|This article needs additional citations for verification. (March 2015)|
|• Total||29.27 km2 (11.30 sq mi)|
|Elevation||66 m (217 ft)|
|• Rank||192th (India)
10th (Andhra Pradesh)
|Time zone||IST (UTC+5:30)|
Vizianagaram is a city and district headquarters of Vizianagaram district in the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh. It is a municipality and also the mandal headquarters of Vizianagaram mandal. It is located 18 km inland from the Bay of Bengal and 42 km to the northeast of Visakhapatnam. Vizianagaram translates to the "City of Victory".
Vizianagaram was ruled by different Hindu emperors of Kalinga (ancient Odisha) up to the medieval period. After the fall of the centralized Gajapati empire of Odisha, the region was governed by the Golkonda rulers. The ancestors of the Maharajas of Vizianagaram are believed to be the descendants of MahaRanas of Udaipur, the Sisodia dynasty and Vasishta gotra.
An important event in the history of the district which occurred at about this time is the war between the Rajas of Vizianagaram and Bobbili, popularly known as Bobbili Yuddam. The war was fought between the MahaRaja of Vizianagaram and the Rajah of Bobbili on 24 January 1757.
Rulers of this princely state belong to the Pusapati family. The village Pooshpadu in Nandigama Taluq was built by Amala Raju. The village later came to be known as Pusapadu, and the Kshatriyas living there came to be known as Pusapatis.
The history of this area is linked with the history of London, specifically the movement to provide drinking fountains. The Maharajah of Vizianagram (Meerza Vijiaram Gajapatirma Manca Sooltan Behadoor of Vijianagram) funded the erection of a very elaborate gothic fountain in 1867 very close to Marble Arch on the edge of Hyde Park, which survived until 1964, but was subsequently demolished for a new road system. The architect was Robert Keirle [fl.1862-1902], who also designed a similar (listed) fountain, which survives in Regent's Park, funded by Sir Jehangir Cowasji Jehangir Readymoney in 1869 sited on the boundary of Westminster and Camden. According to the Dictionary of British Architects, Keirle was the architect appointed by the Metropolitan Drinking Fountain Association, who erected these fountains and whose archive is lodged with the London Metropolitan Archives. Excavations at this town revealed copper coins belonging to the remains of 900 B.C..
Vizianagaram is located at Srikakulam District, on the west and south by Visakhapatnam district, on the southeast by the Bay of Bengal, and on the northwest by Odisha state. The principal rivers flowing in the district are Nagavali, Vegavathi, Gomukhi, Suvarnamukhi, Champavathi and Gostani. The Nagavali is the main river, which flows in about 112 km in Vizianagaram district. The River Gosthani has its origin in Ananthagiri forest area and flows through Srungavarapukota (S.Kota) and Jami mandals. The Suvarnamukhi River originates in the hills of Saluru mandal, travels in an eastern direction and finally joins the Nagavali at Sangam village in Palakonda mandal of Srikakulam District. Vegavathi originates in pachipenta hills of Pachipenta mandal and flows almost parallel to Suvarnamukhi.. It has an average elevation of 74 metres (242 feet). The district is bounded on the east by
Rivers and irrigation projects
Major Rivers flowing through the city are Nagavali, Vegavathi, Gomukhi, Suvarnamukhi, Champavathi and Gosthani River. Irrigation projects across these rivers include Tatapudi Reservoir across the Gosthani River, Vegavathi project across the river Vegavathi, Vottigedda project across the river Vottigedda, Peda Ankalam Anicut and Vengala Raya Sagaram project across Suvarnamukhi, Seeta Nagaram Anicut, Denkada Anicut, Paradhi at Bobbili, across Suvarnamukhi, a tributary of Nagavali River and Andra Reservoir project across Champavathi River.
The climate of Vizianagaram district is characterized by high humidity nearly all the year round, with oppressive summers and good seasonal rainfall. The summer season extends from March to May, followed by southwest monsoon season, which continues to September. October and November constitute the post-monsoon or retreating monsoon season. The normal rainfall of the district for the year is 1,131.0 mm, as compared to the actual rainfall of 740.6 mm received during 2002-2003. The district gets the benefit of both the southwest and northeast monsoon. The season extending from December to February is of generally fine weather. The climate of the hill parts of the district is different from that of the plain.
As of 2011[update] Census of India, the town had a population of 227,533. The total population constitute, 111,596 males and 115,937 females —a sex ratio of 1039 females per 1000 males, higher than the national average of 940 per 1000. 20,487 children are in the age group of 0–6 years, of which 10,495 are boys and 9,992 are girls. The average literacy rate stands at 81.85% with 169,461 literates, significantly higher than the national average of 73.00%.
Vizianagaram municipality was establishment in the year 1888 with an extent of 29.27 km2 (11.30 sq mi). During 2010–11, the total expenditure spent by the municipality was ₹1887.75 crore (US$280 million) and total income generated was ₹2367.51 crore (US$360 million).
The utility services include supply of water, sewer connections, drainage systems, parks, grounds, community centers, healthcare etc. The municipality maintains 458 public taps, 749 bore–wells, 330 km (210 mi) of roads, 243.25 km (151.15 mi) of drains, 32 parks, 2 playgrounds, 49 elementary and 3 secondary schools and 1 maternity and child health center.
Vizianagaram is one of the principal towns in Uttarandhra (North eastern part of Andhra Pradesh State). There are a number of industries in and around the city. The country's largest ferromanganese plant is situated on the outskirts of Garividi. There are various jute mills in Garividi, including the Hooghly Jute Mills. Vizianagaram is a popular destination for the textile wholesale market.
Vizianagaram district had a coastal belt of 28 km. Pusapatirega and Bhogapuram are coastal mandals with eight main villages and 16 hamlets. The land of 80.47 acres in the coastal villages of these mandals is being used for salt cultivation.
There are 22 large- and medium-scale industries established with an investment of Rs. 669.09 crores, providing employment to 20,759 people. These industries are primarily engaged in the manufacture of jute twine, ferroalloys, sugar, cement, pharmaceuticals, sponge and iron.
There are 4,653 small-scale units with an investment of Rs. 114.20 crores and providing employment to 32,615 people. These SSI units are mainly engaged in general engineering, motor workshops, groundnut oil mills, rolling mills, RCC spun pipes, sawmills, aluminium utensils, and bus, lorry and cycle rickshow body buildings.
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Andhra Pradesh State Road Transport Corporation (APSRTC) provides bus services to all major cities and towns in the state. APSRTC and Odisha State Road Transport Corporation also provides buses for cities like Rayagada and Jeypore of Odisha state via Salur.
Vizianagaram city has many educational institutions and some of the notable are listed below:
- Maharajah's College (1879)
- Maharajah's Government College of Music and Dance (1919)
- Maharaja's Post Graduate College  (1987)
- MVGR College of Engineering (1997)
- Andhra University - Vizianagaram Campus (2006)
- JNTUK-UCEV Vizianagaram  (2007)
- "Basic Information of Municipality". Commissioner & Director of Municipal Administration. Municipal Administration & Urban Development Department, Govt. of Andhra Pradesh. Retrieved 5 August 2014.
- "Elevation for Vizianagaram". Veloroutes. Retrieved 5 August 2014.
- "Andhra Pradesh (India): Districts, Cities, Towns and Outgrowth Wards - Population Statistics in Maps and Charts". citypopulation.de.
- "Vizianagaram District Mandals" (PDF). Census of India. pp. 252, 267–268. Retrieved 19 January 2015.
- English Heritage Archive MOW negatives R 278 1-3; R 339 1-3; R 350 1-2
- The Builder, 1868 p.79
- Dictionary of British Architects 1834-1914, Vol.1, p.1056
- "http://cdma.ap.gov.in/VIZIANAGARAM/". Municipal Administration & Urban Development Department, Govt. of Andhra Pradesh. Retrieved 23 October 2014.
- "Sex Ratio". The Registrar General & Census Commissioner, India. Retrieved 2 September 2014.
- "Chapter–3 (Literates and Literacy rate)" (PDF). Registrar General and Census Commissioner of India. Retrieved 2 September 2014.
- "Basic Information of Municipality". Commissioner & Director of Municipal Administration. Municipal Administration & Urban Development Department, Govt. of Andhra Pradesh. Retrieved 3 September 2014.
- "Public services/amenities". Commissioner & Director of Municipal Administration. Municipal Administration & Urban Development Department, Govt. of Andhra Pradesh. Retrieved 3 September 2014.
- ":: Maharajah's Post Graduate College ::". mrpgcollege.org.
- "JNTUK - University College of Engineering Vizianagaram". jntukucev.ac.in.
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