Jean, the Vitagraph Dog
Jean, also known as the Vitagraph Dog (1902–1916), was a female collie that starred in silent films. Owned and guided by director Laurence Trimble, she was the first canine to have a leading role in motion pictures. Jean was with Vitagraph Studios from 1909, and in 1913 went with Trimble to England to work with Florence Turner in her own independent film company.
Life and career
Around 1908, Maine resident and writer Laurence Trimble sold an animal story to a New York magazine.:139 In 1909 Trimble visited Vitagraph Studios in New York while doing research for a series of articles called "How Movies Are Made". As he chatted with the sole assistant working under Rollin S. Sturgeon, head of the scenario department, he learned that a story of special interest to producer Albert E. Smith had been set aside because it required a dog that could act—not simply do tricks, but to behave naturally on command. Trimble scanned the script and said he could train any dog to do what was needed.:44
Trimble asked if there were any dogs around, and was told about a stray that hid in the garage and came out only to snatch scraps left by members of the crew. Trimble spent an hour coaxing the frightened dog out of hiding, and another half-hour winning his confidence. Smith was brought in and saw the dog perform the action the script required. "Your dog is wonderful," Smith told Trimble, "but he's too small"—explaining that it would be impossible to see a small dog in medium shots, one of Vitagraph's filmmaking innovations. "Oh, he isn't my dog," Trimble replied. He told Smith that the little dog was a stray, suggested that he take him home as a pet, and said, "Tomorrow I'll bring you the right dog for the picture." The next morning he arrived with his dog, a tri-color Scotch Collie named Jean.:44–46 "Jean, the Vitagraph Dog" became the first canine to have a leading role in motion pictures.:139
"Jean was equal in popularity to Vitagraph's human stars, Florence Turner and Maurice Costello," wrote film historian Anthony Slide.:139 Jean was soon starring in her own films, all directed by Trimble. One-reelers and two-reelers with titles such as Jean and the Calico Doll, Jean and the Waif and Jean Goes Fishing were made by Trimble as their troupe filmed along the coastline in his native Maine.
Trimble became a leading director at Vitagraph, directing most of the films made by Turner and John Bunny, as well as those made by Jean.:139 Actress Helen Hayes recalled in a 1931 interview with The New York Times that as an eight-year-old she had roles in two of the 1910 films. "I had long curls and they let me play the juvenile lead in two pictures in support of Jean, the collie," Hayes said. "Jean was the most famous dog of the day and I was very thrilled."
In March 1913, Trimble and Jean left Vitagraph and accompanied Florence Turner to England, where she formed her own company, Turner Films.:36 Trimble and his canine star returned to the United States in 1916. Jean died later that year,:139 at age 14.
The four films he made with Strongheart won Trimble a special place in film history, but in later years he would say that, in the qualities of spirit and intelligence, Jean was the best of all his dogs.:46 Trimble eventually retired from filmmaking and trained animals exclusively. His special interest was training guide dogs for the blind.
|1910||Jean and the Calico Doll||Jean||Short film|
Film debut of Helen Hayes
|1910||Jean the Match-Maker||Jean||Short film|
|1910||Jean Goes Foraging||Jean||Short film|
|1910||Jean Goes Fishing||Jean||Short film|
|1910||A Tin-Type Romance||Short film|
|1910||Jean and the Waif||Jean||Short film|
|1910||Where the Winds Blow||Short film|
|1910||Her Mother's Wedding Gown||Short film|
|1911||Jean Rescues||Jean||Short film|
|1911||When the Light Waned||Short film|
|1911||The Stumbling Block||Short film|
|1911||Tested by the Flag||Short film|
|1911||Auld Lang Syne||Geordie's dog||Short film|
|1912||Jean Intervenes||Billy's dog||Short film|
|1912||The Church Across the Way||Jean||Short film|
|1912||Bachelor Buttons||Short film|
|1912||The Signal of Distress||Jean||Short film:165|
|1913||Jean and Her Family||Herself||Documentary short film|
|1913||Jean's Evidence||Madge's dog||Short film, second release of Turner Films|
|1914||'Fraid Cat||Jeanne, Jim's Dog||Short film:190|
|1914||The Shepherd Lassie of Argyle|||
|1914||Through the Valley of Shadows|||
|1915||Lost and Won|||
|1915||Far from the Madding Crowd||Gabriel's Dog|||
- Slide, Anthony (1976). The Big V: A History of the Vitagraph Company. Metuchen, N.J.: Scarecrow Press. ISBN 9780810809673.
- Trimble, Marian Blackton (1985). Slide, Anthony, ed. J. Stuart Blackton: A Personal Biography by His Daughter. Metuchen, New Jersey: Scarecrow Press. ISBN 9780810817654.
- Trimble, Larry (February 1930). "About Me and My Friends". The American Boy. Vol. 104 no. 2. p. 49.
- Gallo, Joe (March 2000). "Flashback: New England Director Larry Trimble". Imagine Magazine. Retrieved 2018-02-23.
- "Miss Hayes and Films". The New York Times. March 15, 1931. Retrieved 2015-11-28.
- "Amusements at the Dixie". The Bryan Daily Eagle. April 21, 1913.
- Brownlow, Kevin (May 31, 1999). "Obituary: Jan Zilliacus". The Independent. Retrieved 2016-07-29.
- "Laurence Trimble Dies". The New York Times. February 10, 1954. Retrieved 2015-11-28.
- Lowe, Denise (2014). An Encyclopedic Dictionary of Women in Early American Films: 1895-1930. Routledge. J: Jean. ISBN 9781317718963.
- Taves, Brian (2005). Talbot Mundy, Philosopher of Adventure: A Critical Biography. Jefferson, North Carolina: McFarland. p. 290. ISBN 9780786422340.
- "Jean the Match-Maker". Preserved Films. National Film Preservation Foundation. Retrieved 2015-11-28.
- "Jean". AFI Catalog of Feature Films. American Film Institute. Retrieved 2015-11-28.
- Murphy, Donn B.; Moore, Stephen (1993). Helen Hayes: A Bio-Bibliography. Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Press. p. 153. ISBN 9780313277931.
- "Jean". British Film Institute. Retrieved 2015-11-28.
- "Jean". Internet Movie Database. Retrieved 2015-11-28.
- "Photoplay Theatre". The Evening Herald. 1912-04-26. p. 8.
- "Amusements". The Nelson Mail. 48. 1913-01-29. p. 7.
- "Marlow Theater". Suburbanite Economist. 1912-10-04. p. 3.
- "The Signal of Distress". The Cinema News and Property Gazette. February 12, 1913. Retrieved 2016-08-06.
- "Entertainments". The West Australian. 1913-08-06. p. 8.
- "The New Star Tonight". Princeton Daily Democrat. Princeton, Indiana. June 4, 1914.
'Fraid Cat.' Vitagraph Comedy Drama, featuring Bobby Connelly, Taft Johnson, Dorthy [sic] Kelly, Albert Roccardi and Jean, the Vitagraph dog.
- "Turner Films advertisement". Pictures and The Picturegoer. London: The Pictures, Ltd. June 5, 1915. Retrieved 2016-08-13.
- "Far from the Madding Crowd". British Film Institute. Retrieved 2015-11-28.