Vision 2020 (Rwanda)

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Vision 2020 is a government development program in Rwanda, launched in 2000 by Rwandan president Paul Kagame.

Its main objective is transforming the country into a knowledge-based middle-income country, thereby reducing poverty, health problems and making the nation united and democratic.


The programme consists of a list of goals which the government aims to achieve before the year 2020.[1] These are:[2]

  • Good governance
  • An efficient state
  • Skilled human capital, including education, health and information technology
  • A vibrant private sector
  • A world-class physical infrastructure
  • Modern agriculture and livestock


In the late 1990s, president Paul Kagame and his government began actively planning methods to achieve national development. He launched a national consultation process[2] and also sought the advice of experts from emerging nations including China, Singapore and Thailand.[1] Following these consultations, and shortly after assuming the presidency, Kagame launched Vision 2020.[1] The major purposes of the programme were to unite the Rwandan people and to transform Rwanda from a highly impoverished into a middle income country.[2]


In 2011, the Ministry of Finance and Economic Planning issued a report indicating the progress of the Vision 2020 goals.[3] The report examined the stated goals of the programme and rated each one with a status of "on-track", "on-watch" or "off-track". Of 44 goals, it found that 66% were on-track, 11% were on-watch, and 22% were off-track.[3] The major areas identified as off-track were population, poverty and the environment.[3] Research into Vision 2020, carried out in 2012 by academics based in Belgium, has rated progress as "quite encouraging", mentioning development in the education and health sectors, as well as Kagame's fostering of a favourable business environment.[4] The research also raised concerns about the policy of "maximum growth at any cost", suggesting that this was leading to a situation in which the rich prospered while the rural poor saw little benefit.[4]

In November 2013, Kagame told This Is Africa “Our thinking is based on people. In national budgets, we focus on education, health, we look at technology, skills, innovation, creativity. We are always thinking about people, people, people.”[5]


  1. ^ a b c Kinzer 2008, pp. 226–227.
  2. ^ a b c MINECOFIN (I).
  3. ^ a b c MINECOFIN (II) 2011, p. 2.
  4. ^ a b Ansoms & Rostagno 2012.
  5. ^ "Exclusive interview: Paul Kagame". This Is Africa. November 18, 2013. Archived from the original on November 30, 2013. Retrieved December 4, 2013.

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