In chemistry, vitriol is an archaic name for a sulfate. The name comes from the Latin word "vitreolum" for glassy, as crystals of several metallic sulfates resemble pieces of colored glass.
- Black vitriol is a mixture of iron(II) sulfate and iron sulfide
- Blue vitriol is copper(II) sulfate pentahydrate
- Green vitriol is iron(II) sulfate heptahydrate
- Oil of vitriol is sulfuric acid
- Red vitriol is cobalt(II) sulfate heptahydrate
- Roman vitriol is copper(II) sulfate pentahydrate
- Spirit of vitriol is sulfuric acid
- Sweet oil of vitriol is diethyl ether (not a sulfate)
- Vitriol with no further qualification often means sulfuric acid
- Vitriol of argile is aluminum sulfate (alum)
- Vitriol of clay is aluminum sulfate (alum)
- Vitriol of Cyprus is is copper(II) sulfate pentahydrate
- Vitriol of Mars or vitriol martial is iron(III) sulfate
- White vitriol is zinc sulfate heptahydrate
Many other names have the obvious meaning given that "vitriol" means "sulfate": for example, vitriol of lead is lead sulfate and so on.
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