Viviparous brotula

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Viviparous brotulas
Hephthocara simum.jpg
Hephthocara simum
Scientific classification e
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Actinopterygii
Order: Ophidiiformes
Family: Bythitidae
T. N. Gill, 1861
Subfamilies

See text

The viviparous brotulas form a family, the Bythitidae, of ophidiiform fishes. They are known as viviparous brotulas as they generally bear live young,[1] although there are indications that some species (at least Didymothallus criniceps) do not.[2] They are generally infrequently seen, somewhat tadpole-like in overall shape and mostly about 5–10 cm (2–4 in) in length,[1] but some species grow far larger and may surpass 60 cm (2 ft).[3][4]

Although many live near the coast in tropical or subtropical oceans,[1] there are also species in deep water and cold oceans, for example Bythites.[5] Thermichthys hollisi, which lives at depths of around 2,500 m (8,200 ft), is associated with thermal vents.[6] A few are fresh or brackish water cavefish: the Mexican blind brotula (Typhliasina pearsei), Galapagos cuskeel (Ogilbia galapagosensis), Diancistrus typhlops and some Lucifuga species.[2][7]

Since 2002, more than 110 new species have been added to this family.[8] In 2005, 26 new species were described in a single paper by Danish and German scientists[9] and in 2007, an additional eight new genera with 20 new species were described in another paper by the same scientists.[10]

In some classifications the family Aphyonidae is placed within the Bythitidae and the tribe Dinematichthyini of the subfamily Brosmophycinae has been raised to the status of a family, the Dinematichthyidae which contains 25 genera and 114 species.[11]

The Bythitidae is divided as follows:

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Nielsen, Jørgen G. (1998). Paxton, J.R.; Eschmeyer, W.N. (eds.). Encyclopedia of Fishes. San Diego: Academic Press. p. 134. ISBN 0-12-547665-5.
  2. ^ a b Nielsen; Schwarzhans; and Hadiaty (2009). A blind, new species of Diancistrus (Teleostei, Bythitidae) from three caves on Muna Island, southeast of Sulawesi, Indonesia. Cybium 33(3): 241-245.
  3. ^ Froese, Rainer and Pauly, Daniel, eds. (2017). Species of Cataetyx in FishBase. April 2017 version.
  4. ^ Froese, Rainer and Pauly, Daniel, eds. (2017). Species of Grammonus in FishBase. April 2017 version.
  5. ^ Froese, Rainer and Pauly, Daniel, eds. (2017). Species of Bythites in FishBase. April 2017 version.
  6. ^ Froese, Rainer and Pauly, Daniel, eds. (2017). Thermichthys hollisi in FishBase. April 2017 version.
  7. ^ Romero, A., editor (2001). The Biology of Hypogean Fishes. Developments in Environmental Biology of Fishes. ISBN 978-1402000768
  8. ^ http://researcharchive.calacademy.org/research/ichthyology/catalog/SpeciesByFamily.asp
  9. ^ Schwarzhans, Werner; Møller, Peter Rask; Nielsen, Jørgen G. (2005). "Review of the Dinematichthyini (Teleostei: Bythitidae) of the Indo-West Pacific. Part I. Diancistrus and Two New Genera with 26 New Species". The Beagle, Records of the Museum and Art Galleries of the Northern Territory. 21: 73–163.
  10. ^ Schwarzhans & Møller (2007). "Review of the Dinematichthyini (Teleostei, Bythitidae) of the Indo-West pacific. Part III. Beaglichthys, Brosmolus, Monothrix and 8 new genera with description of 20 new species". The Beagle, Records of the Museum and Art Galleries of the Northern Territory. 23: 29–110.
  11. ^ Møller PR; Knudsen SW; Schwarzhans W; Nielsen JG (2016). "A new classification of viviparous brotulas (Bythitidae) - with family status for Dinematichthyidae - based on molecular, morphological and fossil data". Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 100: 391–408. doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2016.04.008. PMID 27060424. Abstract
  12. ^ Nielsen J.G., Schwarzhans W., Cohen D.M. (2012). "Revision of Hastatobythites and Saccogaster (Teleostei, Bythitidae) with three new species and a new genus". Zootaxa. 3579: 1–36. doi:10.11646/zootaxa.3579.1.1.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)