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Vladimir Bukovsky
Владимир Константинович Буковский
Bukovsky at the Sakharov Congress in Amsterdam, 21 May 1987
Vladimir Konstantinovich Bukovsky

(1942-12-30)30 December 1942
Died27 October 2019(2019-10-27) (aged 76)
CitizenshipSoviet Union (1942–1992); Russian Federation (1992–2014); United Kingdom (1976–2019)
Alma materUniversity of Cambridge, Stanford University
Occupation(s)Human right activist, writer, neurophysiologist
Known forHuman rights activism with participation in the Mayakovsky Square poetry readings, the Campaign Against Psychiatric Abuse and struggle against political abuse of psychiatry in the Soviet Union, Victims of Communism Memorial Foundation, The Freedom Association
Notable worksee Vladimir Bukovsky bibliography
MovementDissident movement in the Soviet Union, Solidarnost (Russia)
AwardsThe Thomas S. Szasz Award for Outstanding Contributions to the Cause of Civil Liberties,[1] Truman-Reagan Medal of Freedom

Vladimir Konstantinovich Bukovsky (Russian: Влади́мир Константи́нович Буко́вский; 30 December 1942 – 27 October 2019) was a Russian-born British human rights activist and writer. From the late 1950s to the mid-1970s, he was a prominent figure in the Soviet dissident movement, well known at home and abroad. He spent a total of twelve years in the psychiatric prison-hospitals, labour camps, and prisons of the Soviet Union during Brezhnev rule.[2]

After being expelled from the Soviet Union in late 1976, Bukovsky remained in vocal opposition to the Soviet system and the shortcomings of its successor regimes in Russia. An activist, a writer,[3] and a neurophysiologist,[4][5] he is celebrated for his part in the campaign to expose and halt the political abuse of psychiatry in the Soviet Union.[6]

A member of the international advisory council of the Victims of Communism Memorial Foundation,[7] a director of the Gratitude Fund (set up in 1998 to commemorate and support former dissidents),[c 1] and a member of the International Council of the New York City-based Human Rights Foundation, Bukovsky was a Senior Fellow of the Cato Institute in Washington, D.C.[8]

In 2001, Vladimir Bukovsky received the Truman-Reagan Medal of Freedom, awarded annually since 1993 by the Victims of Communism Memorial Foundation.[9]

In 2015 he was prosecuted in the United Kingdom on the charge, - which he blamed on the Russian security services, - of possession of child pornography, but became ill and died before the case went to trial.

Early life[edit]

Vladimir Bukovsky was born to Russian parents in the town of Belebey in the Bashkir Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic (today the Republic of Bashkortostan in the Russian Federation), to which his family was evacuated during World War II. After the war he and his parents returned to Moscow where his father Konstantin (1908–1976) was a well-known Soviet journalist.[10] During his last year at school Vladimir was expelled for creating and editing an unauthorised magazine. To meet the requirements to apply for a university place he completed his secondary education at evening classes.[11] Bukovsky was enrolled at Moscow State University for biology but was kicked out at age 19, having criticised the Komsomol, i.e., the Young Communist League.[12]

Soviet-era activism[edit]


Mayakovsky Square[edit]

In September 1960, Bukovsky entered Moscow University to study biology. There he and some friends decided to revive the informal Mayakovsky Square poetry readings which began after a statue to the poet was unveiled in central Moscow in 1958.[13] They made contact with earlier participants of the readings such as Vladimir Osipov,[14] the editor of Boomerang (1960), and Yuri Galanskov who issued the Phoenix (1961), two examples of literary samizdat.[15]: 17–19 

It was then that the 19-year-old Bukovsky wrote his critical notes on the Communist Youth League or Komsomol. Later, this text was given the title "Theses on the Collapse of the Komsomol" by the KGB. Bukovsky portrayed the USSR as an "illegal society" facing an acute ideological crisis. The Komsomol was "moribund", he asserted, having lost both moral and spiritual authority, and he called for its democratisation.[16] This text, and his other activities, brought Bukovsky to the attention of the authorities. He was interrogated twice before being thrown out of the university in autumn 1961.[17]

Bukovsky was arrested on 1 June 1963. He was later convicted, in absentia, by reason of his "insanity", under Article 70.1 ("Anti-Soviet agitation and propaganda") of the RSFSR Criminal Code. The official charge was the making and possession of photocopies of anti-Soviet literature, namely two copies of the banned work The New Class by Milovan Djilas.[17] Bukovsky was examined by Soviet psychiatrists, declared to be mentally ill ("schizophrenia"), and sent for treatment at the Special Psychiatric Hospital in Leningrad where he remained for almost two years[18], until February 1965.[17] It was there he became acquainted with General Petro Grigorenko, a fellow inmate.[19]

The Glasnost rally, 5 December 1965[edit]

In December 1965, Bukovsky helped prepare a demonstration on Pushkin Square in central Moscow to protest against the trial of the writers Andrei Sinyavsky and Yuli Daniel. He circulated the "Civic Appeal" by mathematician and poet Alexander Esenin-Volpin, which called on the authorities to obey the Soviet laws requiring glasnost in the judicial process, e.g. the admission of the public and the media to any trial.[17] The demonstration on 5 December 1965 (Constitution Day) became known as the Glasnost Meeting or rally, and marked the beginning of the openly active Soviet civil rights movement.

Bukovsky himself was unable to attend. Three days earlier he was arrested, charged with distributing the appeal, and kept in various psikhushkas,[17] among them Hospital No 13 at Lublino, Stolbovaya and the Serbsky Institute, until July 1966.

The Right to Demonstrate, 1967[edit]

On 22 January 1967, Bukovsky, Vadim Delaunay, Yevgeny Kushev and Victor Khaustov held another demonstration on Pushkin Square.[20] They were protesting against the recent arrests of Alexander Ginzburg, Yuri Galanskov, Alexei Dobrovolsky and Vera Lashkova (finally prosecuted in January 1968 in the Trial of the Four[21][22]) and asserting their own right to protest: on 16 September 1966 a new law, Article 190.3, had been introduced which classified any public gatherings or demonstrations as a crime.[23]

On 1 September 1967, at his own trial, Bukovsky used his final words to attack the regime's failure to respect the law or follow legal procedures. He invoked Article 125 of the (still current) 1936 Soviet Constitution to defend the right to organise demonstrations and other public protests. He further suggested that the prosecution had repeatedly failed to observe the revised 1961 Code of Criminal Procedure in its conduct of the case.[24]: 74–75  Bukovsky's final words in court circulated widely in a samizdat collection of such addresses[25] and as part of a collection of materials about the demonstration and subsequent trials compiled by Pavel Litvinov.[26]: 87–95 [27]: 37–43 

Fellow protestors Vadim Delaunay and Yevgeny Kushev admitted regret for their actions but not their guilt; they received suspended sentences and were released.[17][28] Bukovsky was defiant and, like fellow demonstrator Victor Khaustov (convicted in February 1967), was given three years in an "ordinary regime" corrective-labour camp. Bukovsky was sent to Bor in the Voronezh Region to serve his sentence. He was released in January 1970.[29]

The Campaign against the Abuse of Psychiatry[edit]

In the 1960s and 1970s, the Soviet authorities began the widespread use of psychiatric treatment as a form of punishment and deterrence for the independent-minded. This involved unlimited detention in a psikhushka, as such places were popularly known, which might be conventional psychiatric hospitals or psychiatric prison-hospitals set up (e.g. the Leningrad Special Psychiatric Hospital) as part of an existing penal institution. Healthy individuals were held among mentally ill and often dangerous patients; they were forced to take various psychotropic drugs; they might also be incarcerated in prison-type institutions under overall control of the KGB.[c 2]

During a clandestine interview filmed by CBS News correspondent Bill Cole in a forest near Moscow, Bukovsky described how the Soviet government was committing political dissidents to mental institutions and subjecting them to drug treatments.[30][31]

This was a major operation. About twenty of us, Russians and correspondents, went off to the woods outside Moscow, together with wives and children, for a picnic. The KGB kept in the background and watched us from a distance—their main worry was not to miss the moment of our departure. Therefore it was fairly easy for Bill and me to arrange it so that the agents couldn’t see him filming the interview. In fact, that was no problem—but smuggling it out was. Bill did two more interviews—with Andrei Amalrik and Pyotr Yakir—and I gave him a taped statement by Ginzburg that had been smuggled out of the Mordovian camps. This considerable package took three months to reach America.[3]

That interview along with interviews with Andrei Amalrik and Pyotr Yakir were smuggled out of the country by Canadian diplomats and aired in 1970 in the CBS News special report "Voices from the Soviet Underground."[30][31] In 1971, Bukovsky managed to smuggle to the West over 150 pages further documenting the political abuse of psychiatric institutions in the Soviet Union. In a letter addressed to "Western psychiatrists" and written in a deliberately restrained tone, Bukovsky asked them to consider if the evidence justified the isolation of several dissidents, and urged them to discuss the matter at the next International Congress of Psychiatrists.[15]: 138–141 [32][33]: 29–30 

In recent years in our country a number of court orders have been made involving the placing in psychiatric hospitals ("of special type" and otherwise) of people who in the opinion of their relatives and close friends are mentally healthy. These people are: Grigorenko, Rips, Gorbanevskaya, Novodvorskaya,[c 3] Ivan Yakhimovich,[c 4] Vladimir Gershuni,[c 5] Victor Fainberg,[c 6] Victor Kuznetsov,[c 7] Olga Ioffe,[c 8] Vladimir E. Borisov [c 9] and others – people well known for their initiative in defence of civil rights in the USSR.

This phenomenon arouses justified anxiety, especially in view of the widely publicized placing of the biologist Zhores Medvedev in a psychiatric hospital by extrajudicial means.

The diagnoses of the psychiatrists who have served as expert witnesses in court, and on whose diagnoses the court orders are based, provoke many doubts as regards their content. However, only specialists in psychiatry can express authoritative opinions about the degree of legitimacy of these diagnoses.

Taking advantage of the fact that I have managed to obtain exact copies of the diagnostic reports made by the forensic-psychiatric groups who examined Grigorenko, Fainberg, Gorbanevskaya, Borisov and Yakhimovich, and also extracts from the diagnosis on V. Kuznetsov, I am sending you these documents, and also various letters and other material which reveal the character of these people. I will be very grateful to you if you can study this material and express your opinion on it.

I realise that at a distance and without the essential clinical information it is very difficult to determine the mental condition of a person and either to diagnose an illness or assert the absence of any illness. Therefore I ask you to express your opinion on only this point: do the above-mentioned diagnoses contain enough scientifically-based evidence not only to indicate the mental illnesses described in the diagnoses, but also to indicate the necessity of isolating these people completely from society?

I will be very happy if you can interest your colleagues in this matter and if you consider it possible to place it on the agenda for discussion at the next International Congress of Psychiatrists.

For a healthy person there is no fate more terrible than indefinite internment in a mental hospital. I believe that you will not remain indifferent to this problem and will devote a portion of your time to it – just as physicists find time to combat the use of the achievements of their science in ways harmful to mankind.

Thanking you in advance,

V. Bukovsky

— Bukovsky's 1971 letter addressed to Western Psychiatrists[34][35]: 80–81 

The documents were released to the press in March 1971 by a small French group called the International Committee for the Defence of Human Rights. Bukovsky's letter appeared on 12 March in The Times (London) and later in the British Journal of Psychiatry[32][34][35]: 79, 82  Bukovsky was arrested on 29 March and held in custody for nine months before being put on trial in January 1972.[17]

The information Bukovsky had gathered and sent to the West galvanised human rights activists worldwide and those within the Soviet Union. It also struck a chord among psychiatrists. In September that year 44 European psychiatrists wrote to The Times (London) expressing grave doubts about the diagnoses of the six people concerned.[36] At a meeting in November 1971, the World Federation for Mental Health called on its members to investigate the charges and defend the right to free opinion where it was threatened.[35]: 85  These responses were carefully documented by the dissident human rights periodical Chronicle of Current Events, which also recorded the many statements made by Bukovsky's friends and fellow rights activists in his defence. As the person at the centre of this unprecedented international row, Bukovsky waited in almost total isolation, without access to a lawyer, to be tried and sent to the camps or a special psychiatric hospital.[c 10]

Responding to public pressure,[37] the World Psychiatric Association finally condemned Soviet practices at its Sixth World Congress in 1977 and set up a review committee to monitor misuse.[33]: 111  In 1983, the Soviet representatives withdrew from the World Psychiatric Association rather than face expulsion.[33]: 42–44  Bukovsky later characterised this reaction as "the most important victory for the dissident form of glasnost".[38]: 144 

Final arrest (1971) and imprisonment[edit]

Following the release of the documents, Bukovsky was denounced in Pravda as a "malicious hooligan, engaged in anti-Soviet activities" and arrested on 29 March 1971.[c 11] At first held in Lefortovo Prison, in August, Bukovsky spent approximately three months in the Serbsky Institute, which this time pronounced him mentally sound and able to stand trial.[39]

During the trial in January 1972 Bukovsky was accused of slandering Soviet psychiatry, contacts with foreign journalists, and the possession and distribution of samizdat. On this occasion he again used his final words to the court to reach a much wider audience when the text circulated in samizdat.[c 12] He was sentenced to two years in prison, five in a labour camp, and five more in internal exile.[27]: 31–32 [c 13]

While in prison Bukovsky and his fellow inmate, the psychiatrist Semyon Gluzman, wrote a brief 20-page Manual on Psychiatry for Dissidents, which was widely published abroad, in Russian (1975) and in many other languages, including [40] English,[41] French,[42] Italian,[43] German,[44] and Danish.[45] It instructed potential victims of political psychiatry how to behave during interrogation to avoid being diagnosed as mentally ill.[46]

Deportation from the USSR (1976)[edit]

Protest demonstration of January 1975 in Amsterdam for Vladimir Bukovsky's release from prison

The fate of Bukovsky and other political prisoners in the Soviet Union had been repeatedly brought to world attention by Western diplomats and human rights groups such as the relatively new Amnesty International formed in 1961.[39]: 175 

In December 1976, Bukovsky was deported from the USSR and exchanged at Zürich airport by the Soviet government for the imprisoned general secretary of the Communist Party of Chile, Luis Corvalán.[47][48] In his 1978 autobiography Bukovsky describes how he was brought to Switzerland in handcuffs.[3]: 432  The widely publicised exchange increased public awareness in the West about Soviet dissidents.[39]: 175  A fellow dissident, Vadim Delaunay wrote an epigram on the occasion:[49][50]

They exchanged a hooligan
For one Luis Corvalan.
Now we need to find a bitch
To exchange her for Ilyich

In March 1977, US President Jimmy Carter met with Bukovsky at the White House. In the USSR the meeting was seen by dissidents and rights activists as a sign of the newly elected president's willingness to stress human rights in his foreign policy; the event provoked harsh criticism by Soviet leaders.[51]

Bukovsky moved to Great Britain where he settled in Cambridge and resumed his studies in biology, disrupted fifteen years earlier (see above) by his expulsion from Moscow University.[52]: 7 

Life in the West[edit]

Bukovsky gained a master's degree in Biology at Cambridge University. He also wrote and published To Build a Castle: My Life as a Dissenter (1978).[53] (The title in Russian, And the Wind Returns ..., is a Biblical allusion.)[54] The book was translated into English, French and German.[55] It was published in Russian the following year by Chalidze publishers in New York. Today the Russian original is available online via a number of websites.[56][57][58]

Since he has lived in the West, Bukovsky has written many essays and polemical articles. These not only criticised the Soviet regime and, later, that of Vladimir Putin, but also exposed "Western gullibility" in the face of Soviet abuses and, in some cases, what he believed to be Western complicity in such crimes. In the late 1970s and early 1980s, following the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan, Bukovsky campaigned successfully for an official UK and US boycott of the summer 1980 Olympics in Moscow.[59] During the same years he voiced concern about the activities and policies of the Western peace movements.[60]

Bukovsky at 5th Sakharov Conference, May 1987, Netherlands: (l. to r.) Prime Minister Lubbers, Vladimir Bukovsky, Professor Bezemer, Professor Robert Conquest

In 1983, together with Cuban dissident Armando Valladares, Bukovsky co-founded and was later elected president of Resistance International.[17][61] The anti-Communist organisation was run from a small office in Paris by Soviet dissidents and emigres, notably Vladimir Maximov and Eduard Kuznetsov.[17] In 1985 it expanded into the American Foundation for Resistance International.[61] Among the prominent members of the board were Albert Jolis and Jeane Kirkpatrick while Midge Decter, Yuri Yarim-Agaev, Richard Perle, Saul Bellow, Robert Conquest and Martin Colman were on the body's advisory committee.[62] The Foundation aimed to be a co-ordinating centre for dissident and democratic movements seeking to overturn communism in Eastern Europe and elsewhere. It organised protests in the communist countries and in the West, and opposed western financial assistance to communist governments. The Foundation also created the National Council to Support Democratic Movements (National Council for Democracy) with the goal of aiding the emergence of democratic rule-of-law governments, and providing assistance with the writing of constitutions and the formation of civil institutions.[63][64]

In March 1987, Bukovsky and nine other émigré authors (Ernst Neizvestny, Yury Lyubimov, Vasily Aksyonov and Leonid Plyushch among them) caused a furore in the West and then in the Soviet Union itself when they raised doubts about the substance and sincerity of Mikhail Gorbachev's reforms.[65]

Return to the Soviet Union (1991)[edit]

In April 1991, Vladimir Bukovsky visited Moscow for the first time since his deportation fifteen years before.[66]

In the run-up to the 1991 presidential election, Boris Yeltsin's campaign team included Bukovsky on their list of potential vice-presidential running-mates.[61] In the end, army officer Alexander Rutskoy, a veteran of the 1979–1989 war in Afghanistan and Hero of the Soviet Union was selected. On 5 December 1991, both of Bukovsky's Soviet-era convictions were annulled by a decree of the RSFSR Supreme Court.[67] The following year President Yeltsin formally restored Bukovsky's Russian citizenship: he had never been deprived of his Soviet citizenship, despite deportation from the country.[68]

Post-Soviet Union activities[edit]

British and European psychiatrists assessing the documents on psychiatric abuse released by Bukovsky characterised him in 1971: "The information we have about [Vladimir Bukovsky] suggests that he is the sort of person who might be embarrassing to authorities in any country because he seems unwilling to compromise for convenience and personal comfort, and believes in saying what he thinks in situations which he clearly knows could endanger him. But such people often have much to contribute, and deserve considerable respect."

Soon after the collapse of the Soviet Union Vladimir Bukovsky was again out of favour with the Russian authorities. He supported Yeltsin against the Supreme Soviet in the 1993 Russian constitutional crisis in October that year but criticised the new Constitution of Russia approved two months later, as being designed to ensure a continuation of Yeltsin's power.[69][70] According to Bukovsky, Yeltsin became a hostage of the security agencies from 1994 onwards, and a restoration of KGB rule was inevitable.[17]

Judgment in Moscow (1995–2019)[edit]

In 1992, after the dissolution of the Soviet Union, President Yeltsin's government invited Bukovsky to serve as an expert witness at the trial before the Constitutional Court where Russia's communists were suing Yeltsin for banning their Party and taking its property. The respondent's case was that the CPSU itself had been an unconstitutional organisation.[17] To prepare his testimony, Bukovsky requested and was granted access to a large number of documents from the CPSU Central Committee archives (then reorganised into the Central Depository for Contemporary Documentation or TsKhSD).[17] With the help of a small hand-held scanner and a laptop computer, he managed secretly to make photocopies of many of the documents (some with high security clearance), including KGB reports to the Central Committee. The copies were then smuggled to the West.[71]

Bukovsky hoped that an international tribunal in Moscow might play a similar role to the first Nuremberg Trial (1945–1946) in post-Nazi Germany and help the country begin to overcome the legacy of Communism.[72]

It took several years and a team of assistants to piece together the scanned fragments (many only half a page in width) of the hundreds of documents photocopied by Bukovsky and then, in 1999, to make them available online.[73] Many of the same documents were extensively quoted and cited in Bukovsky's Judgment in Moscow (1995), where he described and analysed what he had uncovered about recent Soviet history and about the relations of the USSR and the CPSU with the West.[8]

The book was soon translated into several languages[74] but did not appear in English for over twenty years. Random House bought the rights to the manuscript, but the publisher, in Bukovsky's words, tried to make the author "rewrite the whole book from the liberal left political perspective." Bukovsky resisted, explaining to the Random House editor that he was "allergic to political censorship" because of "certain peculiarities of my biography". (The contract was subsequently cancelled.).[75]

Meanwhile, the book was published in French as Jugement à Moscou (1995),[76] in Russian (1996) and in certain other Slavic languages: for a time the Polish edition became a best-seller.[75][77] In 2016, it was published in Italian, by Spirali, with the title Gli archivi segreti di Mosca. An English language translation did not appear in book form until May 2019, five months before the author died.[78]

Potential 1992 mayoral candidacy[edit]

In 1992, a group of liberal deputies of the Moscow City Council proposed Bukovsky's candidacy for elections of the new Mayor of Moscow, following the resignation of the previous Mayor, Gavriil Popov.[17]: 478  Bukovsky refused the offer, stating that to fulfil the mayor's duties he would need a large team of intellectuals committed to radical reform, and there was a lack of such people in the country.[17] Deputy mayor Yury Luzhkov took over, and ran the city from 1992 to 2010.

Potential 1996 presidential candidacy[edit]

In early 1996, a group of Moscow academics, journalists and intellectuals suggested that Vladimir Bukovsky should run for President of Russia as an alternative candidate to both incumbent President Boris Yeltsin and his main challenger Gennady Zyuganov of the Communist Party of the Russian Federation. However, no formal nomination process was initiated.[79]

Memento Gulag[edit]

In 2001, Bukovsky was elected President of the Comitatus pro Libertatibus – Comitati per le Libertà – Freedom Committees in Florence, an Italian libertarian organisation which promoted an annual Memento Gulag, or Memorial Day devoted to the Victims of Communism, on 7 November (the anniversary of the Bolshevik Revolution).[17] The Memento Gulag has since been held in Rome, Bucharest, Berlin, La Roche sur Yon and Paris.

Contacts with Boris Nemtsov and the Russian Opposition[edit]

In 2002, Boris Nemtsov, former Deputy Prime Minister of Russia who was then an elected member of the State Duma and leader of the Union of Rightist Forces, paid a visit to Bukovsky in Cambridge. He wanted to discuss the strategy of the Russian opposition. It was imperative, Bukovsky told Nemtsov, that Russian liberals adopt an uncompromising stand toward what he saw as the authoritarian government of President Vladimir Putin.[80]

On one of journalist Anna Politkovskaya's frequent visits to Britain she interviewed Vladimir Bukovsky and Boris Berezovsky to provide a "comparative analysis of different waves of political emigration".[81] With Bukovsky, "The Patriarch" as he was called in the published version of her article, she discussed the position of those who had gained political asylum in Britain (Ahmed Zakayev, Alexander Litvinenko), and the attitudes of the UK government of Tony Blair and of the European Parliament to the situation in Chechnya. During their talk Bukovsky expressed disapproval of the way in which Slobodan Milosevic was brought before the Hague tribunal, calling arrest of Millosevic "illegal", blaming it on "new left in Europe" and saying "they simply made up crimes".[81]

In January 2004, with Garry Kasparov, Boris Nemtsov, Vladimir V. Kara-Murza and others, Bukovsky was a co-founder of Committee 2008.[82] This umbrella organisation of the Russian democratic opposition was formed to ensure free and fair elections in 2008 when a successor to Vladimir Putin was elected.[83]

In 2005, Bukovsky was among the prominent dissidents of the 1960s and 1970s (Gorbanevskaya, Sergei Kovalyov, Eduard Kuznetsov, Alexander Podrabinek, Yelena Bonner) who took part in a documentary series by Vladimir Kara-Murza Jr. They Chose Freedom.[84] In 2013 Bukovsky was featured in a documentary series by Natella Boltyanskaya Parallels, Events, People.[85]

In 2009, Bukovsky joined the council of the new Solidarnost coalition which brought together a wide range of extra-parliamentary opposition forces.[86]

Criticism of torture in Abu Ghraib prison (Iraq)[edit]

As revelations mounted about the sanctioned torture of captives in the Guantánamo Bay detention camp, Abu Ghraib and the CIA secret prisons, Bukovsky entered the discussion with an uncompromising attack on the official if covert rationalisation of torture. In an 18 December 2005 op-ed in The Washington Post, Bukovsky recounted his experience under torture in Lefortovo prison in 1971.[87] Once commenced, he warned, the inertia of torture was difficult to control, corrupting those who carried it out. "Torture", he wrote, "has historically been an instrument of oppression—not an instrument of investigation or of intelligence gathering." Bukovsky explained:

Investigation is a subtle process, requiring patience and fine analytical ability, as well as a skill in cultivating one's sources. When torture is condoned, these rare talented people leave the service, having been outstripped by less gifted colleagues with their quick-fix methods, and the service itself degenerates into a playground for sadists.[87]

US President Barack Obama repudiated the Torture Memos on 20 January 2009, two days after taking office.

Criticism of the European Union[edit]

In EUSSR, a booklet written with Pavel Stroilov and published in 2004, Bukovsky exposed what he saw as the "Soviet roots of European Integration".[88] Two years later, in an interview with The Brussels Journal,[89] Bukovsky said he had read confidential documents from secret Soviet files in 1992 which confirmed the existence of a "conspiracy" to turn the European Union into a socialist organisation. The European Union was a "monster", he argued, and it must be destroyed, the sooner the better, "before it develops into a full-fledged totalitarian state".[90] As an expression of his Eurosceptic position Bukovsky was vice-president of The Freedom Association (TFA) in the United Kingdom.[91]

Ten years earlier, Bukovsky sketched some of the ways in which cooperation was secured.[92] Beyond those who were recruited as Soviet agents and consciously worked for the USSR, as he explained in Judgment in Moscow (1995), there were men and women whom the KGB and GRU classified as "agents of influence" and "confidential contacts":[93]

The majority of these "agents of influence", moreover, were not in a literal sense KGB agents. Some distributed Soviet disinformation for idealistic reasons; others were paying off an old "debt" to the KGB or, on the contrary, expected some new reward or service; others simply did not know what they were doing. ... The examples are endlessly varied.

This applied equally, Bukovsky cautioned, to post-Stalin generations of specialists on the USSR and Eastern Europe. They had been subjected to similar pressures and inducements in the 1970s and 1980s:[94]

The majority of Sovietologists and Slavists, experts on Russia and the Soviet Union, were dependent on the regime for permission to visit the USSR from time to time. A specialist could not secure his place and reputation in the current academic world without that contact: anyone might accuse him of having lost touch and no longer retaining his expertise. The chance to travel to the USSR, however, was closely monitored in those years by the KGB.

2008 presidential candidacy[edit]

In May 2007, Bukovsky announced his plans to run as candidate for president in the May 2008 Russian presidential election.[95] On 16 December 2007, Bukovsky was officially nominated to run against Dmitry Medvedev and other candidates.[96][97]

Bukovsky's appeal against exclusion from the presidential race, decision of the Russian Supreme Court, 28 December 2007[98]

The group that nominated Bukovsky as a candidate included Yuri Ryzhov, Vladimir V. Kara-Murza, Alexander Podrabinek, Andrei Piontkovsky, Vladimir Pribylovsky and others.[99] Activists, authors and commentators such as Viktor Shenderovich, Valeriya Novodvorskaya and Lev Rubinstein also favoured Bukovsky.[100][101]

Responding to pro-Kremlin politicians and commentators who expressed doubt about Bukovsky's electoral prospects, his nominators rejected a number of frequently repeated allegations.[102] In Moscow more than 800 citizens of the Russian Federation nominated Bukovsky for president on 16 December 2007. Bukovsky secured the required number of signatures to register and submitted his application to the Central Election Commission on time, 18 December 2007.[103][104][105]

Bukovsky's candidacy received the support of Grigory Yavlinsky, who announced on 14 December 2007 at the Yabloko party conference that he would forgo a campaign of his own and would instead support Bukovsky.[106]

The Action Group in support of Bukovsky's candidacy denied claims by pro-government media that Bukovsky had failed in his campaign to become RF President and in appeals before the RF Constitutional Court.[107]

On 22 December 2007, the Central Electoral Commission turned down Bukovsky's application, on the grounds that (1) he had failed to give information about his activities as a writer when submitting his documents, (2) he was holding a British residence permit, and (3) he had not been living in Russia during the past ten years.[95] Bukovsky appealed against the decision at the RF Supreme Court on 28 December 2007 and, subsequently, before its cassation board on 15 January 2008.[108][98]

On 30 March 2011, Bukovsky requested the arrest of Mikhail Gorbachev by the British authorities after submitting to Westminster Magistrates' Court materials on crimes against humanity that the former Soviet leader had allegedly committed in the late 1980s and early 1990s.[109]

Crimea, Ukraine, Litvinenko Inquiry (2012–2015)[edit]

Bukovsky was among the first 34 signatories of "Putin must go", an online anti-Putin manifesto published on 10 March 2010.[110] In May 2012, Vladimir Putin began his third term as president of the Russian Federation after serving four years as the country's prime minister. The following year, Bukovsky published a collection of interviews in Russia which described Putin and his team as The heirs of Lavrentiy Beria, Stalin's last and most notorious secret police chief.[111]

In March 2014 Russia annexed Crimea after Ukraine had lost control of its government buildings, airports and military bases in Crimea to unmarked soldiers and local pro-Russian militias.[112] The West responded with sanctions targeted at Putin's immediate entourage, and Bukovsky expressed the hope that this would prove the end of his regime.[113]

In October 2014, the Russian authorities declined to issue Bukovsky with a new foreign-travel passport.[114] The Russian Foreign Ministry stated that it could not confirm Bukovsky's citizenship.[115] The response was met with surprise from the Presidential Human Rights Council[116] and the Human Rights ombudsman of the Russian Federation.[117]

On 17 March 2015, at the long-delayed inquiry into Alexander Litvinenko's fatal poisoning Bukovsky gave his views as to why the former FSB man had been murdered.[118] Interviewed on BBC TV eight years before, Bukovsky expressed no doubt that the Russian authorities were responsible for the London death of Litvinenko on 23 November 2006.[119]

"Indecent images of children" prosecution[edit]

In 2015, the UK Crown Prosecution Service announced prosecution of Bukovsky for making and possesion of thousands of "child abuse images", featuring boys[120] and children of toddler age[121], allegedly found on his computer.[122] Bukovsky's statements about the accusations were inconsistent. According to the prosecutor William Carter, Bukovsky told detectives that he himself had downloaded the images over the course of 15 years, and collecting child abuse images had become something of a hobby to him.[123] Bukovsky had also noted that children in the images looked to him as if they were enjoying themselves.[124] On another occasion, Bukovsky described the accusations as absurd and said that the tip about the images – which he initially said were planted on his computer by a backdoor program – was passed through Europol from Russian security services.[125] Bukovsky also noted that while the original announcement by the CPS accused him of "possession and making", the prosecution materials passed to the court only charged "possession".[125][126]

In early May 2015, it was reported that Bukovsky had undergone a nine-hour heart operation in a private German clinic, during which he was given two artificial valves. Subsequently, Bukovsky was kept in a medically induced coma for three days to improve his chances of recovery.[127] After partial recovery from his lengthy heart surgery, Vladimir Bukovsky responded to charges brought against him by the UK Crown Prosecution Service earlier in the year.[128] Issuing a High Court writ for libel, Vladimir Bukovsky said that the CPS had defamed him, and claimed damages of £100,000.[129] Bukovsky was later ruled to be too ill to stand trial.[130]


Grave of Vladimir Bukovsky in Highgate Cemetery

Bukovsky died of a heart attack on 27 October 2019 at the age of 76 in Cambridge, Cambridgeshire, after a period of ill-health.[130] He is buried on the eastern side of Highgate Cemetery.


In translation
  • 1978: To Build a Castle: My Life as a Dissenter (PDF). London: André Deutsch (UK edn). 1978. ISBN 978-0-233-97023-3. Archived from the original (PDF) on 1 May 2013. Retrieved 5 October 2015. 352 pp.
  • 1987: To Choose Freedom. Hoover Press publication. Stanford, Calif: Hoover Institution Press. 1987. ISBN 978-0-8179-8442-7.
  • 1995: Jugement a Moscou: un dissident dans les archives du Kremlin (in French). Paris: Robert Laffont. 1995. ISBN 978-2-221-07460-2. 616 pp.
  • 1999: Soviet Archives: Online archive compiled by Vladimir Bukovsky, prepared for publication by the late Julia Zaks (1938–2014) and Leonid Chernikhov
  • 2016: The Bukovsky Archives upgraded version of 1999 archive.
  • 2019: Judgment in Moscow: Soviet crimes and Western complicity
In Russian
  • 1979: И возвращается ветер [To Build a Castle]. New York: Изд. "Хроника" (Khronika Press). 1979. 382 pp. The first publication in Russian of Bukovsky's memoirs was given a Biblical title (see Ecclesiastes, v. 6).
  • 1989: "И возвращается ветер" [To Build a Castle]. Teatr: Literaturno-Chudožestvennyj Žurnal. М.: Teatr periodical. 1989. ISSN 0131-6885. The first publication of Bukovsky's memoirs in the USSR.
  • 1996: Московский процесс [Judgment in Moscow]. М.; Париж: МИК: Рус. мысль. 1996. p. 525. ISBN 978-5-87902-071-7.
  • 2001: Буковский В.; Геращенко И.; Ледин М.; Ратушинская И.; Суворов В. (2001). Золотой эшелон [The golden echelon]. Собрание. М.: Гудьял-Пресс. p. 256. ISBN 978-5-8026-0082-5.
  • 2007: И возвращается ветер [To Build a Castle]. Свободный человек. М.: Новое изд-во. 2007. p. 348. ISBN 978-5-98379-090-2. (First serialised in Teatr periodical, see above, 1989).
  • 2008: Письма русского путешественника [Letters of a Russian traveller]. Moscow & St Petersburg: Нестор-История [Nestor-History]. 2008.
  • 2013: Наследники Лаврентия Берия. Путин и его команда [The heirs of Lavrenty Beria: Putin and his team]. M.: Алгоритм. 2013. ISBN 978-5-4438-0337-1.
  • 2014: Тайная империя Путина. Будет ли "дворцовый переворот"? [Putin's secret empire. Will there be a "palace coup"?]. M.: Алгоритм. 2014. ISBN 978-5-4438-0880-2.
  • 2015: На краю. Тяжелый выбор России [On the edge. Russia faces a hard choice]. M.: Алгоритм. 2015. ISBN 978-5-906798-82-4.



A Chronicle of Current Events (1968–1982)[edit]

  1. ^ "The Gratitude Fund, Assistance to Former Soviet Political Prisoners". thegratitudefund.org. Retrieved 11 June 2019.
  2. ^ "The fate of dissenters declared mentally ill, July 1969 (8.7)". A Chronicle of Current Events. 25 September 2013. Retrieved 11 June 2019.
  3. ^ "Arrests among Moscow students, December 1969 (11.7)". 10 October 2013.
  4. ^ "Two trials about compulsory medical treatment, July–August 1969 (9.3)". 5 October 2013.
  5. ^ "Notes from Oryol SPH, Vladimir Gershuni: March 1971 (19.2)". 16 December 2015.
  6. ^ "CCE 19.3 (30 April 1971), "The hunger-strike of Victor Fainberg and Vladimir Borisov in Leningrad Special Psychiatric Hospital"" (PDF).
  7. ^ "The arrest of Victor Kuznetsov, 20 March 1969 (7.3)". 25 September 2013.
  8. ^ "The Trial of Olga Joffe, 20 August 1970 (15.2)". 11 May 2014.
  9. ^ "The trial of Vladimir Borisov (Leningrad), 19 November 1969 (11.10)". 6 October 2013.
  10. ^ "Materials concerning the forthcoming International Congress of Psychiatrists, 16 September 1971 (22.3)". A Chronicle of Current Events. 8 December 2015. Retrieved 11 June 2019.
  11. ^ "The Arrest of Bukovsky, 29 March 1971 (19.1)". A Chronicle of Current Events. 8 December 2015. Retrieved 11 June 2019.
  12. ^ "The Case of Vladimir Bukovsky, January 1972 (23.1)". A Chronicle of Current Events. 9 December 2015. Retrieved 11 June 2019.
  13. ^ For reactions in the West and the Soviet Union to the sentence see CCE 24.1 (5 March 1972), "The case of Vladimir Bukovsky". For a KGB profile of Bukovsky, dated 18 May 1972, see: Morozov, Boris (1999). Documents on Soviet Jewish Emigration. London: Frank Cass. pp. 152–154. ISBN 978-0-7146-4911-5.


  1. ^ Cooper, David (February 2009). "The Thomas S. Szasz Award for Outstanding Contributions to the Cause of Civil Liberties". Mental Health and Substance Use. 2 (1): 1–3. doi:10.1080/17523280802630251.
  2. ^ Boobbyer, Philip (July 2009). "Vladimir Bukovskii and Soviet Communism". The Slavonic and East European Review. 87 (3): 452–487. doi:10.1353/see.2009.0092. JSTOR 40650408. S2CID 147788063.
  3. ^ a b c Bukovsky, Vladimir (1978). To Build a Castle: My Life as a Dissenter. Andre Deutsch: London. ISBN 978-0-233-97023-3. Jacket
  4. ^ Bukovsky's works on neurophysiology Eight articles published 1981–1988.
  5. ^ Hilton, Ronald (1986). World affairs report. Volumes 16–17. California Institute of International Studies. p. 26..
  6. ^ Davidoff, Victor (13 October 2013). "Soviet Psychiatry Returns". The Moscow Times. Retrieved 22 April 2014.
  7. ^ "International Advisory Council". Victims of Communism Memorial Foundation. Archived from the original on 10 June 2011. Retrieved 20 May 2011.
  8. ^ a b "Vladimir Bukovsky", Cato Institute website
  9. ^ "Truman-Reagan Medal of Freedom". Victims of Communism Memorial Foundation. Archived from the original on 24 April 2016. Retrieved 26 April 2016.
  10. ^ Konstantin Ivanovich Bukovsky, Kratkaya literaturnaya entsiklopedia. A Communist Party member from 1931 and a war correspondent //(1939–1945), after 1946 Konstantin Bukovsky worked for the Ogonyok magazine; he wrote about conditions in the Soviet countryside.
  11. ^ To Build a Castle: My Life as a Dissenter (PDF). London: Andrei Deutsch (UK edn). 1978. pp. 122–132. ISBN 978-0-233-97023-3. Archived from the original (PDF) on 1 May 2013. Retrieved 5 October 2015.
  12. ^ "'Not Suitable for Recruiting': A Talk with Vladimir Bukovsky, Part I". National Review. 13 May 2019. Retrieved 23 September 2019.
  13. ^ Vladimir Bukovsky, "A Soviet Hyde-Park Corner" in My predchuvstvie, predtecha ...: Ploshchad Mayakovskogo, 1958–1965, Zvenya: Moscow, 1996 (Collection title in English: We were the premonition, the forerunners ...)
  14. ^ Sentenced to 7 years in labour camp for samizdat activities, released in 1968. See CCE 4.7 (31 October 1968), "News in brief" (item 9).
  15. ^ a b Rubenstein, Joshua (1980). Soviet dissidents: their struggle for human rights. Boston: Beacon. ISBN 978-0-8070-3212-1.
  16. ^ Vladimir Bukovsky, "Tezisy {o razvale Komsomole}" in My predchuvstvie, predtecha ...: Ploshchad Mayakovskogo, 1958–1965 Zvenya: Moscow, 1996. See also 1997 book of same name ISBN 5-7870-0002-1
  17. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o Boobbyer, Richard (July 2009). "Vladimir Bukovskii and Soviet Communism". The Slavonic and East European Review. 87 (3): 452–487. doi:10.1353/see.2009.0092. JSTOR 40650408. S2CID 147788063.
  18. ^ Victims of political terror in the USSR.(in Russian) Database of the Memorial Society.
  19. ^ Rubenstein, Joshua (1981). Soviet Dissidents: Their Struggle for Human Rights. London: Wildwood House. p. 135. ISBN 978-0-7045-3062-1.
  20. ^ Vladimir Bukovsky, To Build a Castle (1978), pp 220–224.
  21. ^ ""The Trial of Galanskov and Ginzburg", CCE 1.1 (30 April 1968". Archived from the original on 11 December 2015.
  22. ^ Litvinov, Pavel (1971). The Trial of The Four: A collection of Materials on the case of Galanskov, Ginzburg, Dobrovolsky, & Lashkova 1967–1968. New York: The Viking Press. ISBN 978-0-670-73017-9.
  23. ^ "Vladimir Bukovsky, Soviet Archive, Section 3.1 "1960–1969", 4 September 1967, P 1393". bukovsky-archives.net.
  24. ^ Horvath, Robert (2005). The Legacy of Soviet Dissent: Dissidents, Democratisation and Radical Nationalism in Russia. BASEES/Routledge Series on Russian and East European Studies. Vol. 17. London; New York: RoutledgeCurzon. ISBN 978-0-203-41285-5.
  25. ^ CCE 12.10 (28 February 1970) "Samizdat update, item 11" and CCE 17.13 (31 December 1970), "Samizdat update, item 8".
  26. ^ Litvinov, Pavel (1969). The demonstration in Pushkin Square. The trial records with commentary and an open letter. London: Harvill. ASIN B0026Q02KE.
  27. ^ a b Abuse of psychiatry for political repression in the Soviet Union. New York: Arno. 1973. ISBN 978-0-405-00698-2.
  28. ^ Vladimir Bukovsky, To Build a Castle, p. 239.
  29. ^ Berson, Robin Kadison (1999). Young Heroes in World History. Westport, Conn: Greenwood Press. p. 44. ISBN 978-0-313-30257-2.
  30. ^ a b "Rose-Marie Debecker Remembers Bill Cole".
  31. ^ a b "News in Brief, August 1970 (15.10)". 9 May 2014.
  32. ^ a b Reddaway, Peter (12 March 1971). "Plea to West on Soviet 'mad-house' jails". The Times. p. 8.
  33. ^ a b c Bloch, Sidney; Reddaway, Peter (1984). Soviet Psychiatric Abuse. The Shadow Over World Psychiatry. London: Gollancz. ISBN 978-0-575-03253-8.
  34. ^ a b Richter, Derek (1 August 1971). "Political Dissenters in Mental Hospitals". The British Journal of Psychiatry. 119 (549): 225–226. doi:10.1192/bjp.119.549.225. S2CID 145461136.
  35. ^ a b c Bloch, Sidney; Reddaway, Peter (1977). Russia's Political Hospitals. London: Gollancz. ISBN 978-0-575-02318-5.
  36. ^ The Times, 16 September 1971, p. 17.
  37. ^ The first edition of Bloch and Reddaway's book on Russia's political hospitals was published in 1977, during the run-up to the Congress.
  38. ^ Bukovskii, Vladimir (1996). Moskovskii Protsess [Moscow trial] (in Russian). Moscow: MIK.
  39. ^ a b c Hurst, Mark (2016). British Human Rights Organizations and Soviet Dissent, 1965–1985. Bloomsbury. p. 32. ISBN 978-1-4725-2516-1.
  40. ^ Bukovsky, Vladimir & Gluzman, Semyon (January–February 1975a). Пособие по психиатрии для инакомыслящих [A manual on psychiatry for dissidents]. Хроника защиты прав в СССР [A Chronicle of Human Rights in the USSR] (in Russian) (13): 36–61. published in: Коротенко, Ада; Аликина, Наталия (2002). Советская психиатрия: Заблуждения и умысел. Киев: Издательство "Сфера". pp. 197–218. ISBN 978-966-7841-36-2.
  41. ^ Bukovsky, Vladimir; Gluzman, Semyon (Winter–Spring 1975b). "A manual on psychiatry for dissidents". Survey: A Journal of East and West Studies. 21 (1): 180–199.
    • Bukovsky, Vladimir; Gluzman, Semyon (1975c). A manual of psychiatry for political dissidents. London: Amnesty International. OCLC 872337790.
    • Bukovsky, Vladimir; Gluzman, Semyon (1975d). "A dissident's guide to psychiatry". A Chronicle of Human Rights in the USSR (13): 31–57.
  42. ^ Boukovsky, Vladimir; Glouzmann, Semion (September 1975). "Guide de psychiatrie pour les dissidents soviétiques: dédié à Lonia Pliouchtch, victime de la terreur psychiatrique" [Guide on psychiatry for Soviet dissidents: dedicated to Lyonya Plyushch, a victim of psychiatric terror]. Esprit (in French). 449 (9): 307–332. JSTOR 24263203.
  43. ^ Bukovskij, Vladimir; Gluzman, Semen; Leva, Marco (1979). Guida psichiatrica per dissidenti. Con esempi pratici e una lettera dal Gulag [Psychiatric guide for dissidents. With practical examples and a letter from the Gulag] (in Italian). Milan: L'erba voglio. ASIN B00E3B4JK4.
  44. ^ Bukowski, Wladimir; Gluzman, Semen (1976). "Psychiatrie-handbuch für dissidenten" [A manual on psychiatry for dissidents]. Samisdat. Stimmen aus dem "anderen Rußland" (in German) (8): 29–48.
  45. ^ Bukovskiĭ, Vladimir; Gluzman, Semyon (1975e). Håndbog i psykiatri for afvigere [A manual on psychiatry for dissidents] (in Danish). Göteborg: Samarbetsdynamik AB. ISBN 978-9185396009. OCLC 7551381.
  46. ^ Helmchen, Hanfried; Sartorius, Norman (2010). Ethics in Psychiatry: European Contributions. Springer. p. 495. ISBN 978-90-481-8720-1.
  47. ^ Laird, Robbin; Hoffmann, Erik (1986). Soviet foreign policy in a changing world. Transaction Publishers. p. 79. ISBN 978-0-202-24166-1.
  48. ^ Ulianova, Olga (2013). "Corvalán for Bukovsky: a real exchange of prisoners during an imaginary war. The Chilean dictatorship, the Soviet Union, and US mediation, 1973–1976". Cold War History. 14 (3): 315–336. doi:10.1080/14682745.2013.793310. ISSN 1743-7962. S2CID 154704693.
  49. ^ Glasnost' and Freedom, Memoirs by Sergei Grigoryants.
  50. ^ "ОБМЕНЯЛИ ХУЛИГАНА НА ЛУИСА КОРВАЛАНА" [They exchanged a hooligan for Luis Corvalan]. www.trud.ru (in Russian). 15 September 2006.
  51. ^ Nuti, Leopoldo (2008). The Crisis of Détente in Europe: From Helsinki to Gorbachev 1975–1985. Cold War History. Routledge. p. 35;17–18. ISBN 978-1-134-04498-6.
  52. ^ Voren, Robert van (2009). On Dissidents and Madness: From the Soviet Union of Leonid Brezhnev to the "Soviet Union" of Vladimir Putin. Amsterdam & New York: Rodopi. p. 7. ISBN 978-90-420-2585-1.
  53. ^ The English title is derived from one of Bukovsky's distractions, invented to while away long hours behind bars. He would imagine constructing a fortress from the ground up, To Build a Castle, Andre Deutsch: London, 1978, pp. 22–23.
  54. ^ "What does a man gaine from all his labour and his toil here under the sun? ... The wind blows south, the wind blows north, round and round it goes and returns full circle", Ecclesiastes, 1:3–6.
  55. ^ ... et le vent reprend ses tours: Ma vie de dissident, Editions du Rocher, 1978, 406 pages (ISBN 978-2-221-00128-8)
  56. ^ В.Буковский (1978) "И возвращается ветер ..." Vehi.net
  57. ^ B.Буковский (1978) "И возвращается ветер ..." Sakharov-venter.ru Archived 15 October 2007 at the Wayback Machine
  58. ^ В. Буковский (1978) "И возвращается ветер ..." Tyurem.net
  59. ^ Vladimir Bukovsky, "How Russia breaks the rules of the Games", letter to The Daily Telegraph, 2 October 1979; "Do athletes want the KGB to win the Olympics?" News of the World, 20 January 1980
  60. ^ "The Soviet Union and the Peace Movement". Commentary. 5 January 1982.
  61. ^ a b c Saul, Norman E. (2015). Historical Dictionary of Russian and Soviet Foreign Policy. Historical dictionaries of diplomacy and foreign relations. Lanham, Maryland: Rowman & Littlefield. p. 63. ISBN 978-0-8108-6806-9.
  62. ^ "In The U.S.S.R". Resistance Bulletin. 1 (5–9). 1988.
  63. ^ Jolis, Albert (1996). A Clutch of Reds and Diamonds: A Twentieth Century Odyssey. East European monographs. Boulder: New York: East European Monographs; Distributed by Columbia University Press. pp. 363–380. ISBN 978-0-88033-364-1.
  64. ^ "Resistance International". Survey. 27–28: 311. 1983.
  65. ^ "Is Glasnost a Game of Mirrors?". The New York Times. 22 March 1987.. Unexpectedly this op-ed was translated into Russian and quickly published in Moscow as well (Moskovskie novosti, 29 March 1987).
  66. ^ Bukharbaeva, Bagila (16 October 2007). "Soviet-Era Dissident Returns to Moscow". The Washington Post. Retrieved 27 April 2016.
  67. ^ "perestroika, Soviet Archives". www.bukovsky-archives.net.
  68. ^ The official Presidential website, Bukovsky biography (in Russian) Archived 2 May 2019 at the Wayback Machine.
  69. ^ Bukovsky, Vladimir (1 June 1993). "Boris Yeltsin's Hollow Victory". Commentary. Retrieved 27 April 2016.
  70. ^ Horne, A. D. (11 December 1993). "Dissident's Discontent". The Washington Post. Retrieved 27 April 2016.
  71. ^ Many of these scanned documents are today available online as The Bukovsky Archives and are provided with English lists of titles and contents, and over one hundred translations.
  72. ^ Bukovsky, Vladimir (1996). "The Night of the Looters", excerpt from Judgment in Moscow.
  73. ^ See Soviet Archives, compiled by Vladimir Bukovsky, and published online by Julia Zaks and Leonid Chernikhov
  74. ^ See German version, Abrechnung mit Moskau. Das sowjetische Unrechtsregime und die Schuld des Westens, Bergisch Gladbach, 1996.
  75. ^ a b Berlinski, Claire (Spring 2010). "A hidden history of evil. Why doesn't anyone care about the unread Soviet archives?". City Journal. Archived from the original on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 7 February 2012.
  76. ^ Bukovskiĭ, Vladimir Konstantinovich; Martinez, Louis (1995). Jugement à Moscou: un dissident dans les archives du Kremlin. Paris: R. Laffont. ISBN 978-2-221-07460-2.
  77. ^ Proces moskiewski (ISBN 83-7227-190-9), Warsaw 1999.
  78. ^ "Vladimir Bukovsky 1942–2019". Vladimir Bukovsky 1942–2019.
  79. ^ Советский диссидент Владимир Буковский согласен баллотироваться на пост президента России. newsru.com (in Russian). 28 May 2007. Retrieved 27 April 2016.
  80. ^ Кара-Мурза, Владимир (28 May 2002). Не забывая о наших корнях... Владимир Буковский – легенда российского демократического движения (in Russian). "Правое дело" N 21(39). Archived from the original on 17 September 2003. Retrieved 27 April 2016.
  81. ^ a b Politkovskaya, Anna (20 January 2003). "Пролетая над "гнездом": cравнительный анализ волн русской политической эмиграции" [Flying over "the nest": a comparative analysis of the waves of Russian political emigration]. Novaya Gazeta (in Russian). No. 4. Archived from the original on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 23 May 2015. Милошевич в Гааге незаконно. Он, может, и заслуживает виселицы, но обвинения против него смехотворны. Все это была операция новых левых в Европе, которые сами себя утверждали в тот момент. Операция НАТО против Сербии была преступлением и агрессией с точки зрения дефиниций ООН. Никаких оснований под собой она не имела, явившись омерзительным политическим актом самоутверждения новой элиты в Европе. И никто не боролся за то, чтобы Милошевич был посажен, а военные преступления раскрыты, — они просто придумывали преступления. Они нам говорили, что как минимум 500 тысяч человек погибнут в результате правления Милошевича, если мы не вмешаемся... Но когда пыль осела и могилы вскрыли, там было шесть тысяч человек, причем с обеих сторон, включая жертвы бомбардировок НАТО. Это была не более чем полицейская операция. А ведь истерику подняли ровно потому, что сравнили все с Холокостом. И это было преступное злоупотребление историческим примером. Манипуляция. Вот о чем мы сегодня говорим: что мир сошел с ума, как молоток с рукоятки. Мы имеем идиотов здесь. И идиотов там. Не думайте, что сегодня черно-белая ситуация. Черно-белой она была в моей молодости: коммунисты и демократы, и понятно, кто миру враг. [Milosevic is in The Hague illegally. He may deserve to be hanged, but the charges against him are ridiculous. All this was an operation of the new left in Europe, which was asserting itself at that moment. The NATO operation against Serbia was a crime and aggression from the point of view of UN definitions. It had no basis, being a disgusting political act of self-affirmation of the new elite in Europe. And no one fought for Milosevic to be imprisoned and war crimes to be revealed - they simply made up crimes. They told us that at least 500 thousand people would die as a result of Milosevic's rule if we did not intervene... But when the dust settled and the graves were opened, there were six thousand people there, from both sides, including victims of NATO bombing. It was nothing more than a police operation. But the hysteria was raised precisely because they compared everything with the Holocaust. And this was a criminal abuse of a historical example. Manipulation. This is what we are talking about today: that the world has gone crazy, like a hammer off the handle. We have idiots here. And idiots there. Don't think that today's situation is black and white. It was black and white in my youth: communists and democrats, and it is clear who is the enemy of the world.]
  82. ^ "Комитет "2008 СВОБОДНЫЙ ВЫБОР"" [Declaration of the "2008 – A Free Choice" Committee] (in Russian). 29 January 2004. Archived from the original on 29 January 2004.
  83. ^ Danks, Catherine (2014). Politics Russia. Hoboken: Taylor and Francis. p. 434f. ISBN 978-1-317-86741-8. Retrieved 27 April 2016.
  84. ^ They Chose Freedom, a documentary series made by the 23-year-old journalist Vladimir Kara-Murza (in Russian)
  85. ^ Natella Boltyanskaya (16 February 2015). "Episode 29 – To Build a Castle (Part One)". Voice of America. Archived from the original on 7 January 2016. Retrieved 1 November 2015.Natella Boltyanskaya (2 March 2015). "Episode 30 – To Build a Castle (Part Two)". Voice of America.
  86. ^ "История". rusolidarnost.ru. Retrieved 27 April 2016.
  87. ^ a b Bukovsky, Vladimir (18 December 2005). "Torture's Long Shadow". The Washington Post.
  88. ^ "Bukovsky and Stroilov, EUSSR: the Soviet roots of European integration, Sovereignty publications: UK, 2006".
  89. ^ The Brussels Journal: The Voice of Conservatism in Europe, February 2006., a periodical of the Society for the Advancement of Freedom in Europe or SAFE
  90. ^ Belien, Paul (27 February 2006). "Former Soviet Dissident Warns For EU Dictatorship. An interview with Vladimir Bukovsky". The Brussels Journal.
  91. ^ "Council & Supporters" Archived 7 April 2013 at the Wayback Machine, The Freedom Association website
  92. ^ See also Charles Moore, "A national treasure or the KGB's useful idiot?", Daily Telegraph, 5 March 2010.
  93. ^ Chapter 3, "Back to the Future: 3.12 The Party's most powerful weapon", Judgment in Moscow: A Dissident in the Soviet Archives, forthcoming (2015). See Jugement a Moscou, 1995, pp 233–234.
  94. ^ As per previous note, Chapter 3, "Back to the Future", Judgment in Moscow (forthcoming). See Jugement a Moscou, 1995, pp. 233–234.
  95. ^ a b Sakwa, Richard (2010). The Crisis of Russian Democracy: The Dual State, Factionalism and the Medvedev Succession. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 279–280. ISBN 978-1139494915.
  96. ^ "Uphill struggle for Russian dissident". BBC. 25 October 2007. Retrieved 26 April 2016.
  97. ^ Владимир Буковский выдвинут кандидатом в президенты России [Vladimir Bukovsky put forward as candidate for president of Russia]. DW.COM (in Russian). Deutsche Welle. 17 December 2007. Retrieved 26 April 2016.
  98. ^ a b "Решение от 28 декабря 2007 г. / Верховный Суд Российской Федерации / Дело № ГКПИ07-1720" [Decision of 28 December 2007, Supreme Court of the Russian Federation]. sudact.ru. 28 December 2007. Retrieved 27 April 2016.
  99. ^ Грани.Ру: Заявление инициативной группы по выдвижению Владимира Буковского в президенты Российской Федерации [Statement of the Initiative Group to nominate Vladimir Bukovsky for the post of President of the Russian Federation]. grani.ru (in Russian). 28 May 2007. Retrieved 26 April 2016.
  100. ^ "Beyond Opposition, Beyond a Chance". The Moscow Times. 21 September 2007. Archived from the original on 26 April 2016. Retrieved 26 April 2016.
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Further reading[edit]

In the Soviet Union[edit]

After his expulsion to the West[edit]

Two years on[edit]

To Build a Castle (1978)[edit]

Judgement in Moscow (1995)[edit]

  • Shlapentokh, Vladimir (Winter 1998). "Was the Soviet Union run by the KGB? Was the West duped by the Kremlin? (A critical review of Vladimir Bukovsky's Jugement à Moscou)". Russian History. 25 (1): 453–461. doi:10.1163/187633198X00211.

In the 21st century[edit]

External links[edit]

In English[edit]

In Russian[edit]