Hypervitaminosis

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  (Redirected from Vitamin poisoning)
Jump to: navigation, search
Vitamin overdose
Classification and external resources
Specialty endocrinology
ICD-10 E67.0-E67.3
ICD-9-CM 278.2, 278.4
Patient UK Hypervitaminosis

Hypervitaminosis is a condition of abnormally high storage levels of vitamins, which can lead to toxic symptoms. Specific medical names of the different conditions are derived from the vitamin involved: an excess of vitamin A, for example, is called hypervitaminosis A. Hypervitaminoses are primarily caused by fat-soluble vitamins (D and A), as these are stored by the body for longer period than the water-soluble vitamins.[1]

Generally, toxic levels of vitamins stem from high supplement intake and not from natural food. Toxicities of fat-soluble vitamins can also be caused by a large intake of highly fortified foods, but natural food rarely deliver dangerous levels of fat-soluble vitamins.[2] The Dietary Reference Intake recommendations from the United States Department of Agriculture define a "tolerable upper intake level" for most vitamins.

Causes[edit]

With few exceptions, like some vitamins from B-complex, hypervitaminosis usually occurs more with fat-soluble vitamins (A, D, E and K), which are stored in the liver and fatty tissues of the body. These vitamins build up and remain for a longer time in the body than water-soluble vitamins.[2] Conditions include:

Incidence[edit]

In the United States, overdose exposure to all formulations of "vitamins" (which includes multi-vitamin/mineral products) was reported by 62,562 individuals in 2004 with nearly 80% of these exposures in children under the age of 6, leading to 53 "major" life-threatening outcomes and 3 deaths (2 from vitamins D and E; 1 from polyvitaminic type formula, with iron and no fluoride).[3] This may be compared to the 19,250 people who died of unintentional poisoning of all kinds in the U.S. in the same year (2004).[4] In 2010, 71,000 exposures to various vitamins and multivitamin-mineral formulations were reported to poison control centers, which resulted in 15 major reactions but no deaths.[5]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Office of Dietary Supplements - Vitamin A". ods.od.nih.gov. Retrieved 2016-02-03. 
  2. ^ a b Sizer, Frances Sienkiewicz; Ellie Whitney (2008). Nutrition: Concepts and Controversies (11 ed.). United States of America: Thomson Wadsworth. pp. 221, 235. ISBN 0-495-39065-8. 
  3. ^ Toxic Exposure Surveillance System (2004). "Annual Report" (PDF). American Association of Poison Control Centers. Archived from the original (pdf) on 2011-01-05. 
  4. ^ "National Center for Health Statistics". 
  5. ^ Bronstein, A. C.; Spyker, D. A.; Cantilena, L. R.; Green, J. L.; Rumack, B. H.; Dart, R. C. (2011). "2010 Annual Report of the American Association of Poison Control Centers' National Poison Data System (NPDS): 28th Annual Report". Clinical Toxicology. 49 (10): 910–941. doi:10.3109/15563650.2011.635149. PMID 22165864. 

External links[edit]