Vladimir Golschmann was born in Paris. He studied violin at the Schola Cantorum in Paris. He was a notable advocate of the music of the composers known as Les six. In Paris, he had his own concert series, the Concerts Golschmann, which began in 1919. He became the director of music activities at the Sorbonne, at the behest of the French government. Golschmann also conducted performances at the Ballets Russes of Sergei Diaghilev.
In the United States, Golschmann was the music director of the Saint Louis Symphony Orchestra (SLSO) from 1931 to 1958, their longest-serving music director. His initial contract was for 3 years, and the successive contracts were renewed yearly. For the last three years of his tenure, he was named conductor emeritus, during their search for a successor music director. He was initiated as an honorary member of the New Zeta Chapter of Phi Mu Alpha Sinfonia music fraternity in 1949. Golschmann remained in the US, becoming a citizen in 1957.
In his later years, Golschmann also worked with the orchestras of Tulsa and Denver. He died in New York City.