ensuing centuries. The city flourished, thanks to the German Hanseatic League.
The work on the ring wall was likely begun in the 12th century. Around 1300, it was rebuilt to reach its current height, acquiring the characteristic towers, although some towers were not constructed until the 15th century. The ringwall is still largely intact.
In the first half of the fourteenth century (1300–1350) Visby was at the height of its wealth and influence, and it was during this time that Laws of Wisbuy, a set of maritime laws that had broad influence in the Baltic and beyond, were probably promulgated.
In 1361, Gotland was conquered by Valdemar IV of Denmark. 1,800 Gotlanders were killed in battle in front of the city. Valdemar tore down part of the wall, set up three huge beer barrels and threatened to turn his men loose to pillage the town unless they were filled with silver and gold. The Visby city fathers fulfilled the demand, with churches stripped of their valuables. Valdemar added "King of Gotland" to his title list. His treatment of Visby, a member of the Hanseatic League, precipitated that League into war with Denmark; however, though Valdemar was forced into various concessions, he retained Visby as a Danish city.
In 1391, 1394 and 1398, it was taken and plundered by the Victual Brothers, pirates who sailed the Baltic Sea. An invading army of Teutonic Knights conquered Gotland in 1398, destroyed Visby and expelled the Victual Brothers. In 1409, Grand Master Ulrich von Jungingen of the Teutonic Knights guaranteed peace with the Kalmar Union of Scandinavia by selling the island of Gotland to Queen Margaret of Denmark, Norway and Sweden.
In 1411, the Norwegian, Danish and Swedish King Eric of Pomerania had the castle of Visborg constructed, and settled himself there for twelve years, during which the city virtually became a pirates' nest, and the commerce halted. As of 1470, the Hanseatic League rescinded Visby's status as a Hanseatic town.
In 1525, the final blow came. In the Danish throne quarrel, Lübeck, a Free City of the Holy Roman Empire and a leading member of the Hanseatic League, supported Frederick I, while Søren Norby the Danish governor of Gotland fought for Christian II, even after Christian's official resignation in 1523. While Norby fought a military action in Sweden, the Lübeckers successfully attacked Visby and set the city on fire from four sites. But unlike widespread belief, several churches survived at first. The churches of St. James (which already had been closed before), St. Nicholas and St. Gertrude were sacked by Lübeck's army. With the reformation, all churches except St. John, which became the city parish, were closed. In 1528, the citizens of Visby sacked the church of the Holy Trinity, or the church of Our Lord (Swedish: Drottens kyrka) in revenge for the plundering of their town. In 1533–34, the new Danish governor, Henrik Nielsen Rosenkrantz, demolished St. John's and St. Peter's churches to improve the defence of his castle Visborgs slott. St. Mary's Cathedral remained the last functional church and became the new city parish.
Gotland was again taken into Sweden's possession in 1645, by the Treaty of Brömsebro, after 300 years of Danish rule. The city developed slowly as things were left as they were. In the mid 18th century, after a plague had reduced Visby's population, some attempts were made by Swedish government officials to improve living standards, but little was accomplished. Not until the early 19th century did Visby once again attract commerce and a harbour industry. At the same time – 1808 – Gotland was conquered by Russia, but was peacefully taken back by the Swedes after only a couple of months.
Visby is the name of the locality, or town, as well as the name of the larger area surrounding it, Visby socken. In 1936, the socken was incorporated within the newly formed Visby stad (Visby city), the only locality with historical city status on Gotland. Visby socken comprises the same area as the administrative Visby District, established on 1 January 2016. As of 2019[update], Visby Cathedral, Visborg Church and Terra Nova Church in Visby belong to Visby Cathedral parish (Visby Domkyrkoförsamling). Visby is also the only municipality seat of Sweden that is accessible from the mainland only by boat and air traffic.
Visby is situated on the central west coast of Gotland, on the rather steep slopes of limestone cliffs surrounding the first natural harbor. The town has evolved around the medieval harbor that now constitutes the Almedalen park. Long streets run parallel with the old shoreline with shorter alleys at a straight angle from these, lead from the harbor and up the slope up to the eastern higher part of town known as Klinten.
The old, original part of Visby is more or less enclosed by the city wall to the north, east and south, with the old harbor and the Baltic Sea in the west. The more modern parts of the town expand mostly east and inland from the wall. Along the shore south of the wall is the modern harbor with its ferry terminals and further south is a green recreational area called Södra Hällarna. Just inside the north part of the wall as well as along the north coast outside the wall, are several beaches: Kallbadhuset, Norderstrand, Snäckgärdsbaden (or simply Snäck) and Gustavsvik.
According to the Köppen climate classification, Visby has an oceanic climate. This renders the summers cooler and the winters milder than in most of mainland Sweden. However, in spite of its maritime location the city's climate is very much influenced by continental airflows. Precipitation amounts are quite moderate, especially for an oceanic climate, and relatively consistent throughout the year. Visby is one of the sunniest towns in Sweden and in Nordic Europe, especially so during summer.
|Climate data for Visby (1991–2020 averages, extremes since 1901)|
|Record high °C (°F)||10.2
|Mean maximum °C (°F)||6.6
|Average high °C (°F)||3.9
|Daily mean °C (°F)||1.5
|Average low °C (°F)||−0.9
|Mean minimum °C (°F)||−13.3
|Record low °C (°F)||−25.0
|Average precipitation mm (inches)||47.4
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||36||67||168||255||322||329||315||261||200||104||43||32||2,132|
|Source 1: |
|Source 2: |
Visby is linked to the mainland of Sweden by ferry and by plane. Ferries arrive from both Oskarshamn in Småland and Nynäshamn, near Stockholm, each taking about three hours. The ferries are run by Destination Gotland and subsidized by the Swedish government. Destination Gotland is the only ferry operator – in summer 2016, independent shipping company Gotlandsbåten ran ferries to Västervik and Nynäshamn, but this service was unprofitable and was not repeated in 2017.
Visby Airport is located about 5 km (3.1 mi) north of the city and offers connections to the Swedish mainland. With 467,857 passengers in 2018, it is the 9th largest airport in Sweden. Daily flights to Stockholm Arlanda Airport is a common way to reach or depart from the island.
There are also city buses in Visby as well as buses to other parts of Gotland.
Visby was previously served by two railway lines, the Gotland Railway which ran from Lärbro in the north, to Burgsvik in the south, via Visby harbour and the Visby–Visborgsslätt–Bjärs Railway, south to Visborgsslätt and Västerhejde. The first line, from Visby to Hemse was started in 1878, under the auspices of the Gotland Railway. Passenger transport was discontinued in September 1960. Freight traffic on the Slakteriet – Visby port route ran until May 1962. The last sections of the port track in Visby were removed in March 1964. Visby railway station, just south of the Söderport on Söderväg, was completed in 1878 and is one of the few remaining vestiges of the railway in Visby.
Sights and events
During the first week of July, Visby is the scene of the Almedalen Week, an important forum for everyone involved in Swedish politics. During the week, representatives from the major political parties in Sweden take turns giving speeches in the Almedalen park.
In August, the tourist season is at its peak. During week 32, from Sunday to Sunday, the annual Medieval Week on Gotland is held. During this week, regularly dressed tourists are outnumbered by people that are dressed in Medieval costumes. The festival started in 1984 and comprises a variety of events: music, jesters, theatre, a medieval market, jousting tournaments, and much more.
Culture and the arts
In popular culture
Swedish author Mari Jungstedt has set nine detective novels on the island of Gotland. The principal character, DS Anders Knutas, is based at police headquarters in Visby, and there are numerous descriptive passages of the city and the island.
The following sports clubs are located in Visby:
- Eskelhems GoIF (football)
- FC Copa (football)
- FC Gute (football)
- IFK Visby (football)
- Visby AIK (football)
- Visby IBK (floorball)
- Visby Ladies (women's basketball)
- Visby/Roma HK (ice hockey)
- Visby Klätterklubb (Climbing)
A number of notable people have originated from Visby, they are included in the Gotland list.
Visby circa 1700, in Suecia Antiqua et Hodierna
City view including Visby Cathedral in the second half of the 19th century.
- Main sights
Visby Cathedral, view from the east
- General views
- Visby harbour
- Galgberget, Visby
- Gotland Museum
- List of churches and chapels on Gotland
- List of governors of Gotland County
- List of people of Gotland
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- "21 World Heritage Sites you have probably never heard of". Daily Telegraph.
- Nationalencyklopedin, article "Visby"
- "Visby innerstad". www.gotland.net. Visit Gotland. Retrieved 15 June 2014.
- "Smeknamn och öknamn på svenska städer". www.cercurius.se. Cercurius AB. Retrieved 15 June 2014.
- Blom, Ewdward (2 July 2013). "Rosornas stads mest urvattnade tradition". Expressen (in Swedish). Retrieved 15 June 2014.
- Westholm, Gun (2000). "Visby och Gotland – Medeltida byggnadsutveckling". Gotländskt Arkiv. Visby: Gotlands fornsal. 2000 (72): 85.
- Yrwing, Hugo (1986). Visby – hansestad på Gotland (in Swedish). Stockholm: Gidlund. ISBN 91-7844-055-6. Retrieved 12 June 2014.
- Andrén, Anders (2011). Det medeltida Gotland: en arkeologisk guidebok. Lund: Historiska media. ISBN 978-91-85873-83-8. Retrieved 15 June 2014.
- Stone, Arthur J. (October 1842). "Canada's Admiralty Court in the Twentieth Century" (PDF). McGill Law Journal. 47: 511–558. Retrieved 11 April 2016.
- Westholm, Gun (2007). Visby 1361: Invasionen (in Swedish). Stockholm: Prisma. ISBN 978-91-518-4568-5. Retrieved 12 June 2014.
- Martinsson, Örjan. "Gotland". www.tacitus.nu. TACITUS.NU. Retrieved 12 June 2014.
- Slottsguiden, S:ta Karin, Sverige
- Slottsguiden, S:t Per och S:t Hans, Sverige
- Englund, Peter (2003). Ofredsår (in Swedish). Stockholm: Atlantis. pp. 368 and 394. ISBN 91-7486-349-5.
- "Förordning om district" [Regulation of districts] (PDF). Ministry of Finance. 17 June 2015. Retrieved 24 May 2016.
- The exact extent of the old socken, now district, can be obtained by clicking on Kartinställningar and check the Socken box in the menu of this map from the Swedish National Heritage Board database.
- "Församlingar på Gotland". www.svenskakyrkan.se. Church of Sweden. Retrieved 13 January 2019.
- "Visby stifts indelning 2018". www.svenskakyrkan.se. Church of Sweden. Retrieved 13 January 2019.
- "Visby". www.ne.se. Nationalencyklopedin. Retrieved 24 June 2016.
- "Välkomna till Visby!" [Welcome to Visby!]. www.gotland.net. Gotlands Media AB. 23 April 2014. Retrieved 24 June 2016.
- "6102 Visby (1993 FQ25)". NASA. Retrieved 24 June 2016.
- "Monthly & Yearly Statistics" (in Swedish). SMHI. Retrieved 30 April 2019.
- "Ladda ner meteorologiska observationer - Visby D" (in Swedish). SMHI. Retrieved 30 April 2019.
- "Resa till och på Gotland" [Travel to and on Gotland]. www.gotland.com. Inspiration Gotland. Retrieved 6 July 2016.
- Widegren, Patrik (22 January 2016). "Efter motgångar: Ny färja till Gotland i sommar" [After setbacks: New ferry to Gotland this summer]. www.svt.se. Sveriges Television. Retrieved 6 July 2016.
- "Gotlandsbåten avregistreras – inga nya planer" [Gotlandsbåten deregistered – no new plans]. P4 Kalmar (in Swedish). Sveriges Radio. 6 April 2018. Retrieved 17 August 2018.
- "Om flygplatsen". www.swedavia.se. Swedavia. Retrieved 30 April 2019.
- "Sveriges flygplatser 2017- Arlanda störst, Hagfors minst & Skellefteå ökade mest". www.flyg24nyheter.com. Flyg24nyheter. 25 January 2018. Retrieved 30 April 2019.
- Hessrud Persson, Stefan (6 April 2017). "Ny direktlinje mellan Oslo och Visby". Aftonbladet. Aftonbladet. Retrieved 30 April 2019.
- Wesley, Stefan (1 July 2016). "Kollektivtrafik" [Public transport]. www.gotland.se. Gotland Municipality. Retrieved 6 July 2016.
- Wanigasekera, Anomi. "Comparison of Hauge-Visby and Hamburg rules" (PDF). www.juliusandcreasy.com. Julius & Creasy. Retrieved 6 July 2016.
- Ragnar, Martin. "Gotlands Järnväg – GJ 1878–1960". www.Gotlandstaget.se (in Swedish). Archived from the original on 22 August 2011. Retrieved 16 November 2011.
- "History of Almedalen Week". www.almedalsveckan.info. Region Gotland. Retrieved 1 February 2015.
- Vinthagen Simpson, Peter (26 July 2013). "Visby Medieval Week offers 'full on experience'". The Local. Retrieved 1 February 2015.
- "World Ecological Forum". www.worldecologicalforum.com. World Ecological Forum. Retrieved 1 February 2015.
- "Welcome to Visby International Centre for Composers". VICC. Retrieved 27 January 2018.
- "About BCWT". Baltic Center for Writers and Translators. Retrieved 27 January 2018.
- Hayao Miyazaki (director) (3 February 2010). Creating Kiki's Delivery Service (DVD)
|url=(help) (in English and Japanese). Disney Presents Studio Ghib.
- "Beröringen (1971)". www.sfi.se. Swedish Film Institute. Retrieved 6 July 2016.
- "ヨルシカ - 雨とカプチーノ(Official Video) - YouTube". www.youtube.com. Retrieved 15 January 2021.
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