Order of the Visitation of Holy Mary
|Abbreviation||Order of the Visitation (V.S.M.)|
|Founder||Saint Francis de Sales and Saint Jane Frances de Chantal|
|Type||Roman Catholic religious order|
The Order of the Visitation of Holy Mary (Latin: Ordo Visitationis Beatissimae Mariae Virginis, V.S.M.) or the Visitation Order is an enclosed Roman Catholic religious order for women. Members of the order are also known as the Salesian Sisters (not to be confused with the Salesian Sisters of Don Bosco) or, more commonly, as the Visitandines or Visitation Sisters.
History of the Order
The Order of the Visitation was founded in 1610 by Saint Francis de Sales and Saint Jane Frances de Chantal in Annecy, Haute-Savoie, France. At first the founder had not a religious order in mind; he wished to form a congregation without external vows, where the cloister should be observed only during the year of novitiate, after which the sisters should be free to go out by turns to visit the sick and poor. The order was given the name of The Visitation of Holy Mary with the intention that the Sisters would follow the example of Virgin Mary and her joyful visit to her kinswoman Elizabeth, (known as "The Visitation" in the Roman Catholic Church).
He invited Jane de Chantal to join him in establishing a new type of religious life, one open to older women and those of delicate constitution, that would stress the hidden, inner virtues of humility, obedience, poverty, even-tempered charity, and patience, and founded on the example of Mary in her journey of mercy to her cousin Elizabeth. The order was established to welcome those not able to practice austerities required in other orders. Instead of chanting the canonical office in the middle of the night the sisters recited the Little Office of the Blessed Virgin at half-past eight in the evening. There was no perpetual abstinence nor prolonged fast. The Order of the Visitation of Mary was canonically erected in 1618 by Paul V who granted it all the privileges enjoyed by the other orders. A Bull of Urban VIII solemnly approved it in 1626.
A foundation was established in Lyons in 1615 followed by Moulines (1616), Grenoble (1618), Bourges (1618), and Paris (1619). When Saint Francis de Sales died (1622) there were 13 convents established; at the death of Saint Jane Frances de Chantal in 1641 there were 86. The Order spread from France throughout Europe and to North America.
The Order of the Visitation is present in Portugal since 1784, maintaining today three monasteries: in Braga, in Vila das Aves and in Batalha. The Sisters of the Visitation in Portugal produce and distribute the emblems of the Sacred Heart of Jesus (like devotional scapulars) as Saint Margaret Mary Alacoque did in the past.
At the French Revolution in 1789 when all the religious houses were suppressed many of the French Sisters took refuge in other Catholic countries. The sisters in Rouen, northern France, fled to Portuguese monasteries, having only escaped the guillotine by the death of Robespierre in 1794. In 1803 six sisters left Lisbon in an English packet ship and while at sea they were attacked by French pirates. They were spared because of their nationality (they were French not English) and were returned safely to a the Spanish seaport of Vigo. After a brief sojourn in Spain three of the Sisters made a second attempt to cross from Porto and without further encounters with pirates arrived in Falmouth on 29 January 1804. They later journeyed to Acton and founded the first monastery of the Visitation on English soil on 19 March 1804.
In 1835, the Order of the Visitation of Holy Mary of Dietramszell acquired Beuerberg Abbey (Kloster Beuerberg), in Eurasburg, Germany. Between 1846 and 1938 they ran a girls' school and a home for nursing mothers at Beuerberg Abbey, and afterwards an old people's convalescent home. The abbey still belongs to the Order of the Visitation of Holy Mary.
The Visitation Sisters came to Ireland in 1955 and founded a Monastery at Stamullen, Co. Meath. When Mother Mary Teresa O’ Dwyer, Superior of the Visitation Monastery of Roseland, England learned that the Brothers of St. John of God were moving out of Silverstream, she applied to the Bishop of Meath, Dr. Kyne for permission for the order of the Visitation to enter his diocese. Staffing problems were solved by borrowing three Sisters from America. The Visitation Monasteries of St. Paul Minnesota, Brooklyn New York and Atlanta Georgia each lent a Sister.
There are about 130 autonomous monasteries of the worldwide contemplative Order of the Visitation of Holy Mary: Asia (2), Africa (7), North America (24), Central America (4), South America (24), and Europe (69)
In the United States
In the United States there are 11 monasteries in two federations.The monasteries of the First Federation live the purely contemplative life, observing papal enclosure. Of the eleven monasteries of the Visitation in the United States, six belong to the First Federation,
- The Convent of the Visitation in Mobile, Alabama was founded in 1833 by Bishop Michael Portier, first bishop of Mobile. Aware of the lack of schools in his diocese, he remembered the fine work of the Visitation nuns throughout his native France. Five nuns from the convent in Georgetown, Washington, D. C. boarded a sailing ship in November, 1832 and arrived in Mobile a month later. In March, 1840, a tornado leveled the buildings. In the 1950s the school was converted to a retreat house. The monastery also serves as a distribution center for communion breads used by churches throughout the Mobile Archdiocese and for many churches in surrounding states, a service extended to a number of non-Catholic churches as well
- In 1866 Visitation Sisters from Baltimore, Maryland came to Richmond, Virginia at the request of Bishop John McGill. In 1987 the Visitation Sisters relocated to Rockville, Virginia (where they continue to bake altar breads as their main source of income).
- The Visitation Community of Massachusetts lived in Wilmington, Delaware from 1893 to 1993. In 1992, the sisters voted to relocate to their present home in Tyringham in December 1995.
- The Visitation community of Tyringham, Massachusetts was founded in 1853 in Keokuk, Iowa by the Visitation Monastery of Montluel, France. In the 19th Century, it was necessary for Visitation communities, both in France and in the United States, to have academies for girls in order to support themselves. After having moved from Keokuk, Iowa, to Suspension Bridge, New York, and then, lastly, to Wilmington, Delaware in 1868, a generous benefactress enabled the community to close the school in 1893 and live the full contemplative life. In 1993 the community relocated to Massachusetts and moved into its present monastery, Mont Deux Coeurs, in December 1995.
- The Monastery of the Visitation was established in Atlanta Georgia and moved to Snellville, Georgia in 1974.
- Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.
Sisters of the Second Federation add apostolic monasteries to their contemplative life.
- The convent of Georgetown was the first house of the Visitation founded in the United States. In 1799, three sisters in the order were given permission by Archbishop Leonard Neale to start a girls' school located next to Georgetown University, in Washington, D.C., called the Georgetown Visitation Preparatory School. In 1816, the Visitation Convent, Georgetown was founded with Teresa Lalor as superior.
- On May 3 of 1833, eight sisters from the Georgetown Visitation founded the first Visitation Academy in the midwest at Kaskaskia, Illinois. On the final leg of their trip from Georgetown, the Sisters crossed the Mississippi River from Missouri into Illinois. First person accounts tell of the Sisters "sitting in a ferryboat that took them across the river. They sat dangerously close to the brown water. Green caterpillars covered its surface around the boat." In April 1844, six sisters left to begin the Visitation Academy of St. Louis in St. Louis, Missouri. On June 24, the flooding Mississippi River forced evacuation from Kaskaskia, and a steamboat bearing visitors to the monastery rescued sisters, students, and furnishings through the second story windows, and transported them to St. Louis. In 1992, five sisters from the Rock Island, Illinois Visitation merged with the St. Louis community.
- In 1846, 11 of the Georgetown Visitation sisters relocated to Frederick, Maryland to carry on a school began by the Sisters of Charity in 1824, which from that date became the Visitation Academy of Frederick - which is still operating today and had an important part in Civil War history when it was occupied in September 1862 (until January 1863) by Union Troops and became General Hospital #5 following the Battles of South Mountain and Antietam.
- The Visitation monastery in Brooklyn, New York was founded in 1855.
- In 1873, six Sisters of the Visitation from St. Louis, Missouri traveled by steamship for eight days up the Mississippi river to the fast-growing river town of St. Paul, Minnesota at the request of Bishop Grace who asked them to make a new foundation and open a school. In 1966 the sisters moved to Mendota Heights where the larger facility allowed for expanded programs and enrollment.
- In 1989, the Leadership of the Second Federation of the Visitation Order in the United States of America established an urban monastic community in Minneapolis, Minnesota. As part of their ministry to families they offer education sessions, such as cooking and nutrition, finance and budgeting, college preparation, etc. for neighborhood teens.
The Mount de Chantal Visitation Academy was founded in 1848 as the Wheeling Female Academy in downtown Wheeling, West Virginia and in 1865 assumed its current name. While grades five through twelve were all female, Mount de Chantal's Montessori and Elementary schools were co-ed. The school ceased operations on May 31, 2008, and the nuns re-located to the Georgetown Visitation in Washington, D.C. The building was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1978, before being razed on November 7, 2011.
The best known saint of the Order is St. Margaret Mary Alacoque, who reportedly received the revelations of the Sacred Heart resulting in the First Friday Devotions and Holy Hours. On May 10, 1998, seven Visitandines of the First Monastery of Madrid, Spain, martyred during the Spanish Revolution of 1936, were beatified in Rome by Pope John Paul II.
- Blessed Maria Gabriela de Hinojosa Naveros (b. July 24, 1872 in Alhama, Granada)
- Bl. Teresa Maria Cavestany y Anduaga (b. July 30, 1888 in Puerto Real, Cadiz)
- Bl. Josefa Maria Barrera Izaguirre (b. May 23, 1881 in El Ferrol, La Coruna)
- Bl. Maria Ines Zudaire Galdeano (b. January 28, 1900 in Echavarri, Navarre)
- Bl. Maria Cecilia Cendoya Araquistain (b. January 10, 1910 in Azpeitia, Guipuzcoa)
- Bl. Maria Engracia Lecuona Aramburu (b. July 2, 1897 in Oyarzun Guipuzcoa)
- Bl. Maria Angela Olaizola Garagarza (b. November 12, 1893 in Azpeitia Guipuzcoa
The nuns were members of the Madrid House of the Order of the Visitation. In early 1936, during the Spanish Civil War, as religious persecution intensified, most of the community moved to Oronoz, leaving a group of six nuns in the charge of Sr Maria Gabriela de Hinojosa. By July they were confined to their apartment, When a neighbour reported them to the authorities, and on November 1936 their apartment searched. Nevertheless, they refused to seek refuge in the consulates.
The following evening, a patrol of the Iberian Anarchist Federation broke into the apartment and ordered all the sisters to leave. They were taken by van to a vacant area and shot. Sr Maria Cecilia, who had run when she felt the sister next to her fall, surrendered shortly after and was shot five days later at the cemetery wall in Vallecas on the outskirts of Madrid.
In 2010, in honor of the worldwide Jubilee Year for the Visitation order, Pope Benedict XVI granted a plenary indulgence to those who would make a visit to and pray in a Visitation monastery.
- Pernin, Raphael. "Visitation Order." The Catholic Encyclopedia. Vol. 15. New York: Robert Appleton Company, 1912. 13 Jun. 2013
- Visitation Monastery of Mobile Alabama
- The Monastery of the Visitation of Holy Mary, Rockville, Virginia
- Second Federation of the Visitation
- Monastery of the Visitation, Waldron Essex
- The Visitation Order, Stamullen, County Meath
- "About the Order", The Visitation Nuns of Philadelphia
- "Order of the Visitation of Holy Mary", Salesian Spirituality
- Sisters of the Visitation of Holy Mary, Tyringham, Massachusetts
- The Sisters of the Visitation, Toledo, Ohio
- Institute on Religious Life
- Monastery of the Visitation of Saint Louis
- Brooklyn visitation Monastery
- Visitation Monastery, Mendota Heights, Minnesota
- Visitation Monastery of Minneapolis
- "Biographies of Blesseds", L'Osservatore Romano, 1998
- O'Kane, Stephen. "Local Visitation Nuns Honor 400-Year Anniversary", The Georgia Bulletin, Archdiocese of Atlanta, 10 December 2009
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- The Visitation Spirit (USA)
- The Monastery of the Visitation of Tyringham, MA
- The Monastery of the Visitation of Brooklyn
- The Monastery of the Visitation of Monte Maria, Rockville, VA
- The Monastery of the Visitation of Toledo, Ohio
- The Monastery of the Visitation of Philadelphia, PA
- The Monastery of the Visitation of Mobile, Alabama
- Order of the Visitation in England
- Order of the Visitation in Italy
- Order of the Visitation in Portugal
- Order of the Visitation in Brasil