|Look up vitriol in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.|
In chemistry, a vitriol is a sulfate, and vitriol names have the obvious meaning: for example, vitriol of lead is plumbous (lead(II)) sulfate, and so on. The word vitriol comes from the Latin word vitriolum, meaning "glassy", as the crystals of several metallic sulfates resemble pieces of colored glass.
Vitriol with no further qualification often means sulfuric acid, which also resembles glass when concentrated to its viscous form. The term vitriolic in the sense of "harshly condemnatory" is derived from the pungent and caustic nature of this substance.
|Black vitriol||a mixture[A]||[Cu,Mg,Fe,Mn,Co,Ni]SO4·7H2O[B]|
|Blue vitriol/Vitriol of Cyprus||copper(II) sulfate||pentahydrate||CuSO4·5H2O|
|Green vitriol/Copperas||iron(II) sulfate||heptahydrate||FeSO4·7H2O|
|Oil of vitriol||sulfuric acid||not a sulfate||H2SO4|
|Red vitriol||cobalt(II) sulfate||heptahydrate||CoSO4·7H2O|
|Roman vitriol||copper(II) sulfate||pentahydrate||CuSO4·5H2O|
|Spirit of vitriol||sulfuric acid||not a sulfate||H2SO4|
|Sweet oil of vitriol||diethyl ether||not a sulfate||CH3-CH2-O-CH2-CH3|
|Vitriol of argile/Vitriol of clay||aluminium sulfate||alum||Al2(SO4)3|
|Vitriol of Mars||iron(III) sulfate||Ferric sulfate||Fe2(SO4)3|
|White vitriol||zinc sulfate||heptahydrate||ZnSO4·7H2O|
|A Many websites state "black vitriol is a mixture of iron sulfate and iron sulfite", but none gives a reference of any sort. The book, Chemistry, Inorganic & Organic, with Experiments, by Bloxam is a published, reliable reference for the composition of black vitriol, and it states on page 513, "The formula of black vitriol may be written [CuMgFeMnCoNi]SO4·7H2O, the six isomorphous metals being interchangeable without altering the general character of the salt."|
|B "Any combination of these elements may be found in black vitriol."|
- Roman vitriol on Chembk CAS Database
- Bloxam, Charles Loudon; Bloxam, Arthur G.; Lewis, S. Judd (1913). "Copper, Cu = 63.57". Chemistry, Inorganic & Organic, with Experiments (Tenth ed.). Philadelphia: P. Blakiston's Son & Co. p. 513.
The formula of black vitriol may be written [CuMgFeMnCoNi]SO4·7H2O, the six isomorphous metals being interchangeable without altering the general character of the salt.
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