Organomegaly

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Organomegaly is the abnormal enlargement of organs. For example, clitoromegaly is the enlargement of the clitoris, and cardiomegaly is enlargement of the heart. Visceromegaly is the enlargement of abdominal organs.[1] Examples of visceromegaly are enlarged liver (hepatomegaly), spleen (splenomegaly), stomach, kidneys, and pancreas.

Definitions for various organs[edit]

Values refer to adults unless otherwise specified.

Organ Term for enlargement Cutoff for definition
Abdominal aorta Ectasia or mild dilation

>2.0 cm and <3.0 cm[2]

Abdominal aortic aneurysm
  • Moderate AAA: 3.0–5.0 cm[2]
  • Large or severe AAA: >5.0[2] or 5.5.[3] cm
Common bile duct Dilatation
  • Mild dilatation:[4] 8–12 mm
  • Moderate dilatation:[4] 12–16 mm
  • Severe dilatation:[4] 16–20 mm
  • Extremely severe dilatation:[4] >20 mm
Gallbladder Wall thickening 3 mm wall thickness[5]
Hydrops Greater than 5 cm transverse dimension[6]
Heart Cardiomegaly
Large intestine Dilation

Upper limit of normal range of diameter:[9]

Wall thickening Wall thickness 5 mm[10]
Kidneys Enlargement
Sex Upper limit of standard reference range
Right kidney Left kidney
Men[12] 160 g (5.6 oz) 175 g (6.2 oz)
Women[13] 175 g (6.2 oz) 190 g (6.7 oz)
Liver Hepatomegaly
Lymph nodes Lymphadenopathy Generally 10 mm[15][16]
Renal pelvis Part of hydronephrosis grading 4 – 20 mm:
  • Fetal: Anteroposterior diameter of less than 4 mm in fetuses up to 32 weeks of gestational age and 7 mm afterwards.[17]
  • Adults: cutoff values defined differently by different sources, with anteroposterior diameters ranging between 10 and 20 mm.[18] About 13% of normal healthy adults have a transverse pelvic diameter of over 10 mm.[19]
Prostate Prostatomegaly Volume over 30 cm3.
Pulmonary artery Dilation >29 mm[20]
Small intestine Dilation
  • Mild: 2.5–2.9 cm[23]
  • Moderate: 3-4 cm[23]
  • Severe: >4 cm[23]
Wall thickening 3–5 mm[26]
Spleen Splenomegaly
  • Moderate splenomegaly: the largest dimension is between 11–20 cm[27]
  • Severe splenomegaly: the largest dimension is greater than 20 cm[27]
  • Autopsy: Weight over upper limit of standard reference range, of 230 g (8.1 oz)[12][13]
Thoracic aorta Dilation Diameters:
  • >3.5 cm generally[30]

Upper limits of standard reference range:

  • 3.3 cm in small young individuals[31]
  • 4.3 cm among large elderly individuals.[31]
  • 2.3 cm among small young individuals[31]
  • 3.2 cm among large elderly individuals.[31]
Thoracic aortic aneurysm Diameter:
  • > 4.5 cm (US)[30]
  • > 4.0 cm (Korea)[32]
Testis Enlargement 5 cm (long axis) x 3 cm (short axis)[33]
Tonsil Enlarged tonsil 2.5 cm in length, 2.0 cm in width and 1.2 cm in thickness.[34]
Ureter Megaureter 6[35] or 7[36] mm
Urinary bladder Wall thickening 3–5 mm thick, and < 3 mm when well distended.[37]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Visceromegaly on Medline Plus". Retrieved 6 February 2013.
  2. ^ a b c Page 56 in: Philip Lumb (2014). Critical Care Ultrasound E-Book. Elsevier Health Sciences. ISBN 9780323278171.
  3. ^ Lindholt JS, Juul S, Fasting H, Henneberg EW (Apr 2005). "Screening for abdominal aortic aneurysms: single centre randomised controlled trial". BMJ. 330 (7494): 750. doi:10.1136/bmj.38369.620162.82. PMC 555873. PMID 15757960.
  4. ^ a b c d Yunfu Lv, Wan Yee Lau, Haiying Wu, Shunwu Chang, NingLiu, Yejuan Li, Jie Deng (2015). "Etiological Causes of Intrahepatic and Extrahepatic Bile Duct Dilatation" (PDF). International Journal of New Technology and Research (IJNTR). 1 (8).CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  5. ^ van Breda Vriesman, Adriaan C.; Engelbrecht, Marc R.; Smithuis, Robin H. M.; Puylaert, Julien B. C. M. (2007). "Diffuse Gallbladder Wall Thickening: Differential Diagnosis". American Journal of Roentgenology. 188 (2): 495–501. doi:10.2214/AJR.05.1712. ISSN 0361-803X. PMID 17242260.
  6. ^ Page 256 in Neil Kaplowitz (1996). Liver and Biliary Diseases. Williams & Wilkins. ISBN 9780683045451.
  7. ^ Justin, M; Zaman, S; Sanders, J.; Crook, A. M; Feder, G.; Shipley, M.; Timmis, A.; Hemingway, H. (2007). "Cardiothoracic ratio within the "normal" range independently predicts mortality in patients undergoing coronary angiography". Heart. 93 (4): 491–494. doi:10.1136/hrt.2006.101238. ISSN 1355-6037. PMC 1861494. PMID 17164481.
  8. ^ Tracy, Richard Everett (2011). "Association of Cardiomegaly with Coronary Artery Histopathology and its Relationship to Atheroma". Journal of Atherosclerosis and Thrombosis. 18 (1): 32–41. doi:10.5551/jat.5090. ISSN 1880-3873.
  9. ^ Nguyen H, Loustaunau C, Facista A, Ramsey L, Hassounah N, Taylor H, Krouse R, Payne CM, Tsikitis VL, Goldschmid S, Banerjee B, Perini RF, Bernstein C (2010). "Deficient Pms2, ERCC1, Ku86, CcOI in field defects during progression to colon cancer". J Vis Exp (41). doi:10.3791/1931. PMC 3149991. PMID 20689513.
  10. ^ Fernandes, Teresa; Oliveira, Maria I.; Castro, Ricardo; Araújo, Bruno; Viamonte, Bárbara; Cunha, Rui (2014). "Bowel wall thickening at CT: simplifying the diagnosis". Insights into Imaging. 5 (2): 195–208. doi:10.1007/s13244-013-0308-y. ISSN 1869-4101. PMC 3999365. PMID 24407923.
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  13. ^ a b c Molina, D. Kimberley; DiMaio, Vincent J. M. (2015). "Normal Organ Weights in Women". The American Journal of Forensic Medicine and Pathology. 36 (3): 182–187. doi:10.1097/PAF.0000000000000175. ISSN 0195-7910.
  14. ^ Vermelho, Marli Batista Fernandes; Correia, Ademir Silva; Michailowsky, Tânia Cibele de Almeida; Suzart, Elizete Kazumi Kuniyoshi; Ibanês, Aline Santos; Almeida, Lanamar Aparecida; Khoury, Zarifa; Barba, Mário Flores (2015). "Abdominal alterations in disseminated paracoccidioidomycosis: computed tomography findings". Radiologia Brasileira. 48 (2): 81–85. doi:10.1590/0100-3984.2013.0025. ISSN 0100-3984. PMC 4433296. PMID 25987748.
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  19. ^ Emamian SA, Nielsen MB, Pedersen JF, Ytte L (1993). "Sonographic evaluation of renal appearance in 665 adult volunteers. Correlation with age and obesity". Acta Radiol. 34 (5): 482–5. doi:10.3109/02841859309175388. PMID 8369185.
  20. ^ Frank Gaillard; et al. "Pulmonary hypertension". Radiopaedia. Retrieved 2017-05-27.
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  23. ^ a b c Kuang, Lian-qin; Zhao, Da-wei; Cheng, Cheng; Wang, Yi (2016). "Prediction of Small Bowel Obstruction Caused by Bezoars Using Risk Factor Categories on Multidetector Computed Tomographic Findings". BioMed Research International. 2016: 1–9. doi:10.1155/2016/6569103. ISSN 2314-6133. PMC 4925944. PMID 27403434.
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  25. ^ Pérez, M. A.; Affatato, Saverio; Zanini, Filippo; Carmignato, Simone (2017). "Micro X-Ray Computed Tomography Mass Loss Assessment of Different UHMWPE: A Hip Joint Simulator Study on Standard vs. Cross-Linked Polyethylene". PLOS ONE. 12 (1): e0170263. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0170263. ISSN 1932-6203. PMC 5249200. PMID 28107468.
  26. ^ Ali Nawaz Khan. "Small-Bowel Obstruction Imaging". Medscape. Retrieved 2017-03-07. Updated: Sep 22, 2016
  27. ^ a b c Neetu Radhakrishnan (2018-07-25). "Splenomegaly". Medscape. Updated Apr. 2012 (referring the classification system to Poulin et al.
  28. ^ Page 1964 in: Florian Lang (2009). Encyclopedia of Molecular Mechanisms of Disease. Springer Science & Business Media. ISBN 9783540671367.
  29. ^ Saboo, S S; Krajewski, K M; O'Regan, K N; Giardino, A; Brown, J R; Ramaiya, N; Jagannathan, J P (2012). "Spleen in haematological malignancies: spectrum of imaging findings". The British Journal of Radiology. 85 (1009): 81–92. doi:10.1259/bjr/31542964. ISSN 0007-1285. PMC 3473934. PMID 22096219.
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  34. ^ Chapter: Ear, Nose and Throat Histopathology in L. Michaels (1987). Normal Anatomy, Histology; Inflammatory Diseases. Springer London. ISBN 9781447133322.
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  37. ^ Page 12 in: Uday Patel (2010). Imaging and Urodynamics of the Lower Urinary Tract. Springer Science & Business Media. ISBN 9781848828360.