Visit of the Marquis de Lafayette to the United States

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search
Portrait of General Lafayette by Matthew Harris Jouett in 1825

The Marquis de Lafayette was the last surviving French general of the American Revolutionary War in 1824, and he made a tour of the 24 states in the United States from July 1824 to September 1825. He was received by the populace with a hero's welcome at many stops, and many honors and monuments were presented to commemorate and memorialize the visit.

Background[edit]

External video
Portrait of Marquis de Lafayette.jpg1826 portrait by Samuel F.B. Morse
Lafayette in America, 1824-1825, Alan R. Hoffman lectures on the Grand Tour, 1:03:14[1]

Lafayette led troops under the command of George Washington in the American Revolution over 40 years earlier, and he fought in several crucial battles, including the Battle of Brandywine in Pennsylvania and the Siege of Yorktown in Virginia. He had then returned to France and pursued a political career championing the ideals of liberty that the American republic represented. The Bourbon constitutional monarchy had been restored in France for at least ten years, but King Louis XVIII was wheelchair-bound in the spring of 1824 and suffering from severe health issues that proved fatal by late summer.[2] Further, Lafayette was being monitored by the dying King.[3] Lafayette left the French legislature in 1824, and President James Monroe invited him to tour the United States, partly to instill the "spirit of 1776" in the next generation of Americans[4] and partly to celebrate the nation's 50th anniversary.[5]

Lafayette visited all of the American states and travelled more than 6,000 miles (9,656 km),[6][7] accompanied by his son Georges Washington de La Fayette and others.[4] He was also accompanied for part of the trip by social reformer Frances Wright.[8] The main means of transportation were stagecoach, horseback, canal barge, and steamboat.[9]

Landing of General Lafayette at Castle Garden, New York, 16 August 1824

Different cities celebrated in different ways. Some held parades or conducted an artillery salute. In some places schoolchildren were brought to welcome the Marquis. Veterans from the war, some of whom were in their sixties and seventies, welcomed the Marquis, and some dined with him. While touring Yorktown, he recognized and embraced James Armistead Lafayette, a free negro who adopted his last name to honor the Marquis (he was the first US double agent spy); the story of the event was reported by the Richmond Enquirer.[10] More than a century later, various towns continued to honor their own "Lafayette Day".

Timeline[edit]

Lafayette left France on the American merchant vessel Cadmus on July 13, 1824, and his tour began on August 15, 1824 when he arrived at Staten Island, New York. He toured the northern and eastern states in the fall of 1824, including stops at Monticello to visit Thomas Jefferson and Washington, D.C., where he was received at the White House by President James Monroe. He began his tour of the Southern United States in March 1825, arriving at the Fort Mitchell, Alabama crossing of the Chattahoochee River on March 31.[4]

A lighthouse clock made by Simon Willard to commemorate Lafayette's visit to the White House

1824[edit]

Gloves portraying Lafayette, maybe commemorating his visit to the United States in 1824
Lafayette's welcoming parade in Philadelphia
  • Early December – Stays in Washington, D.C. visiting the White House, meeting several times with President Monroe and George Washington's relatives; visits the Washington Navy Yard
  • December 8 and 9 – Makes official visits to the Senate and addresses Congress at the House of Representatives[13]
  • December 15 – Feted at the first commencement ceremony of the Columbian College in the District of Columbia, renamed George Washington University[27]
  • December 17 – Arrives at Annapolis, Maryland at 3 pm, is received in the Senate chamber and visits Fort Severn
  • December 20 – Received at the Maryland State House[28]
  • December 24 – Arrives at the Jug Bridge crossing the Monocacy River on the National Road east of Frederick, Maryland

1825[edit]

  • January 1 – Attends a banquet hosted by Congress[19]
  • January 19 – Visits Baltimore and leaves January 20 on a steamboat bound for Norfolk, on his way to visit the legislature of Virginia at Richmond[29]
  • January 31 – Visits Perseverance Lodge #21 Harrisburg, Pennsylvania[30]
Monument to General Nathanael Greene in Johnson Square
A postcard celebrating the 1825 visit of LaFayette, bearing a painting by Malcolm Parcell.
Lafayette laying cornerstone of Bunker Hill Monument June 17, 1825
Original cornerstone of "South College" in Burlington
  • September 6 – Lafayette arrives in Washington, D.C., where he meets the new U.S. President John Quincy Adams, addresses a joint session of Congress and celebrates his 68th birthday at a White House banquet with President Adams.[13]
  • September 7 – Lafayette leaves Washington and returns to France on the frigate USS Brandywine.[6]

Honors received during the trip[edit]

Fayetteville, North Carolina was named after Lafayette. The College of William and Mary conferred upon him the honorary degree of Doctor of Laws on October 20, 1824. Late in the trip, he again received honorary citizenship of Maryland.[a] Congress voted him $200,000 and a township of land in Tallahassee, Florida, known as the Lafayette Land Grant.[71][72]

1824: Visit to Monticello[edit]

Lafayette arrived at Monticello on November 4 in a carriage provided by Jefferson with a military escort of 120 men. Jefferson waited outside on the front portico. By this time some 200 friends and neighbors had also arrived for the event. Lafayette's carriage pulled up to the front lawn where a bugle sounded the arrival of the procession with its revolutionary banners waving. Lafayette was advanced in age and slowly stepped down from the carriage. Jefferson was 81 and in ill health, and he slowly descended the front steps and began making his way towards his old friend. His grandson Randolph was present and witnessed the historic reunion: "As they approached each other, their uncertain gait quickened itself into a shuffling run, and exclaiming, 'Ah Jefferson!' 'Ah Lafayette!', they burst into tears as they fell into each other's arms." Everyone in attendance stood in respectful silence, many of them stifling sobs of their own. Jefferson and Lafayette then retired to the privacy of the house and began reminiscing over the many events and encounters which they shared years before.[73]

The next morning, Jefferson, Lafayette, and James Madison rode to the Central Hotel in Charlottesville in Jefferson's landau. They were escorted by mounted troops and followed by the local townspeople and other friends. They were greeted and honored with speeches, then departed the hotel at noon and set out for a banquet at the University of Virginia which Jefferson was anxious for Lafayette to see; he had postponed the commencement of classes for the event. After a three-hour dinner, Jefferson had someone read a speech that he had prepared for Lafayette, as his voice was weak and could not carry very far. This proved to be Jefferson's last public speech. Lafayette later accepted Jefferson's invitation for honorary membership to the University's Jefferson Literary and Debating Society. Lafayette bid Jefferson goodbye after an 11 day visit.[74][75][76]

1825: Return to France[edit]

Lafayette returned to France aboard the USS Brandywine

Lafayette had expressed his intention of sailing for home sometime in the late summer or early autumn of 1825. President John Quincy Adams decided to have an American warship carry him back to Europe, and he chose a recently built 44-gun frigate named Susquehanna for this honor. However, it was renamed Brandywine to commemorate the battle in which the Frenchman had shed his blood for American freedom and as a gesture of the nation's affection for Lafayette. Brandywine was launched on June 16, 1825 and christened by Sailing Master Marmaduke Dove; she was commissioned on August 25, 1825 with Captain Charles Morris in command.

Lafayette enjoyed a last state dinner to celebrate his 68th birthday on the evening of September 6, and then embarked in the steamboat Mount Vernon on the 7th for the trip downriver to join Brandywine. On the 8th, the frigate stood out of the Potomac River and sailed down Chesapeake Bay toward the open ocean. As he sat on the Brandywine ready to depart, General Isaac Fletcher conveyed greetings from Revolutionary War compatriot General William Barton, and also explained that Barton had been in debtors' prison in Danville, Vermont for 14 years. Lafayette promptly paid Barton's fine and thus allowed him to return to his family in Rhode Island.[77]

After a stormy three weeks at sea, the warship arrived off Le Havre, France, early in October, and, following some initial trepidation about the government's attitude toward Lafayette's return to a France now ruled by King Charles X, Brandywine's honored passenger returned home.

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Lafayette was already a "natural born" American citizen via his pre-Constitution Maryland citizenship.[70]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Lafayette in America, 1824-1825". YouTube. May 5, 2014. Retrieved March 23, 2018.
  2. ^ "1824." The People's Chronology. Ed. Jason M. Everett. Vol. 1. Gale Cengage, 2006. eNotes.com. 12 December 2012.
  3. ^ Kent, Emerson. "The Man With 'Great Zeal to the Cause of Liberty'". Emerson Kent. Retrieved 12 December 2012. Lafayette was very much against the Bourbon Restoration, including their excessive spending, and began to plot against the King, who in turn tried to monitor him closely.
  4. ^ a b c d e f g "Lafayette's Visit to Alabama". Encyclopedia of Alabama. 2012-05-18. Retrieved 2012-11-07.
  5. ^ Glatthaar, Joseph T.; James Kirby Martin (2007). Forgotten Allies, The Oneida Indians and the American Revolution. Macmillan Publishers. ISBN 978-0-8090-4600-3., p.3
  6. ^ a b Clary, David (2007). Adopted Son: Washington, Lafayette, and the Friendship that Saved the Revolution. New York, New York: Bantam Books. ISBN 978-0-553-80435-5., pp. 443-444
  7. ^ Loveland, Anne (1971). Emblem of Liberty: The Image of Lafayette in the American Mind. LSU Press. ISBN 0-8071-2462-1., p. 3
  8. ^ "Frances Wright". Monticello.org. Retrieved 2012-11-07.
  9. ^ a b c d e f Barcousky, Len (March 9, 2008). "Eyewitness 1825: Pittsburgh honors 'The Nation's Guest'". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. Retrieved 7 November 2012.
  10. ^ Kimball, Gregg D. (2000). "4. The Shaping of Black Memory in Antebellum Virginia 1790-1860". In William Fitzhugh Brundage. Where These Memories Grow: History, Memory, and Southern Identity. UNC Press Books. p. 60. Retrieved August 15, 2016.
  11. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m Levasseur, Auguste. Alan R. Hoffman (trans.) Lafayette in America in 1824 and 1825. Lafayette Press, Manchester, NH (2006).
  12. ^ An Officer in the Late Army A Complete History of Marquis de Lafayette Major-General in the American Army in the War of the Revolution. Columbus: J. & H. Miller, Publishers, 1858.
  13. ^ a b c d e William Jones (November 2007). "Rekindling the Spark of Liberty: Lafayette's Visit to the United States, 1824-1825". Retrieved September 13, 2011.
  14. ^ Platt, Edmund. "Lafayette's Visit", The Eagle's History of Poughkeepsie, Platt & Platt, 1905, p. 98
  15. ^ Nutt, John J., Newburgh, her Institutions, Industries, and Leading citizens, Ritchie & Hull, Newburgh, NY, 1891
  16. ^ a b "Gould's History of Freemasonry Throughout the World - Volume 5". Phoenixmasonry.org. Retrieved 2012-11-07.
  17. ^ Sherman, Mark. "Poe and Independence Day (blog post from Saturday, July 05, 2014)". The Poe Museum. Retrieved 6 March 2018. "While in Baltimore during the same United States tour, Lafayette visited Poe's grandfather's grave. According to J. Thomas Scharf's Chronicles of Baltimore (1874) "..
  18. ^ Scharf, John Thomas (1874). The Chronicles of Baltimore: Being a Complete History of "Baltimore Town ". Baltimore: Turnbull Brothers. p. 415. On the 11th General LaFayette left the city with an escort for Washington.
  19. ^ a b Clark, Allen C. (1919). "General Roger Chew Weightman". In John B. Larner. Records of the Columbia Historical Society. pp. 67–75.
  20. ^ Erickson, Mark St. John (2014-10-22). "Hampton Roads swooned over Lafayette's 1824 return as a Revolutionary War icon". Daily Press. Retrieved 6 March 2018.
  21. ^ "Customs Today". Cbp.gov. Archived from the original on 2011-10-23. Retrieved 2012-11-07.
  22. ^ "History's Safe Harbor, Norfolk and Portsmouth, Virginia" (PDF). Pps.k12.va.us. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2012-07-31. Retrieved 2012-11-07.
  23. ^ "History Engine: Tools for Collaborative Education and Research | Episodes". Historyengine.richmond.edu. Retrieved 2012-11-07.
  24. ^ "Newspaper Article: The Life of Edgar Allan Poe - Part 2". Richmondthenandnow.com. 1935-01-13. Archived from the original on 2012-12-01. Retrieved 2012-11-07.
  25. ^ Agee, Helene. Facets of Goochland County's History, Richmond, VA: Dietz Press, 1962
  26. ^ "''Marquis de Lafayette'', Th. Jefferson Encyclopedia, Thomas Jefferson Foundation, Inc". Wiki.monticello.org. 2008-10-15. Archived from the original on 2008-02-01. Retrieved 2009-08-09.
  27. ^ "Lafayette Hall - GWUEncyc". Encyclopedia.gwu.edu. Archived from the original on 2012-02-22. Retrieved 2012-11-07.
  28. ^ Niles' Register Dec. 25, 1824, 27:259.
  29. ^ Niles' Register Jan. 22, 1825, 27:386.
  30. ^ History of Perseverance Lodge : No. 21, F. & A. M., Penn'a., at Harrisburg Jan. 31, 1825
  31. ^ "Gilbert du Motier, Marquis de Lafayette - Entries - KnowLA, Encyclopedia of Louisiana".
  32. ^ a b c d e "Lafayette's Visit - NCpedia".
  33. ^ "An 1825 Interview with Lafayette".
  34. ^ a b "Marker: A-65".
  35. ^ "Marker: E-68".
  36. ^ Catherine Bishir; Jerry L. Cross & Walter D. Best (June 1979). "The Cellar" (pdf). National Register of Historic Places - Nomination and Inventory. North Carolina State Historic Preservation Office. Retrieved 2015-01-01.
  37. ^ Murray, Elizabeth Reid (1983). Wake [Capital County of North Carolina]. Vol. 1. Raleigh, North Carolina: Capital County Publishing Company. pp. Pages 222–226. ASIN B000M0ZYF4.
  38. ^ Levasseur, Auguste Reid (1829). Lafayette in America in 1824 and 1825 [Journal of a Voyage to the United States]. Vol. 2. Philadelphia, PA: Carey and Lea.
  39. ^ Beaufort: A History. The History Press. Retrieved 2013-02-24.
  40. ^ "Georgia History Timeline / Chronology 1825". Ourgeorgiahistory.com. Retrieved 2012-11-07.
  41. ^ a b c d e f g "Marquis de Lafayette in Georgia".
  42. ^ Northen, William J.; Graves, John Temple (1 January 1910). "Men of Mark in Georgia: A Complete and Elaborate History of the State from Its Settlement to the Present Time, Chiefly Told in Biographies and Autobiographies of the Most Eminent Men of Each Period of Georgia's Progress and Development". A. B. Caldwell – via Google Books.
  43. ^ a b c d "Lafayette in Louisiana | Entries | KnowLA, Encyclopedia of Louisiana". Knowla.org. Retrieved 2012-11-07.
  44. ^ Fortier, Alcée (1904). A History of Louisiana. New York: Manzi, Joyant & Co., vol. 3, p. 207.
  45. ^ "General Lafayette's 1825 Visit to Baton Rouge". Historical Baton Rouge blog. Retrieved 2012-11-24.
  46. ^ O'Neil, Tim. "A Look Back • Lafayette receives joyous welcome to St. Louis in 1825".
  47. ^ Butterworth, Hezekiah (1907). In The Boyhood of Lincoln. New York, New York: D. Appleton and Company.
  48. ^ "Centennial of the Visit of General Lafayette to Shawneetown". Journal of the Illinois State Historical Society. 18 (2). July 1925. JSTOR 40187193.
  49. ^ Lloyd's Steamboat Directory and Disasters on the Western Waters, Cincinnati, Ohio; James T. Lloyd & Co, 1856, pages 260-261; cited by gendisasters.com, "Cannelton (Lafayette Spring), IN Steamer MECHANIC Sinking, May 1825". Retrieved 12 December 2012.
  50. ^ Rietveld, Ronald D. (2006). "Abraham Lincoln's Thomas Jefferson". In Pederson, William D.; Williams, Frank J. The Great Presidential Triumvirate at Home and Abroad: Washington, Jefferson and Lincoln. New York, NY: Nova Science Publ. p. 42. ISBN 1600213189.
  51. ^ Neal, Andrea (19 May 2014). "Indiana at 200 (25): Marquis de Lafayette a Big Hit in Jeffersonville". Indiana Policy Review. Retrieved 6 June 2015.
  52. ^ Kleber, John E., The Kentucky Encyclopedia, University Press of Kentucky, 1992, pp. 528-529
  53. ^ "A City of Presidents. A Self-Guided Walking Tour" (Issuu). Washington & Jefferson College. Retrieved January 20, 2014.
  54. ^ "General Lafayette in Maine". Sprague's Journal of Maine History. 2. p. 206. LaFayette, on his way to Maine, passed the night of June 23, 1825, in Dover, N. H. On the evening of that day, a committee of citizens of South Berwick waited on 'him and invited him to breakfast with them the next morning, which invitation he accepted.
  55. ^ "General Lafayette in Maine". Sprague's Journal of Maine History. 2. p. 206.
  56. ^ "General Lafayette in Maine". Sprague's Journal of Maine History. 2. p. 206. He, was then escorted to Cleaves' H ot-el in Saco
  57. ^ "General Lafayette in Maine". Sprague's Journal of Maine History. 2. p. 206. From Cleaves' Hotel, he was escorted to the house of Captain Seth Spring in Biddeford, who was a soldier of the revolution, and in the battle of Bunker Hill
  58. ^ "General Lafayette in Maine". Sprague's Journal of Maine History. 2. p. 206. On Saturday morning, at 7 o'clock, he was escorted by a numerous cavalcade as far as the village of Scarborough, where he was received with the same feeling of gratitude by the people, that had cheered him on all his journey through the States
  59. ^ "General Lafayette in Maine". Sprague's Journal of Maine History. 2. p. 206. and about 9 o'clock A. M. (June 24, 1825), General LaFayette entered the town of Portland.
  60. ^ "General Lafayette in Maine". Sprague's Journal of Maine History. 2. p. 206. LaFayette left town Sunday morning about 7 o'clock without any parade and returned to Saco on his way to Vermont. He took breakfast at Captain Spring's in Biddeford, ... he set out for Concord, where he arrived the same night.
  61. ^ a b c Jay Read Pember, A Day with Lafayette in Vermont (1911.)
  62. ^ The History of University of Vermont Buildings: 1800-1947 The J.L. Hills papers. Burlington, Vermont: Special Collections Department, University of Vermont Libraries. 1949. pp. 6, 68.
  63. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2014-08-26. Retrieved 2013-07-14.
  64. ^ William P. Tuttle, Bottle Hill and Madison (1916)
  65. ^ Frank Esposito, The Madison Heritage Trail (1985)
  66. ^ Tuttle, Samuel B. A History of the Presbyterian Church, Madison, N.J. A Discourse Delivered on Thanksgiving Day, November 23, 1854. M. W. Dodd. p. 117
  67. ^ Lafayette's Visit to Germantown, July 20, 1825: An Address ..." By Charles Francis Jenkins https://books.google.com/books?id=c9MwAQAAMAAJ&printsec=frontcover&dq=Lafayette%27s+Visit+to+Germantown,+July+20,+1825&hl=en&sa=X&ei=Baq8Ucz3B4P89QSutYG4Dw&ved=0CDcQ6AEwAA
  68. ^ "Home - Wyck". Wyck. Retrieved 2016-07-14.
  69. ^ Mount Vernon Estate & Gardens. "Washington & Lafayette". Washington & Lafayette. Archived from the original on 17 June 2008. Retrieved 12 August 2008.
  70. ^ Speare, Morris Edmund (September 7, 1919). "Lafayette, Citizen of America" (PDF). New York Times. Retrieved 12 December 2012.
  71. ^ "Historic Markers Program of America". Historicmarkers.com. Retrieved 2009-08-09.
  72. ^ Holbrook, Sabra (1977). Lafayette, Man in the Middle. Atheneum. ISBN 0-689-30585-0., p. 177
  73. ^ Mapp, Alf J. (1991). Jefferson: Passionate Pilgrim. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 328. ISBN 9780517098882.
  74. ^ Malone, Dumas (1981). The Sage of Monticello. Jefferson and His Time. 6. Little Brown. pp. =403–04. ISBN 978-0-316-54478-8.
  75. ^ Brodie, Fawn (1974). Thomas Jefferson: An Intimate History. W. W. Norton & Company. p. 360. ISBN 9780393317527.
  76. ^ Crawford, Alan Pell (2008). Twilight at Monticello: The Final Years of Thomas Jefferson. Random House Digital. pp. 202–03. ISBN 9781400060795.
  77. ^ Jay Read Pember, A Day with Lafayette in Vermont (1911) https://books.google.com/books?id=tLhAAAAAYAAJ&printsec=frontcover&dq=A+Day+with+Lafayette+in+Vermont++By+Jay+Read+Pember&hl=en&sa=X&ei=IKK8Ud6uOYi-9QSy6YHgAg&ved=0CDkQ6AEwAA pp 17-18

Bibliography[edit]

External links[edit]