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Vishvamitra

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Birth of Shakuntala - Vishvamitra rejects the child and mother, because they represented to him a lapse in spiritual pursuits and his earlier renunciation of domestic/king's life.[1] Painting by Raja Ravi Varma.

Brahmarshi Vishvamitra(viśvā-mitra) is one of the most venerated rishis or sages of ancient times in India. He is also credited as the author of most of Mandala 3 of the Rigveda, including Gayatri Mantra. The Puranas mention that only 24 rishis since antiquity have understood the whole meaning of—and thus wielded the whole power of—Gayatri Mantra. Vishvamitra is supposed to be the first, and Yajnavalkya the last.

The story of Vishvamitra is narrated in the Balakanda of Valmiki Ramayana.[2] Mahabharata adds that Vishvamitra's relationship with Menaka resulted in a daughter, Shakuntala, whose story is narrated in Adi Parva of Mahabharata.

Vishvamitra was a king in ancient India, also called Kaushika(descendant of Kusha). Vishwamitra was originally the Chandravanshi King of Kanyakubja. He was a valiant warrior and the great-grandson of a great king named Kusha. Valmiki Ramayana, prose 51 of Bala Kanda, starts with the story of Vishvamitra:

There was a king named Kusha(not to be confused with Kusha, son of Rama), a brainchild of Brahma and Kusha's son was the powerful and verily righteous Kushanabha. One who is highly renowned by the name Gaadhi was the son of Kushanabha and Gaadhi's son is this great-saint of great resplendence, Vishvamitra. Vishvamitra ruled the earth and this great-resplendent king ruled the kingdom for many thousands of years.[citation needed]

His story also appears in various Puranas; however, with variations from Ramayana. Vishnu Purana and Harivamsha chapter 27(dynasty of Amaavasu) of Mahabharata narrates the birth of Vishvamitra. According to Vishnu Purana,[3] Kushanabha married a damsel of Purukutsa dynasty(later called as Shatamarshana lineage - descendents of the Ikshvaku king Trasadasyu) and had a son by name Gaadhi, who had a daughter named Satyavati(not to be confused with the Satyavati of Mahabharata).

Satyavati was married to an old Brahmin known as Ruchika who was foremost among the race of Bhrigu. Ruchika desired a son having the qualities of a Brahmin and so he gave Satyavati a sacrificial offering(charu) which he had prepared to achieve this objective. He also gave Satyavati's mother another charu to make her conceive a son with the character of a Kshatriya at her request. But Satyavati's mother privately asked Satyavati to exchange her charu with her. This resulted in Satyavati's mother giving birth to Vishvamitra, son of a Kshatriya Gadhi with qualities of a Brahmin and Satyavati gave birth to Jamadagni, father of Parashurama, a Brahmin with qualities of a Kshatriya.

Names[edit]

Vishwamitra (Sanskrit: विश्वामित्र) is a Sanskrit word, meaning friend of the world. Other names for the sage include Kannada: ವಿಶ್ವಾಮಿತ್ರ; Malayalam: വിശ്വാമിത്രൻ; Telugu: విశ్వామిత్ర; Tamil: விசுவாமித்திரன் Vicuvāmittiraṉ; Thai: Swamit; Burmese: Bodaw; Javanese: Wiswamitra, Malay: Nila Purba.

Conflict With Vashista[edit]

On one of his exploits, King Kaushika and his soldiers took rest in the hermitage of sage Vashista. The whole army was well-fed and taken care of by the sage. The king doubted the possibility and expressed his surprise to the sage as to how he was able to take care of the whole arrangements. Vashista replied,

"O king, this feast that you have partaken with your kinsmen, has been provided by my calf Nandini(sometimes referred as Sabala), who was gifted to me by Indra. You must know that she is daughter of Indra's cow Kamadhenu. She provides me with everything I need."

Kaushika was surprised and he planned to attain the cow by all means. He expressed a desire to the sage for obtaining Nandini from him. Vashista politely refused to give the cow to king. Vashista was not be tempted by the offer of untold wealth that was made by Kaushika for the cow, which can readily yield all the riches in the world. The king grew exceedingly angry and he insulted Brahmarishi with harsh words. He also ordered his soldiers to seize the cow and drive it to his kingdom. Nandini was daughter of Kamadhenu and hence she forcefully protested against the soldiers. Vashishta saved the cow by destroying all of the king's army with his superhuman powers. King Kaushika went on to do penance to become Brahmarishi, to match Vashista. He was initially conferred the name Vishwamitra and the title Rajarishi.

In one of the later encounters, Vishwamitra cursed the king Harishchandra to become a crane. Vashista accompanied him by becoming a bird himself. There were several such instances of violent encounter between the sages and at times, Brahma, god of creation, had to interfere.[4]

Alternative Version[edit]

Vashista destroys Vishvamitra's entire army by the simple use of his great mystic and spiritual powers, breathing the Om syllable. Vishvamitra then undertakes a tapasya for several years to please Shiva, who bestows upon him the knowledge of celestial weaponry. He proudly goes to Vashista's ashram again and uses all kinds of powerful weapons to destroy Vashista and his hermitage. He succeeded in the killings of Vasishtha's thousand sons but not in the former.

An enraged Vashista brings out his brahmadanda, a wooden stick imbued with the power of Brahma. It consumes Vishvamitra's most powerful weapons, including the brahmastra. Vashista then attempts to attack Vishvamitra, but his anger is allayed by Devas. Vishvamitra is left humiliated while Vashista restores his hermitage.

Tapasya[edit]

Vishvamitra and Menaka, painting by Raja Ravi Varma.

This incident made a deep impression on the King. He realized that power obtained by penances was far greater than mere physical might. He renounced his kingdom and began his quest to become a greater rishi than Vashista. He took on the name Vishvamitra. It is very interesting to see all the challenges that Vishvamitra faced in his life to become a Brahmarishi, before eventually giving up the greed to possess the cow. After many trials and undergoing many austerities, Vishvamitra at last obtained the title of Brahmarishi from Vashista himself. During this time he had a daughter named Shakuntala(who appears in Mahabharata) with Menaka, an apsara in the court of Indra. Son of Shakuntala became a great emperor. He came to be known as Emperor Bharata, in whose name the land of India got its name Bharata.

Alternative Version[edit]

Kaushika seeks to attain the same spiritual power as Vashista, to become his equal, a brahmarishi. He undertakes a fierce penance for one thousand years, after which Brahma names him a Rajarishi or royal sage.

After another long penance of thousand years, Brahma names him a rishi, thus leaving his royal lineage permanently. And Brahma suggest him to take Bramharshi grade from his guru Vashista only as he only has the power to call you as Brahmarshi.

At this point, Indra, the king of Swarga attempts to test the tapasvi by sending Menaka, an apsara to seduce him. Kaushik then lives with Menaka for 10 years. They have a baby girl Shakuntala. Kaushik becomes angry as Menaka had destroyed his years of meditation and thus he cursed her that she won't possess her beauty, of which she was proud, in next birth.

Kaushika now goes to the banks of the river Kaushiki, which is the spirit of his own sister. After many thousands of years of penance, Brahma names him maharishi, but also tells him that he hasn't become a jitendriya yet, lacking control over his passions. This is brought to light to Kaushika when he angrily curses Rambha, an apsara sent by Indra to seduce Kaushika again, to become a stone for 1000 years.

Vishvamitra is addressed as Maharishi by Brahma and other gods alarmed by his austerities

Rise To Brahmarishi[edit]

After cursing Rambha, Kaushika goes to the highest mountain of Himalayas to perform an even more severe tapasya for over 1000 years. He ceases to eat, and reduces his breathing to a bare minimum.

He is tested again by Indra, who comes as a poor Brahmin begging for food just as Kaushika is ready to break a fast of many years by eating some rice. Kaushika instantly gives his food away to Indra and resumes his meditation. Kaushika also finally masters his passions, refusing to be provoked by any of Indra's testing and seductive interferences.

At the penultimate culmination of a multi-thousand year journey, Kaushika's yogic power is at a peak. At this point, Brahma, as the head of Devas led by Indra, names Kaushika a brahmarishi and names him Vishvamitra or Friend of All for his unlimited compassion. He then goes to meet Vashishta. It was customary that, if a sage was greeted by an equal or superior person, the sage would also greet the person. If the sage was greeted by an inferior person, the sage would simply bless them. Initially, when Vishwamitra greeted Vashista with the pride of being a new brahmarishi in heart, Vashishta simply blessed him. Suddenly all pride and desire left Vishwamitra's heart and he became a clean and clear brahmarishi. When Vishwamitra turned back to leave, Vashishta realised the change of heart and also greeted Vishwamitra. Vishwamitra is also embraced by Vashista and their enmity is instantly ended.

Vishvamitra's Characteristics[edit]

As a former king, and one over as vast a realm as he had been, Vishvamitra was known to retain a regal and often haughty bearing. He was known for his temper and often cursed people in his anger, thereby depleting his yogic powers obtained by much penance. People feared his temper and prayed that their actions might not get misconstrued by the touchy sage.

However, as a former king, Vishvamitra also possessed great compassion for all beings. Having taken pity on Trishanku, he willingly exhausted all the punya he gained from his tapas, to enable him to ascend to the heavens. Following his attainment of the status of brahmarishi, he was known to use the power of his tapas to help anyone who was in need, whatever the cost to himself.

Kaushika's love of Menaka is considered to have been intense and passionate.

Gayatri Mantra[edit]

Vishvamitra is said to have found Gayatri Mantra. It is a verse from a sukta of Rigveda(Mandala 3.62.10). Gāyatrī is the name of the Vedic meter in which the verse is composed.

Gayatri mantra is repeated and cited very widely in Vedic literature[5] and praised in several well-known classical Hindu texts such as Manusmriti("there is nothing greater than the Savitri (Gayatri) Mantra.", Manu II, 83),[6] Harivamsa[7] and Bhagavad Gita.[8][9] The mantra is an important part of the upanayana ceremony for young males in Hinduism and has long been recited by dvija men as part of their daily rituals. Modern Hindu reform movements spread the practice of the mantra to include women and all castes and its use is now very widespread.[10][11]

Legends[edit]

Vishvamitra is featured in many legends and in different works of the Sanatana dharma.

Trisanku[edit]

Indra prevents Trisanku from ascending to Heaven in physical form-from Freer Ramayana

Another story Vishvamitra is known for is his creation of his own version of Svarga or heaven, called Trisanku Svarga.

When a proud King Trisanku asked his guru Vashista to send him to heaven in his own body, guru responded that the body cannot ascend to heaven. King Trisanku then asked Vashista's hundred sons to send him to heaven. The sons, believing that Trisanku should not come to them after their father had refused, took outrage and cursed Trisanku to be a Chandala, or untouchable. Trisanku was transformed into a person with body smeared of ash, clothed in black and wearing iron jewelry. Unrecognizable to his subjects, he was driven out of the kingdom.

In his exile, Trisanku came across the sage Vishvamitra, who agreed to help him. Vishvamitra organized a great sacrifice and ritual propitiating the Devas, pleading that they accept Trisanku into heaven. Not one Deva responded. Angered, Vishvamitra used his yogic powers and ordered Trisanku to rise to heaven. Miraculously, Trisanku rose into the sky until he reached heaven, where he was pushed back down by Indra.

Enraged even more by this, Vishvamitra commenced the creation of another Universe(including another Brahma) for Trisanku. He had only completed the Universe when Brihaspati ordered him to stop. Trisanku, however, did not fully transcend through Trisanku Svarga created for him. He remained fixed in the sky and was transformed into a constellation.

In the process of forming a new universe, Vishvamitra used up all the tapas he had gained from his austerities. Therefore, after Trisanku episode, Vishvamitra had to start his prayers again to attain the status of a Brahmarshi, to equal Vashista.

Harishchandra/Ambarisha's Sacrifice[edit]

King Ambarisha offers young Sunahsepha in sacrifice

While undertaking a penance, Kaushika helps a boy named Shunashepa who has been sold by his parents to be sacrificed at Harishchandra/Ambarisha's yagna to please Varuna. The king's son Rohit does not want to be the one sacrificed, as was originally promised to Varuna, so young Sunashepa is taken. A devastated and terrified Sunashepa falls at the feet of Kaushika, who is deep in meditation and begs for his help.[12]

Kaushika teaches secret mantras to Sunashepa. The boy sings these mantras at the ceremony, is blessed by Indra and Varuna and Ambarisha's ceremony is completed.

In another version of the story, Sunahshepa is lost son of Vishvamitra. When Vishvamitra was Prince of Bharats(Kaushik) - and his name was Vishwarath then, he was abducted by the enemy king Shambar. There, Shambar's daughter, Ugra, falls in love with Vishvarath. Ugra convinces Prince Vishvarath to marry her. Looking at the good character of Vishvarath, Shambar also agrees for the marriage. Soon after the marriage, the Bharatas win the battle against Shambar. When theu found their Prince Vishvarath alive, they feel happy but they could not accept Ugra as their future queen as she is an Asura. To convert Ugra into an Aryan, Vishvarath creates Gayatri Mantra, but people still refuse to accept her. Soon she gives birth to a son, but to save the son from the angry people, the greatest female sage Lopamudra sends the child to a hidden place. To Lopamudra and Vishvarath's sadness, people kill Ugra. But the son is saved, without the knowledge of Vishvarath. This child grows young and he comes to sacrifice himself in the ceremony of Ambarisha(or King Harishchandra).[13]

In Ramayana[edit]

Vishvamitra looks as Rama breaks the bow, winning the hand of Sita in marriage. Painting by Raja Ravi Varma.

In the Indian epic Ramayana, Vishvamitra is the preceptor of Rama, prince of Ayodhya and seventh Avatar of Vishnu and his brother Lakshmana.

Vishvamitra gives them the knowledge of the Devastras or celestial weaponry [bala and adi bala], trains them in advanced religion and guides them to kill powerful demons like Tataka, Maricha and Subahu. He also leads them to the Swayamvara ceremony for princess Sita, who becomes wife of Rama.

Vishvamitra In Buddhism[edit]

In Buddhist Vinaya Pitaka of Mahavagga(I.245)[14] section, Buddha pays respect to Vishwamitra by declaring that the Veda in its true form was declared to the Vedic rishis "Atthako, Vâmako, Vâmadevo, Vessâmitto, Yamataggi, Angiras, Bhâradvâjo, Vâsettho, Kassapo and Bhagu"[15] and because that true Veda was altered by some priests he refused to pay homage to the altered version.[16]

Gotras[edit]

In the case of Viswamitra, we have two Pravaras,

1.Koushika: Vaiswaamitra, Aghamarshana, Koushika, Lohit
2.Visvamitra: Vaiswaamitra, Devaraata, Owtala.[17]
There are two gotras, or lineages, bearing the name of Vishvamitra.

Vishvamitra Gotra[edit]

People belonging to the Vishvamitra Gotra consider Brahmarishi Vishvamitra as their ancestor.

There is an off-shoot of Vishvamitra Gotra called Chakita Vishvamitra Gotra. Two explanations have been suggested for this off-shoot. The group is supposed to have sprung from a surprised reaction of Vishvamitra. The other, more likely, explanation, is that a group of descendants decided to split from the main group and started their own branch of this line.This is one of the main gotra of Brahmins.Madhwas and Deshastha Brahmin from Karnataka, Maharastra and Tanjavur have this gotra.

Kaushika Gotra[edit]

People belonging to Kaushika(Kaushik /Kousika/Kousikasa/Koushika/Kausika) Gotra take Rajarishi Kausika as their root.

Kausika was one of the names of Vishvamitra who was supposed to have lived in Mithila(presently in Nepal's Terai and India's Bihar) where his sister river Koshi still flows turbulently as she is said to be unmarried. Many Maithil Brahmins are of Kaushik gotra with moola Nikutwar barhi, Nikutwar nikuti and garh. Adi Gaur Brahmin [Lata] Shashan belong to Kaushik gotra. 11 Royal clans of 96 clan of Marathas belong to Kaushik gotra including the illustrious house of Shivaji and Rashtrakutas. 2 more clans belong to the Vishvamitra gotra. Many Kashmiri Pandit belong to Kaushika gotra. Many Kanyakubji Bramhins found in different states also belong to this gotra, as their forefathers have migrated from Kashmir valley before settling around Kanyakubja(present day Kanauj in U.P.India). Many Deshastha Brahmin / Madhwas and Kokanastha Brahmins from Indian State of Maharashtra and Karnataka belong to Kaushik Gotra.

Many of the Niyogi Brahmins as well as Vaidiki Brahmins from the state of Andhra Pradesh also belong to the Kaushika/Kaushika-sa Gotra.

Some members of the Anavil Brahmin community from South Gujarat have Kaushik as a Gotra.

Worship[edit]

Brahmarishi Vishvamitra is worshipped in Sri Aabathsahayeswarar temple, Alangudi, Thanjavur, Tamil Nadu. The temple is estimated to be 1000–2000 years old.[18]

In Film & Television[edit]

Vishwamitra is shown in Tamil movie Rajarishi with Legendary Actor Sivaji Ganesan playing the role of the Sage. Also, he is shown in Telugu Movie Brahmashri Vishwamitra.

Vishwamitra is shown in the show Siya Ke Ram airing on Star Plus played by Manish Wadhwa.[19]

See Also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Nijhawan, A. (2009). Excusing the female dancer, South Asian Popular Culture, 7(2), pp 99-112
  2. ^ "Valmiki Ramayana". Valmikiramayan.net. Retrieved 2013-03-26. 
  3. ^ "Viśwamitra". Mythfolklore.net. 2007-10-16. Retrieved 2013-03-26. 
  4. ^ Wilkins, W.J. (2003). Hindu Mythology. New Delhi: D.K. Printworld (P) Limited. pp. 380–2. ISBN 81-246-0234-4. 
  5. ^ Bloomfield 1906, p. 392b.
  6. ^ Dutt 2006, p. 51.
  7. ^ Vedas 2003, p. 15–16.
  8. ^ Rahman 2005, p. 300.
  9. ^ Radhakrishnan 1994, p. 266.
  10. ^ Rinehart 2004, p. 127.
  11. ^ Lipner 1994, p. 53.
  12. ^ Pargiter, F.E. (1972) [1922]. Ancient Indian Historical Tradition, Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass, p.92.
  13. ^ Munshi, K. M. (1933). Munshi Granthavali : 7. Ahmedabad: Gurjar Prakashan (for Bharatiya Vidhya Bhavan).
  14. ^ P. 494 The Pali-English dictionary By Thomas William Rhys Davids, William Stede
  15. ^ P. 245 The Vinaya piṭakaṃ: one of the principle Buddhist holy scriptures ..., Volume 1 edited by Hermann Oldenberg
  16. ^ The Vinaya Pitaka's section Anguttara Nikaya: Panchaka Nipata, P. 44 The legends and theories of the Buddhists, compared with history and science By Robert Spence Hardy
  17. ^ https://ramanan50.wordpress.com/2015/08/09/difference-between-viswamitra-kaushika-gotras/
  18. ^ "Sage Viswamitra,Dinamalr". 
  19. ^ http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/tv/news/hindi/siya-ke-ram/updates/49816155.cms