Visible minority

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A visible minority (French: minorité visible) is defined by the Government of Canada as "persons, other than aboriginal peoples, who are non-Caucasian in race or non-white in colour".[1] The term is used primarily as a demographic category by Statistics Canada, in connection with that country's Employment Equity policies. The qualifier "visible" was chosen by the Canadian authorities as a way to single out newer immigrant minorities from both Aboriginal Canadians and other "older" minorities distinguishable by language (French vs. English) and religion (Catholics vs. Protestants), which are "invisible" traits.

The term visible minority is sometimes used as a euphemism for "non-white". This is incorrect, in that the government definitions differ: Aboriginal people are not considered to be visible minorities, but are not necessarily white either. Also, some groups that are defined as "white" in other countries (such as Middle Eastern Americans) are defined as "visible minorities" in the official Canadian definition. In some cases, members of "visible minorities" may be visually indistinguishable from the majority population and/or may form a majority minority population locally (as is the case in some parts of Vancouver, Toronto, and Montreal).

Since the reform of Canada's immigration laws in the 1960s, immigration has been primarily of peoples from areas other than Europe, many of whom are visible minorities within Canada. Legally, members of visible minorities are defined by the Canadian Employment Equity Act as "persons, other than Aboriginal people, who are non-Caucasian in race or non-white in colour".[2]

In Canada[edit]

Map of visible minorities in Canada by province, 2016

9,639,200 Canadians identified as a member of a visible minority group in the 2021 Canadian Census, for 26.53% of the total population.[3][4] This was an increase from the 2016 Census, when visible minorities accounted for 22.2% of the total population; from the 2011 Census, when visible minorities accounted for 19.1% of the total population; from the 2006 Census, when the proportion was 16.2%; from 2001, when the proportion was 13.4%; over 1996 (11.2%); over 1991 (9.4%) and 1981 (4.7%). In 1961, the visible minority population was less than 1%.

The increase represents a significant shift in Canada's demographics related to record high immigration since the advent of its multiculturalism policies.

Statistics Canada projects that by 2041, visible minorities will make up 38.2–43.0% of the total Canadian population, compared with 26.5% in 2021.[5][6][3][4] Statistics Canada further projects that among the working-age population (15 to 64 years), meanwhile, visible minorities are projected to make up 42.1–47.3% of Canada's total population, compared to 28.5% in 2021.[5][6][3][4]

As per the 2021 census, of the provinces, British Columbia had the highest proportion of visible minorities, representing 34.4% of its population, followed by Ontario at 34.3%, Alberta at 27.8% and Manitoba at 22.2%.[3][4] Additionally, as of 2021, the largest visible minority group was South Asian Canadians with a population of approximately 2.6 million, representing roughly 7.1% of the country's population, followed by Chinese Canadians (4.7%) and Black Canadians (4.3%).[3][4]

Subdivisions with notable visible minority populations[edit]

National average: 22.3%
Source: Canada 2016 Census[7]

  • Note: Subdivisions shown below have visible minority populations above the national average.


British Columbia[edit]




Legislative versus operational definitions[edit]

According to the Employment Equity Act of 1995, the definition of visible minority is: "persons, other than aboriginal peoples, who are non-Caucasian in race or non-white in colour".[8]

This definition can be traced back to the 1984 Report of the Abella Commission on Equality in Employment. The Commission described the term visible minority as an "ambiguous categorization", but for practical purposes interpreted it to mean "visibly non-white".[9] The Canadian government uses an operational definition by which it identifies the following groups as visible minorities: "Chinese, South Asian, Black, Filipino, Latin American, Southeast Asian, Arab, West Asian, Korean, Japanese, Visible minority, n.i.e. (n.i.e. means "not included elsewhere"), and Multiple visible minority".[10] However, a few exceptions are applied to some groups. According to the Visible Minority Population and Population Group Reference Guide of the 2006 Census, the exception is:

In contrast, in accordance with employment equity definitions, persons who reported 'Latin American' and 'White,' 'Arab' and 'White,' or 'West Asian' and 'White' have been excluded from the visible minority population. Likewise, persons who reported 'Latin American,' 'Arab' or 'West Asian' and who provided a European write-in response such as 'French' have been excluded from the visible minority population as well. These persons are included in the 'Not a visible minority' category. However, persons who reported 'Latin American,' 'Arab' or 'West Asian' and a non-European write-in response are included in the visible minority population.[11]

The term "non-white" is used in the wording of the Employment Equity Act and in employment equity questionnaires distributed to applicants and employees. This is intended as a shorthand phrase for those who are in the Aboriginal and/or visible minority groups.[12]


The classification "visible minorities" has attracted controversy, both nationally and from abroad. The UN Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination has stated that they have doubts regarding the use of this term since this term may be considered objectionable by certain minorities and recommended an evaluation of this term. In response, the Canadian government made efforts to evaluate how this term is used in Canadian society through commissioning of scholars and open workshops.[13]

Another criticism stems from the semantic applicability of the classification. In some cases, members of "visible minorities" may be neither "visually" discernible from the majority population nor form a "minority", at least locally. For instance, many Latin Americans living in Canada self-identify as White Latin Americans and are visually indistinguishable from White Canadians. Moreover, some members of "visible minorities" may form a majority minority population locally (as is the case in most parts of Vancouver and Toronto). Since 2008, census data and media reports have suggested that the "visible minorities" label no longer makes sense in some large Canadian cities, due to immigration trends in recent decades. For example, "visible minorities" comprise the majority of the population in Toronto, Vancouver, Markham, Coquitlam, Richmond, Ajax, Burnaby, Greater Vancouver A, Mississauga, Surrey, Richmond Hill and Brampton.[14]

Yet another criticism of the label concerns the composition of "visible minorities". Critics have noted that the groups comprising "visible minorities" have little in common with each other, as they include both disadvantaged groups and groups who are not economically disadvantaged.[15][16] The concept of visible minority has been cited in demography research as an example of a statistext, meaning a census category that has been contrived for a particular public policy purpose.[17][18] As the term "visible minorities" is seen as creating a racialized group, some advocate for "global majority" as a more appropriate alternative.[19]

Furthermore it is not clear why minority definition should center on the "visual", and the concept of "audible minority" (e.g. those who speak with what appears to the majority to be "accented" English or French) has also been proposed, as speech often forms the basis for prejudice, along with appearance.[citation needed]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Canada, Government of Canada, Statistics. "Classification of visible minority". Archived from the original on September 26, 2015.
  2. ^ Visible Minority Population and Population Group Reference Guide, 2006 Census from StatsCan
  3. ^ a b c d e Government of Canada, Statistics Canada (2022-10-26). "Visible minority and population group by generation status: Canada, provinces and territories, census metropolitan areas and census agglomerations with parts". Retrieved 2022-11-06.
  4. ^ a b c d e Government of Canada, Statistics Canada (2022-10-26). "The Canadian census: A rich portrait of the country's religious and ethnocultural diversity". Retrieved 2022-11-06.
  5. ^ a b Government of Canada, Statistics Canada (2022-09-08). "Canada in 2041: A larger, more diverse population with greater differences between regions". Retrieved 2022-11-05.
  6. ^ a b Government of Canada, Statistics Canada (2022-09-08). "Projected population by racialized group, generation status and other selected characteristics (x 1,000)". Retrieved 2022-11-05.
  7. ^ "Census Profile, 2016 Census". 2011.
  8. ^ Employment Equity Act (1995, c. 44) Act current to Oct 20th, 2010
  9. ^ Woolley, Frances. "Visible Minorities: Distinctly Canadian". Worthwhile Canadian Initiative. Retrieved May 26, 2013.
  10. ^ "Visible Minority Population and Population Group Reference Guide," 2006 Census Statcan
  11. ^ Visible Minority Population and Population Group Reference Guide, 2006 Census - Catalogue no. 97-562-GWE2006003 Statcan
  12. ^ Mentzer, M. S. (January 2002). "The Canadian experience with employment equity legislation". International Journal of Value-Based Management. 15 (1): 35–50. doi:10.1023/A:1013021402597. ISSN 0895-8815. S2CID 141942497.
  13. ^ "Report of the Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination" (PDF). United Nations. United Nations: Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination. Retrieved 4 March 2017.
  14. ^ Hamilton, Graeme (2008-04-03). "Visible minorities the new majority". National Post. Retrieved 2012-05-21.
  15. ^ Mentzer, Marc S.; John L. Fizel (1992). "Affirmative action and ethnic inequality in Canada: The Impact of the Employment Equity Act of 1986". Ethnic Groups. 9 (4): 203–217. ISSN 0308-6860.
  16. ^ Hum, Derek; Wayne Simpson (2000). "Not all visible minorities face labour market discrimination". Policy Options/Options Politiques. 21 (10): 45–48. ISSN 0226-5893.
  17. ^ Kobayashi, Audrey (1993). "Representing Ethnicity: Political Statistexts". Challenges of Measuring an Ethnic World: Science, Politics, and Reality. Washington, DC: Statistics Canada and U.S. Bureau of the Census, U.S. Government Printing Office. pp. 513–525. ISBN 0-16-042049-0.
  18. ^ Bauder, Harald (2001). "Visible minorities and urban analysis". Canadian Journal of Urban Research. 10 (1): 69–90. ISSN 1188-3774.
  19. ^ Maharaj, Sachin (9 February 2021). "We are not visible minorities; we are the global majority". Toronto Star. Retrieved 26 November 2022.

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