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(Redirected from Vitarka)
Translations of
applied thought[2]
initial inquiry[4]
applied attention[2]
initial mental application[5]
initial intellectual investigative intent[5]
Chinese尋 (T) / 寻 (S)
(Rōmaji: jin)
(RR: sim)
(Wylie: rtog pa;
THL: tokpa
(RTGS: witok)
VietnameseTầm (tìm)
Glossary of Buddhism
Translations of
subsequent discursive reasoning and thought[5]
investigating what has been focused on by vitakka[5]
Sanskritvicāra, विचार
Palivicāra, 𑀯𑀺𑀘𑀸𑀭
Chinese伺 (T) / 伺 (S)
(Rōmaji: shi)
(RR: sa)
(Wylie: dpyod pa;
THL: chöpa
(RTGS: wichan)
VietnameseTứ (Hán Việt): dò xét
Glossary of Buddhism
Vitarka mudrā, Tarim Basin, 9th century

In Buddhism, vitarka (वितर्क; Pali: 𑀯𑀺𑀢𑀓𑁆𑀓, romanized: vitakka; Tibetan: རྟོག་པ།, Wylie: rtog pa, THL: tokpa), "applied thought,"[2](initial) inquiry,"[3][4] and vicāra (विचार and 𑀯𑀺𑀘𑀸𑀭; Tibetan: དཔྱོད་པ།, Wylie: dpyod pa, THL: chöpa), "investigating what has been focused on by vitakka,[5] are qualities or elements of the first dhyāna or jhāna.

In the Pali canon, Vitakka-vicāra form one expression, which refers to directing one's thought or attention on an object (vitarka) and investigating it (vicāra),[6][7][8][9][10] "breaking it down into its functional components" to understand it [and] distinguishing the multitude of conditioning factors implicated in a phenomenal event."[11]

The later Theravada commentarial tradition, as represented by Buddhaghosa's Visuddhimagga, interprets vitarka and vicāra as the initial and sustained application of attention to a meditational object, which culminates in the stilling of the mind. According to Fox and Bucknell vitarka-vicāra may also refer to "the normal process of discursive thought," which is quieted through absorption in the second jhāna.[12][13]



Vitarka (Sanskrit: वितर्क ) - "thoughts,"[14][2] "applied thought,"[15][2] "applied attention,"[2] "inquiry,"[3] "initial inquiry,"[4] "initial mental application, or initial intellectual investigative intent."[5] Its roots are:

  • वि vi, a prefix to verbs and nouns it expresses;
  • तर्क tarka, "reasoning, inquiry."[16]

Vitarka may refer to mental activities that are manifest both in normal consciousness and in the first stage of dhyana.[2] According to Buswel and Lopez, in general, it means "thought," "applied thought," or "distracted thoughts."[2] According to Bhikkhu Bodhi, "In the Suttas, the word Vittaka is often used in the loose sense of thought, but in the Abhidhamma it is used in a precise technical sense to mean the mental factor that mounts or directs the mind towards an object."[14]

Vicāra (Sanskrit: विचार) - "investigation,"[3][4] "subsequent discursive reasoning and thought, i.e., investigating what has been focused on by vitakka."[5] Its roots are:

  • वि vi, a prefix to verbs and nouns it expresses;
  • चर् car, to move, roam, obtain knowledge of.[17]

Vitarka investigates things roughly, while vicāra investigates things exactly.[7][8][9][10] According to Dan Lusthaus, it is

Mental factors in meditation


Vitarka and vicāra are two of the mental factors (cetasika) present during the first dhyāna (Pali: jhāna), and which are absent in the higher jhanas.[18][19] According to Shankman, "two distinct meanings are suggested [...] one indicating mental activities such as thinking, reflecting, and so on, and the other referring to the mental activity of connecting and sustaining the attention on a meditation object."[1]



According to Dan Lusthaus, vitarka-vicāra is analytic scrutiny, a form of prajna. It "involves focusing on [something] and then breaking it down into its functional components" to understand it, "distinguishing the multitude of conditioning factors implicated in a phenomenal event."[11]

According to Polak, in the Pali Canon vitarka and vicāra are mostly related to thinking about the sense-impressions, which give rise to further egoistical thought and action.[20] The stilling of this thinking fits into the Buddhist training of sense-withdrawal and right effort, culminating in the equanimity and mindfulness of dhyana-practice.[20][21]

Ulrich Timme Kragh explains vitarka (discernment) and vicāra (discursiveness), as understood by the Yogācārabhūmi-Śāstra, thus: discernment is "the cognitive operation that is responsible for ascertaining what is perceived by the senses by initially labeling it with a name", while discursiveness is "the subsequent conceptual operation of deciding whether the perceived sense-object is desirable and what course of action one might want to take in relation to it".[22]

According to Chaicen, "Samadhi with general examination and specific in-depth investigation means getting rid of the not virtuous dharmas, such as greedy desire and hatred, to stay in joy and pleasure caused by nonarising, and to enter the first meditation and fully dwell in it."[23]

Commentatorial tradition


According to Stuart-Fox, the Abhidhamma separated vitarka from vicāra, and ekaggatā (onepointedness) was added to the description first jhāna to give an equal number of five hindrances and five antidotes.[24] The commentarial tradition regards the qualities of the first jhāna to be antidotes to the five hindrances, and ekaggatā may have been added to the first jhāna to give exactly five anti-dotes for the five hindrances.[25][note 1]

While initially simply referring to thought, which is present at the onset of dhyāna, the terms vitarka and vicāra were re-interpreted by the developing Abhidharma and commentarial tradition. In Theravāda, vitarka is one of the mental factors that apprehend the quality of an object. It is the "initial application of attention"[2] or the mind to its object,[19] while vicāra is the sustained application of the mind on an object.[26] Vitarka is regarded in the Theravāda tradition as an antidote for thina-middha (sloth and torpor), one of the five hindrances.[14]

Normal process of discursive thought


According to Roderick S. Bucknell, "vitakka-vicāra, the factor that particularly characterizes the first jhāna, is probably nothing other than the normal process of discursive thought, the familiar but usually unnoticed stream of mental imagery and verbalization".[18][note 2]

Martin Stuart-Fox explains, referring to Rhys Davids and Stede, when vitarka-vicāra are mentioned in tandem, they are one expression, "to cover all varieties of thinking, including sustained and focused thought. It is thinking in this inclusive sense that the meditator suppresses through concentration when he attains one-ness of mind and thus moves from first to second jhāna".[12]



The Yogacara term manas means both "intentionality"[27] or 'self-centered thinking',[28] and "discriminative thinking" (vikalpa). The process of meditation aims at "non-thinking," stopping both these cognitive processes.[27]

Vitarka Mudrā


The Vitarka mudrā, "mudra of discussion," expresses vitarka, joining the tips of the thumb and the index together, and keeping the other fingers straight. This mudra has a great number of variants in Mahāyāna Buddhism, and is also known as Prajñāliṅganabhinaya and Vyākhyāna mudrā ("mudra of explanation").

See also



  1. ^ Stuart-Fox further notes that vitarka, being discursive thought, will do very little as an anti-dote for sloth and torpor, reflecting the inconsistencies which were introduced by the scholastics.[25]
  2. ^ Bucknell refers to:
    * Martin Stuart-Fox, "Jhana and Buddhist Scholasticism," Journal of the International Association of Buddhist Studies 12.2 (1989): 79-110
    * Paul Griffiths, "Buddhist Jhana: A form-critical study," Religion 13 (1983): 55-68.

    See also Bhante Sujato, Why vitakka doesn’t mean ‘thinking’ in jhana


  1. ^ a b c d Shankman 2008, p. 39.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i Buswell & Lopez 2013, p. 983.
  3. ^ a b c d e Wayman 1997, p. 48.
  4. ^ a b c d e Sangpo & Dhammajoti 2012, p. 2413.
  5. ^ a b c d e f g Lusthaus 2002, p. 89.
  6. ^ Lusthaus 2002, p. 89, 116.
  7. ^ a b Rhys-Davids & Stede 1921–25.
  8. ^ a b Guenther & Kawamura 1975, p. Kindle Locations 1030-1033.
  9. ^ a b Kunsang 2004, p. 30.
  10. ^ a b Berzin 2006.
  11. ^ a b Lusthaus 2002, p. 116.
  12. ^ a b Fox 1989, p. 82.
  13. ^ Bucknell 1993, p. 375-376.
  14. ^ a b c Bhikkhu Bodhi 2003, p. 56-57.
  15. ^ Visuddhimagga ( IV, 88)
  16. ^ Sanskrit Dictionary for Spoken Sanskrit, tarka
  17. ^ V.S.Apte. the Practical Sanskrit-English Dictionary. Digital Dictionaries Of South Asia. p. 1422.
  18. ^ a b Bucknell 1993.
  19. ^ a b Keown 2004, p. 333.
  20. ^ a b Polak 2011.
  21. ^ Arbel 2017.
  22. ^ Ulrich Timme Kragh (editor), The Foundation for Yoga Practitioners: The Buddhist Yogācārabhūmi Treatise and Its Adaptation in India, East Asia, and Tibet, Volume 1 Harvard University, Department of South Asian studies, 2013, p. 72.
  23. ^ Chen 2017.
  24. ^ Fox 1989, p. 85-87.
  25. ^ a b Fox 1989.
  26. ^ Bodhi 2003, p. 56-57.
  27. ^ a b Zhu 2005.
  28. ^ Kalupahana 1992, p. 138-140.


  • Arbel, Keren (2017), Early Buddhist Meditation: The Four Jhanas as the Actualization of Insight, Routledge, doi:10.4324/9781315676043, ISBN 9781317383994
  • Berzin, Alexander (2006), Primary Minds and the 51 Mental Factors
  • Bhikkhu Bodhi (2003), A Comprehensive Manual of Abhidhamma, Pariyatti Publishing
  • Bucknell, Roderick S. (Winter 1993), "Reinterpreting the Jhanas", Journal of the International Association of Buddhist Studies, 16 (2){{citation}}: CS1 maint: date and year (link)
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  • Chen, Naichen (2017), The Great Prajna Paramita Sutra, Volume 1, Wheatmark
  • Guenther, Herbert V.; Kawamura, Leslie S. (1975), Mind in Buddhist Psychology: A Translation of Ye-shes rgyal-mtshan's "The Necklace of Clear Understanding" (Kindle ed.), Dharma Publishing
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  • Kunsang, Erik Pema (2004), Gateway to Knowledge, Vol. 1, North Atlantic Books
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  • Polak, Grzegorz (2011), Reexamining Jhana: Towards a Critical Reconstruction of Early Buddhist Soteriology, UMCS
  • Rhys-Davids, T.W.; Stede, William, eds. (1921–25), The Pali Text Society's Pali–English dictionary, Pali Text Society)
  • Sangpo, Gelong Lodro; Dhammajoti, Bhikkhu K.L. (2012), Motilal Banarsidass {{citation}}: Missing or empty |title= (help)
  • Shankman, Richard (2008), The Experience of Samadhi, Shambhala Publications
  • Wayman, Alex (1997), "Introduction", Calming the Mind and Discerning the Real: Buddhist Meditation and the Middle View, from the Lam Rim Chen Mo Tson-kha-pa, Motilal Banarsidass Publishers

Mahāyāna tradition:

Theravāda tradition: