|Disappeared||14 April 2011 (aged 36)|
|Died||15 April 2011 (aged 36)|
Gaza Strip, Palestine
|Cause of death||Strangulation|
|Occupation(s)||International Solidarity Movement activist, journalist, blogger|
Vittorio Arrigoni (Italian pronunciation: [vitˈtɔːrjo arriˈɡoːni]; 4 February 1975 – 15 April 2011) was an Italian reporter, writer, pacifist and activist. Arrigoni worked with the pro-Palestinian International Solidarity Movement (ISM) in the Gaza Strip, from 2008 until his death. Arrigoni maintained a website, Guerrilla Radio, and published a book of his experiences in Gaza during the 2008–09 Gaza War between Hamas and Israel. Arrigoni was the first foreigner kidnapped in Gaza since BBC journalist Alan Johnston's abduction in 2007. He was subsequently killed by Palestinian Salafists. His murder was condemned by various Palestinian groups.
Arrigoni was born in the town of Besana in Brianza, near Monza, on 4 February 1975. He claimed that it was in his blood to fight for freedom as his grandfathers fought against the former fascist regime in Italy. He had the Arabic word for resistance (muqawama) tattooed on his right arm. Once he passed his high school exams in Italy, he left his hometown of Bulciago, a small village near Lake Como, and began working as a volunteer around the world (East Europe, South America, Africa and Middle East).
|"Vittorio Arrigoni...a pro-Palestinian activist from Italy, received a passport from Ismail Haniya, head of Hamas's government in Gaza, in 2008."—The New York Times|
Arrigoni was credited as one of the many activists who revived the International Solidarity Movement (ISM), a pro-Palestinian group that works in the Palestinian territories. In August 2008, he participated in the Free Gaza mission that aimed to break the Israeli blockade of the Gaza Strip, in place since June 2007 when Hamas took power in the territory. He was on the first boat that arrived in the Port of Gaza, describing that moment as "one of the happiest and most emotional of his lifetime."
While volunteering to act as a human shield for a Palestinian fisherman off Gaza's coast in September 2008, Arrigoni was injured by flying glass after the Israeli Navy used a water cannon to deter the vessel. In November, he was arrested by Israeli authorities after again acting as a human shield for fishermen off Gaza's coast.
He returned to Gaza prior to the Israeli military offensive Operation Cast Lead, which lasted from December 2008 to January 2009. Arrigoni was one of the few foreign journalists in Gaza during the war; he worked with Radio Popolare and as reporter for the Italian newspaper Il manifesto. He later published a book, Restiamo umani (en: Gaza, Stay Human), a collection of his reportage from Gaza. It is translated into English, Spanish, German, and French with a preface by Israeli historian Ilan Pappé.
"Zionism is an abominable, racist and colonial movement. Like all colonial and apartheid systems, it's in the interest of all that it be swept away. My hope is to see it replaced, without any bloodshed, with a democratic, secular and lay state – for example on the borders of historic Palestine – and where Palestinians and Israelis could live under equal rights of citizenship without ethnic and religious discrimination. It's a wish that I hope will soon become a reality."
— Vittorio Arrigoni, 2010
Arrigoni was described as having a "fervent commitment to the Palestinian cause." Arrigoni described four Palestinians who died in a tunnel under the Gaza-Egypt border as "martyrs". One of his last posts on Guerrilla Radio, which he wrote hours before he was kidnapped and killed, praised Palestinian efforts to smuggle goods into Gaza via tunnels as an "invisible battle for survival."
Arrigoni criticised Muslim extremists for trying to impose a hardline version of Islam in Gaza. In an interview with the newspaper PeaceReporter, he said: "Personally, as an activist for human rights, I don't like Hamas at all. I have something to say to them too: they have deeply limited human rights since they have won the elections."
In his website, Guerrilla Radio, and Facebook page, Arrigoni described the government of Israel as one of the worst apartheid regimes in the world. He said the Israeli blockade on Gaza was criminal and villainous.
Kidnapping and death
Arrigoni was kidnapped on 14 April 2011. In a video posted on YouTube in which they identified themselves as belonging to a previously unknown group, "The Brigade of the Gallant Companion of the Prophet Mohammed bin Muslima," Arrigoni was blindfolded with blood seen around his right eye. The captors demanded the release of their leader Walid al-Maqdasi, imprisoned by the de facto government in Gaza a month earlier, as a ransom and threatened Arrigoni's killing if a 30-hour deadline was not met. The captors accused Arrigoni of "spreading corruption" and his home country Italy as an "infidel state."
For uncertain reasons, before the deadline expired, the captors killed Arrigoni in an empty apartment in the Mareh Amer area in northern Gaza. A witness at the scene of his death reported that he was likely either hanged or strangled. After being led to the house by a member of the suspected Salafi group, Hamas security forces stormed the building and found Arrigoni's body.
An autopsy revealed that Arrigoni had been strangled with a plastic cord, but journalists were not allowed to see the body and no independent confirmation of the cause of death was possible. Tawhid and Jihad denied responsibility for the killing, but stated it was "a natural outcome of the policy of the government carried out against the Salafi." Iyad ash Shami, a leader of another Salafi group based in Gaza, denied involvement of Salafi militants and said the killing went against Islam. Security forces in Gaza arrested four suspects in connection to the incident, and Gaza Prime Minister Ismail Haniya ordered an investigation by the Interior Ministry, and called Arrigoni's mother to send his condolences.
Manhunt and trial
Hamas police initiated a manhunt for people involved in the murder. Hamas authorities sealed off parts of the Gaza Strip before the beginning of the operation, during which gunfire and at least one explosion were heard.
Hamas security forces laid siege to a house where the suspects were staying, in the Nuseirat refugee camp, in central Gaza. The suspects refused to surrender and a gun battle ensued. Hamas policemen entered the home and killed Balal al-Omari and a Jordanian, Abbad a-Rahman al-Brizat (one of the two dead men may have committed suicide). A third suspect, Mahmoud al-Salfiti, was wounded and detained. Three of the suspects' associates were also captured. Hamas Interior Ministry spokesman Ihab al-Ghussein reported that five Hamas policemen were injured as well as a girl who was caught in the crossfire.
The four Salafist extremists captured in the raid were charged over Arrigoni's abduction and murder in a Hamas military court. The trial was presided over by military judge Abu Omar Atallah. They were found guilty in September 2012. Mahmoud al-Salfiti, 28, and Tamer al-Hasana, 27, were sentenced to life imprisonment with hard labor: the court refrained from imposing the death penalty on them after Arrigoni's parents urged that they be spared. Khader Jram, 24, was sentenced to 10 years imprisonment and Amer Abu Ghouleh, 23, was given a prison term of one year for sheltering fugitives. Following an appeal, a military court reduced the sentences of Salfiti and al-Hasana from life to 15 years on 19 February 2013. "We asked in our appeal for the conviction for murder and abduction to be dropped to only abduction," their lawyer Mohammed Zaqut said.
In June 2015, after being granted a furlough from prison, Mahmoud al-Salfiti managed to escape from Gaza to Iraq, where he joined ISIS. On 28 November 2015 he was reportedly killed fighting for ISIS in Anbar province.
Reactions to death
Several hundred Gazans rallied in the Unknown Soldier's Square to mourn Arrigoni while about 100 Palestinians and internationals marched through Ramallah to a house of mourning in nearby al-Bireh in the West Bank. In Bethlehem, a candlelight vigil was held outside the Church of the Nativity. Egyptian authorities offered to allow Arrigoni's family to enter Gaza through the Rafah crossing and his body to be sent back to Italy via the crossing.
An official statement from Hamas described the killing as a "disgraceful act" by a "mentally deviated and outlawed group." Gaza Prime Minister Ismail Haniya stated the killing "does not reflect the values, morals, or the religion of the Palestinian people. This is an unprecedented case that won't be repeated." He also said Arrigoni would be designated a martyr and a street would be named after him. Foreign minister of Hamas told he would get a state funeral. After this the body would be transferred to Egypt. Hamas spokesman Fawzi Barhoum condemned the killing as 'shameful'.
Various condemnations of Arrigoni's killing were released by other Palestinian factions with Fatah decrying it as an "act of betrayal," the Popular Resistance Committees calling it "cowardly," Islamic Jihad calling it a "grotesque crime," and Mustafa Barghouti saying it was a "shocking criminal act." A spokesman for Palestinian president Mahmoud Abbas condemned it as an "act of treason".
The foreign ministry of Italy expressed "deep horror over the barbaric murder," calling it an "act of vile and senseless violence committed by extremists who are indifferent to the value of human life." UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-Moon pressed the Gaza government to bring to justice "the perpetrators of this appalling crime."
Accusations against Israel
Although Arrigoni was killed by suspected members of the Palestinian Salafist group Jahafil Al-Tawhid Wal-Jihad fi Filastin (Al-Snajib), some blamed Israel for the murder. In spite of the fact that Hamas identified the perpetrators with a Palestinian group affiliated with Al Qaeda, Hamas spokesman Fawzi Barhoum said he suspected Israel might be responsible since the death appeared to be timed to deter foreign activists from joining a flotilla due to sail to Gaza in May to break Israel's naval blockade of the area.
Mahmoud al-Zahar, a member of the Hamas leadership, indirectly accused Israel of engineering the killing of Arrigoni in an attempt to scare off international activists from coming to Gaza. He said that "such an awful crime cannot take place without arrangements between all the parties concerned to keep the blockade imposed on Gaza". Al-Zahar offered no evidence to support his accusation.
Since these accusations have not been based on any facts they have been criticised by the German journalist Hendryk Broder as baseless conspiracy theories.
Analyses of Arrigoni
A Jerusalem Post article published shortly after Arrigoni's death cited criticism of Arrigoni by Steven Plaut, associate professor of business administration at the University of Haifa, by Fiamma Nirenstein, a Jewish member of the Italian Chamber of Deputies who was deputy chair of its Foreign Affairs Committee and chair of its Committee for Investigating Antisemitism, and by Noah Pollak, executive director of the Emergency Committee for Israel, accusing Arrigoni of being a supporter of violence instead of a peace activist.
According to The Guardian's correspondent in Italy, Arrigoni was "first and foremost a pacifist." Khaleel Shaheen of the Palestinian Centre for Human Rights in Gaza, a friend of Arrigoni, described him as a "hero of Palestine". Max Ajl, another friend of Arrigoni and a fellow ISM activist, eulogized Arrigoni as "a courageous and dedicated opponent of the Israeli occupation and advocate of resistance to oppression in the Middle East and around the world."
- Kidnapping of Alan Johnston (release secured by Hamas, 2007)
- List of peace activists
- List of journalists killed during the Israeli-Palestinian conflict
- Johnston, Nicole. Vittorio Arrigoni: The man I knew Archived 4 September 2011 at the Wayback Machine. Al Jazeera. 15 April 2011.
- Hooper, John. Vittorio Arrigoni: pacifist supporter of the Palestinian cause Archived 23 July 2012 at the Wayback Machine. The Guardian15 April 2011.
- "Gaza Vittorio Arrigoni murder: Four Palestinians jailed". BBC. 17 September 2012. Retrieved 24 October 2012.
- Kalman, Matthew.Idealistic blogger 'was more Palestinian than the criminals who killed him' Archived 22 December 2017 at the Wayback Machine. The Independent. 16 April 2011.
- Mackenzie, James. "Dismay and sorrow" in hometown of Italian activist Archived 21 June 2017 at the Wayback Machine. Reuters. 15 April 2011.
- Saber, Mohammed (15 April 2011). "Gaza Killing of Italian Activist Deals a Blow to Hamas". The New York Times. Gaza. European Pressphoto Agency. Retrieved 6 July 2011.
- New video released of slain Italian activist: 'Day I arrived in Gaza was happiest of my life' Archived 18 April 2011 at the Wayback Machine. Haaretz. 15 April 2011.
- Radio Popolare, announcements archive Archived 13 April 2014 at the Wayback Machine
- Gaza, Stay Human Archived 29 March 2016 at the Wayback Machine. Amazon Book Review.
- "guerrilla radio > Gli industriali dell'olocausto". guerrillaradio.iobloggo.com. Archived from the original on 28 March 2012. Retrieved 8 July 2011.
- Gaza, eliminate il pacifista Arrigoni (Gaza, eliminate the pacifist Arrigoni) Archived 4 March 2016 at the Wayback Machine, Peacereporter, 14 January 2009.
- Salafi leader: Islam prohibits murder. Ma'an News Agency. 15 April 2011.
- Italian Activist Found Dead in Gaza after Abduction Archived 31 October 2022 at the Wayback Machine. BBC. 15 April 2011.
- Body of kidnapped Italian peace activist Vittorio Arrigoni found in Gaza. The Guardian. 15 April 2011.
- Hamas Says It Found Body of Italian Activist Archived 29 March 2016 at the Wayback Machine, New York Times 14 April 2011
- Urquhart, Conal. Palestinians rally to mourn kidnapped Italian activist murdered by extremists Archived 19 October 2017 at the Wayback Machine. The Guardian. 15 April 2011.
- Body of abducted Italian activist found in Gaza City. Ma'an News Agency. 15 April 2011.
- al-Mughrabi, Nidal (15 April 2011). "Activists stunned by killing; vow to stay in Gaza". IN. Retrieved 18 May 2020.
- Fares Akram and Isabel Kershner. Gaza Killing of Italian Activist Deals a Blow to Hamas Archived 31 October 2022 at the Wayback Machine. New York Times. 15 April 2011.
- Vittorio Arrigoni killing: Suspects die in Gaza siege Archived 12 October 2018 at the Wayback Machine. BBC. 19 April 2011.
- Associated Press.Gaza police close in on suspects in Vittorio Arrigoni murder Archived 21 December 2016 at the Wayback Machine. The Guardian. 19 April 2011.
- Issacharoff, Avi. Hamas kills 2 suspects during manhunt for murderers of Italian activist in Gaza Archived 31 October 2022 at the Wayback Machine, Haaretz. 20 April 2011.
- "Trial Over Murder of pro-Palestinian Activist Begins in Gaza". Haaretz. 9 September 2011.
- "Gaza court cuts sentence in Italian murder". Al Jazeera. 19 February 2013. Retrieved 2 August 2015.
- Associated Press, 'Hamas court convicts 4 in Italian activist death,' Archived 20 October 2012 at the Wayback Machine at Ynet, 17 September 2012.
- Fares Akram, 'Gaza: Hamas Court Convicts 4 in Murder of Activist,' Archived 24 July 2018 at the Wayback Machine, at New York Times, 17 September 2012.
- 'Gaza court cuts sentence in Italian murder case' Press Trust of India. Published: 19 February 2013. Accessed: 20 February 2013. Archived 2 July 2015 at the Wayback Machine
- Diaa Hadid, Majd Al Waheidi, 'ISIS Allies Target Hamas and Energize Gaza Extremists,' Archived 24 July 2018 at the Wayback Machine New York Times 30 June 2015.
- 'Gazan who murdered an Italian peace activist dies fighting for IS' Archived 11 July 2017 at the Wayback Machine, at The Times of Israel, 28 November 2015.
- Candlelight vigil held for Italian activist Archived 16 April 2011 at the Wayback Machine. Al-Jazeera. 16 April 2011.
- Egypt offers to help slain activist's family enter Gaza Archived 17 April 2011 at the Wayback Machine. Ma'an News Agency. 16 April 2011.
- Abbas: Murder of Italian activist is treason Archived 29 April 2011 at the Wayback Machine. Ma'an News Agency.
- la Repubblica Archived 22 October 2012 at the Wayback Machine 17 April 2011
- Kalman, Matthew. Activist's murder shakes Hamas's grip on Gaza Archived 5 March 2016 at the Wayback Machine. The Independent. 16 April 2011.
- Aldabba, Ahmed."Vittorio Arrigoni: Body of kidnapped activist Vittorio Arrigoni found - latimes.com". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on 18 April 2011. Retrieved 30 April 2011., Los Angeles Times. 16 April 2011.
- Associated Press and Haaretz Service. Hamas official hints Israel killed Italian activist to intimidate future Gaza flotilla members Archived 31 October 2022 at the Wayback Machine. Haaretz. 15 April 2011.
- Weinthal, Benjamin. "Italian politician: Vittorio Arrigoni was ‘enemy of Jews’." The Jerusalem Post. 26 April 2003. Retrieved on 11 August 2011.
- Quinton, Pennie, Vale Vittorio Arrigoni, 'hero of Palestine' Archived 31 October 2022 at the Wayback Machine. The Guardian. 16 April 2011.
- Ajl, Max. "in memoriam: Vik Arrigoni". Retrieved 19 June 2011.
- Arrigoni, Vittorio (2010). Gaza: Stay Human. Ilan Pappe (Introduction). Kube Publishing. ISBN 978-1-84774-019-9.
- Francesca Borri Restiamo liberi, peacereporter, 18 April 2011
- English-language obituary for Arrigoni on Max Ajl's blog.