|Vladimir Aleksandrovich Gusinsky|
October 6, 1952 |
|Known for||Founder of Media-Most|
Vladimir Aleksandrovich Gusinsky (Russian: Влади́мир Алекса́ндрович Гуси́нский [vlɐˈdʲimʲɪr ɐlʲɪˈksandrəvʲɪtɕ ɡʊˈsʲinskʲɪj]; born 6 October 1952) is a Russian media tycoon. He is known as the founder of the Media-Most holding company that included the NTV free-to-air channel, the newspaper Sevodnya, the radio station Echo of Moscow and a number of magazines.
Early life and education
- Enrolled in Gubkin Institute of Oil and Gas, however Gusinsky did not finish his education at the institute.
- Joined the USSR Army as a Junior Sergeant in the Chemical Intelligence Troops.
- After being demobilized, Gusinsky enrolled in the State Institute for the Study of Theatrical Arts (Russian: ГИТИС English: GITIS)
- Graduated from GITIS. Graduating diploma work, was the staging of “Tartuffe” by Molière, in the Tula State Dramatic Theater.
- Stage Director for the Ted Turner Goodwill Games in the Kremlin Palace
- Founded one of the first cooperatives following Perestroika - Cooperative “Metal” - which started to produce metal garages and later copper bracelets and other fashion jewelry in mass quantities.
- Founded the cooperative “INFEKS” under the auspices of the Ministry of Foreign Trade of the USSR, which engaged in consulting of foreign companies entering into the Russian market
- Created a joint venture “Most” together with APCO (a consulting company owned by the Arnold & Porter Law Firm in Washington DC).
- Gusinsky established “Most Bank”, one of the first and one of the largest private retail banks in Russia. The first ATM allowing cash withdrawals in Russia was installed by Most Bank in Russia in '94.
- Founded a holding company "Most Group", all of Gusinsky’s business assets, totalling 42 companies, including Most Bank and a number of construction companies, were integrated into this holding structure.
Involvement in media
- Gusinsky together with a number of leading journalists, established Sevodnya, a daily political newspaper.
- In the end of ’93 Gusinsky, together with several leading TV journalists and media experts such – such as Igor Malashenko, Evgeni Kiselev> and Oleg Dobrodeev, founded the first private television channel in Russia - NTV. NTV’s main focus was independent and uncensored news and unbiased political shows, their slogan was “News Is Our Profession”.
- The First Chechen War started in ’94. NTV provided independent and unbiased coverage of the war and was often critical of the Russian government, its excessive use of force against civilians and resulting death toll. Government and pro-government supporters accused NTV and its founders of collaborating with Chechnya’s anti-Russian forces. Such accusations were unfounded and were never proven.
- In December of ‘94 the President’s Secret Service was ordered to attack Gusinsky’s offices. As a result Gusinsky and his family had to leave Russia. Gusinsky was able to return only in May of 1995, but nevertheless during his absence, NTV and all his other media assets continued their independent editorial policy and coverage of the war.
- Gusinsky was one of the founders of Russian Jewish Congress, and in January '96 was elected its president.
- In February of ’96 in Davos, during the World Economic Forum, together with Boris Berezovsky organized a meeting of Russia’s most prominent businessmen. The group met to decide how to support of the Presidential bid of Yeltsin and to prevent the communists from returning to power. Further the group contacted Anatoli Chubais, the creator and advocate of Privatization, and convinced him to lead and manage Yeltsin’s presidential campaign.
- The elections for the President of Russian Federation took place in the June of ’96 (first round). President Yeltsin was elected in the second tour of the election (July ’96). Many international and domestic observers considered these to be the first election in Russia to near the western democratic standards.
Consolidation & development of media assets
- Gazprom, the state owned natural gas giant, became a 30% shareholder of NTV.
- A US based media investor Capital Group became a 5% shareholder in NTV and 5% shareholder in TNT - a regional network.
- In '97, "Most Group" consolidated all its media assets in a new entity - "Media Most". Gusinsky resigned from his positions in “Most Group” and "Most Bank", became president of "Media Most" and focused all his efforts on the development of the media business.
- The new media holding company included NTV, TNT, NTV Plus, Echo Moscow, Publishing house Seven Days, other radio stations, internet development companies, movie studios and media design companies.
- "Media Most" was the largest media holding in Russia and, based on the number of viewers & readers, possibly one of the largest in Europe. Gusinsky was hailed as the “Rupert Murdoch” of Russia.
- While Gusinsky never participated in privatization – all his assets were created from scratch, in ’97 Gusinsky made his first, and last, attempt at privatization – he bid for the privatizing of the state owned telecommunication giant Svyazinvest. The bid ended unsuccessfully for Gusinsky, many commentators have accused Gusinsky of using his media assets to influence his bid and it resulted in a large public scandal.
- In mid ‘97 a banking consortium lead by Credit Suisse First Boston was preparing NTV for a public offering on NASDAQ at a valuation in 1.2 - 1.4 billion US Dollars, with a large portion of the proceeds from the IPO to be used for development of the business.
- The ’97 Asian Economic Crisis severely impacted Russian economy in ’98. This led to Russia defaulting on its domestic debts and a declaring a moratorium on payment to foreign creditors in August of 1998. The financial default, put a stop to the NTV’s attempted IPO.
- Subsequently, in order to continue "Media Most" development and in anticipation of economic rebound following Russia’s default, "Media Most" received a credit from Credit Suisse First Boston, guaranteed by Gazprom’s. The money was invested in "Media Most" business development.
- In November ’98, "Media Most" satellite, Bonum 1, built by US Hughes Communications was launched from Cape Canaveral, Florida, USA. This was a first private commercial satellite in Russia, and for the first time a US built and launched satellite was controlled from the territory of Russia. The satellite provided DTH (Direct to Home) satellite delivery services for "Media Most" NTV Plus.
Confrontation with Kremlin
- An alliance that included President Yeltsin,Yeltsin’s relatives and a group of powerful businessman, publicly known as the “Family”, brought in Vladimir Putin as the successor to President Yeltsin. At the same time, Gusinsky positioned himself outside of the “Family” and as a result he was accused of supporting the election of anti-Kremlin alliance of Primakov & Luzhkov. This was the beginning of the conflict between Gusinsky, the Family and Putin.
- In September of ‘99 there were a number of terrorist attacks in Moscow and other cities in Russia. Several buildings were bombed and many people were killed. Kremlin took the position that Chechen separatists were responsible for the bombings. Around the same time a group of neighbors residing in an apartment building, found a large quantity of explosives in the basement of their building and reported it to FSB. At that time a group of, independent journalist investigators exposed certain facts that connected the explosives with individuals connected with FSB. Gusinsky’s NTV decided to take an independent stance and launched an in depth public journalistic investigation – investigating the possibility that FSB was staging explosions in an effort to influence the upcoming elections. The fact that Gusinsky’s NTV started the investigation resulted in strong irritation in the Kremlin, in fact, Gusinsky was given an ultimatum to remove this “independent investigation” from NTV, or else face the consequences - Gusinsky refused. Furthermore, a number of independent commentators accused Kremlin and Putin in organizing the explosions, prompting the new Chechen war, with the goal of increasing Putin’s popularity in anticipation of elections. This was a the breaking point in the relationship between Gusinsky and the Kremlin, the Family, and Yeltsin’s successor Putin.
- On December 31, 1999 President Yeltsin resigned, and Vladimir Putin became the acting President of Russia.
- In January, Gusinsky was elected as the vice president of World Jewish Congress.
- With the Yeltsin’s resignation bringing Putin to Acting Presidency, and the subsequent election in May 2000 that brought Putin to power, one of the first publicly criticized acts of new President Putin – was the commencement of an investigation against Gusinsky with the goal of putting NTV under Government control and effectively silencing the opposition.
- In June, the Prosecutor General office launched an investigation against Gusinsky for misappropriation of funds in connection with a company “Russian Video”. On June 13 he was arrested he was arrested in Moscow and incarcerated into the infamous Butyrka Prison.
- Shortly after the arrest the representatives of Kremlin proposed to Gusinsky to sell Media Most, for 300 million US Dollars in return for his freedom. Subsequently this became known as “shares for freedom” transaction or Protocol No.6 that was signed by acting Minister Lesin in his capacity.
- A big public scandal ensued, a day after Gusinsky’s arrest on June 14, US President Clinton, at a press conference, was asked about his thoughts on Gusinsky’s arrest, replied that he doesn’t think that people shouldn’t be arrested for criticism of Kremlin. Moreover, Putin who was visiting Spain at the time of the arrest had to answer questions in its connection. One of Putin’s answers was – “I do not know anything about it, and cannot get in touch with the Prosecutor General of Russia.
- After three days and a lot of public pressure, scandal, and speculation, on June 16, Gusinsky was released from prison and placed under house arrest. Several weeks later, in July, he signed an agreement selling all his media assets for 300 million US Dollars. The criminal investigation was closed, and Gusinsky immediately left Russia. From that time Gusinsky never returned to Russia. On his last drive to the Moscow airport, he was accompanied by Boris Nemtsov, an opposition leader who was assassinated in February 2015 near Kremlin.
- Outside of Russia, Gusinsky repudiated the deal as being executed under duress.
- Shortly after Gusinsky left Russia, CEO of Gazprom Media Alfred Koch, asked the Russian Prosecutor General to launch a new investigation against Gusinsky and Media Most, alleging improper use of Gazprom’s guarantees to attract credits (at that time Gazprom was a shareholder of 12.5% of Media Most and 30% of NTV). Prosecutor General Office asked Interpol's head office in Lyon, to issue an international arrest warrant for Gusinsky’s detention and extradition. Interpol's head office declined the Russian request asking to clarify the reason to make sure it does not violate Interpol Charter, that forbids intervention based on political character. Eventually Interpol firmly refused to issue any warrant of arrest for Gusinsky, and when Russian authorities appealed the refusal the Interpol headquarters firmly upheld their refusal.
- On November 17, Media Most signed a settlement agreement for Gazprom’s guarantees and for current and future obligations (that were maturing in 2001). Immediately after signing the settlement agreement, Gazprom Media’s Alfred Koch wrote to the Prosecutor General letting him know that the settlement agreement was successfully executed and thanking him for his assistance. Even with this settlement agreement being signed by Gusinsky under a threat of arrest and extradition, Gazprom conceded that Media Most’s assets were fairly valued in excess of 1.1 billion US Dollars.
- However, ignoring the settlement agreement, and ignoring the Interpol head office’s refusal to issue the international arrest warrant (due to suspected political motivations for arrest), the Russian local branch of Interpol circumvented the head office’s refusal, went directly to the Spanish local branch of Interpol and requested it to detain and extradite Gusinsky.
- December 12, Gusinsky was arrested in Spain based on the Russian request. The arrest warrant was issued by Justice Balthazar Garzon.
- December 22, Justice Balthazar Garzon releases Gusinsky from prison and places him under house arrest in Gusinsky's home in the south of Spain. The decision to release Gusinsky was strongly criticized in Spain, and was appealed by prosecution, as it is uncommon for a foreigner facing extradition to be released and placed under house arrest.
Legal confrontation with Kremlin & later life
- In January Gusinsky filed a case against Russia in European Court of Human Rights for violations of his rights and freedoms.
- In April, the National Court of Spain rejected the Russian Federation request for Gusinsky’s extradition. The Spanish court noted that the charges against Gusinsky were politically motivated and in fact did not even constitute a crime – the National Court specifically stated “It is possible to observe in the documents furnished by [the applicant]... “certain noteworthy and peculiar circumstances which are unusual in the sphere of judicial claims for fraud and which, although they do not in themselves lead to the conclusion that we are dealing with an irregular claim filed for a political purpose, compel the Court to consider [the applicant's] argument as not completely without foundation as far as the facts and interferences are concerned and as not inconceivable or discountable on the basis of logical criteria and experience.” Gusinsky was vindicated.
- In mid April, the Russian Federation conducted raids on the offices of Media Most and NTV.
- Only days after the National Court of Spain decided that charges against Gusinsky are politically motivated and are not a crime, the Russian Federation commenced a new criminal proceedings against Gusinsky and issued a new arrest warrant, alleging money laundering of money owed to Gazprom. Again the Russian Federation submitted the request to arrest Gusinsky in his home in Spain, but Gusinsky was not present – he left for Israel. Several months later the National Court of Spain dismissed Russian Federation’s new request as baseless.
- In July, the Supervisory Board of Interpol recommended to stop any further actions against Gusinsky based on Russian Federation requests. Interpol’s Secretary General, Ronald Noble, described the case against Gusinsky as having “predominantly political character”. In August, Israel refused to extradite Gusinsky to Russia.
- In May, Gusinsky started a new television project – RTV International or RTVi, that continued what NTV International started – providing unbiased Russian language news for Russian speakers worldwide.
- In October, Gusinsky’s internet news project Newsru.com, started operating on the its new domain name. Prior to this the project was operating as NTV.ru, but, that domain name was given to Gazprom Media, the new owners of NTV. The design for the website was created by an internationally recognized designer Semyon Levin. Newsru.com included a highly acclaimed internet resource Inopressa.ru – that provided summaries of daily news from foreign print media translated into Russian language. Currently, Newsru.com website has more than 65 million page views and 7.5 million unique visitors monthly.
- In August, Gusinsky was arrested in Greece on another request for extradition from the Russian Federation. Several days later he was released on bail and awaited the decision while under pledge not to depart Athens.
- In September, while awaiting the Greek court's decision about his extradition, Gusinsky hotel room was burglarized while he was out at dinner. It was claimed it was a professional job but police declined to comment on the extent of items that were taken.
- In October, after the Athens Court of Appeals examined the charges brought against Gusinsky by the Russian Federation, it refused the extradition request. The Court of Appeals held that the charges alleged against Gusinsky were not unlawful under Greek law.
- In May 2004, the European Court of Human Rights, held that the arrest and criminal charges against Gusinsky were in violation of Article 5 and Article 18 of the Convention on Protection of Human Rights and Basic Freedoms, stating that facts of the case established that the prosecution of Gusinsky in Russia was politically motivated and used to intimidate him. The Russian Federation appealed. In November, the European Court of Human Rights declined Russian Federation’s request to review its decision, thereby upholding its ruling.
- Gusinsky consolidated his television production operations into a new holding company named New Media Distribution Company. The Company becomes one of the largest producers of original scripted television dramas for broadcast in prime time in the Russian language, selling its productions to a number of Russian television broadcasting networks, including NTV and RTR, as well as to other broadcasters in other Russian speaking areas of the world (or where Russian is widely spoken). In the last 10 years the NMDC has produced over 3,000 original episodes, many of which have won awards and garnered high viewership shares. NMDC also owns a number of pay television thematic channels, including Detskii Mir (Children’s World), TeleKlub, Nashe Kino (Our Movies) and Mir Seriala (World of Series). NMDC is headquartered in George Town, the Cayman Islands, and has operating subsidiaries in Russia and a number of other European countries.
- In March, the Israeli police initiated a money laundering probe into the employees and clients of Bank Hapoalim, Branch 535. Bank Hapoalim is one of the largest and olderst banks in Israel. Gusinsky was among a number of people who was investigated. A year later, the Israeli Prosecutor’s Office dropped all charges against Gusinsky without any additional conditions or negotiations and with prejudice. Several years later, in 2010, the Israeli courts have determined that the actions of the Prosecutor’s Office in this money laundering investigation were excessive and unreasonable and sanctioned the prosecutors involved in the investigation.
- In December, Gusinsky created a sister site to Newsru.com, called Newsru.co.il. While it had an independent editorial board, it retained a similar design as the Russian counterpart. The Israeli site provided Russian language news about Israel’s domestic and international affairs as well as world news. Currently, Newsru.co.il is among the most popular Russian language news sites in Israel. It has an average of 20 million page views and 1.5 million unique visitors monthly.
- In first quarter of 2007, Gusinsky decided to create a general entertainment television channel in the Ukraine. Gusinsky started to work with an acquaintance, Konstantin Kagalovsky, to jointly bring the Ukrainian TV project to life.
- In April, Gusinsky opened a new sister internet project, this time in Ukraine – Newsru.ua, similar to the Russian and Israeli sites, it had an independent editorial board but retained the design, and provided news about Ukrainian's domestic and international affairs and world news, however, this site was featured both in Russian language and in Ukrainian language.
- In March Gusinsky and Kagalovsky jointly, put the general entertainment channel in the Ukraine on air, its name – TVi. TVi was quickly and steadily rising in both coverage and popularity.
- In the spring, Gusinsky and Kagalovsky began to have disputes about the direction TVi was taking. In September, Kagalovsky surreptitiously, and according to him, in a “Russian-Ukrainian way”, diluted Gusinsky’s share in TVi from 50% to less than 1%. In December, Gusinsky sued Kagalovsky for theft of TVi, in the Supreme Court of New York Commercial Division.
- In March, Gusinsky sold RTVi to a Russian media executive/businessman, Ruslan Sokolov.
- In August, Gusinky won a judgement against Kagalovsky and his companies for theft of TVi in an amount of over USD $30 million. Kagalovsky appealed.
- In April, the New York Court of Appeals upheld the judgment against Kagalovsky for theft of TVi.
- "Profile: Vladimir Gusinsky - CNN". cnn.com. Retrieved 31 October 2012.
- "RUSNET :: Encyclopedia :: G :: Gusinsky, Vladimir". www.rusnet.nl. Retrieved 2015-10-15.
- Hoffman, David (2011-01-01). The Oligarchs: Wealth and Power in the New Russia. PublicAffairs. ISBN 161039111X.
- "Turner's New Game: Russian Roulette - March 5, 2001". archive.fortune.com. Retrieved 2015-10-15.
- Hoffman, David (2011-01-01). The Oligarchs: Wealth and Power in the New Russia. PublicAffairs. ISBN 161039111X.
- "US-SOVIET JOINT VENTURE SET UP TO ASSIST SIMILAR ENDEAVORS | JOC.com". www.joc.com. Retrieved 2015-10-15.
- "SOVIETS EXPECTED TO RELAX RULES ON FOREIGN OWNERSHIP IN '89". DeseretNews.com. Retrieved 2015-10-15.
- "Vladimir Gusinsky | biography - Russian businessman". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 2015-10-15.
- "Первый в мире банкомат был установлен ровно 46 лет назад". www.plusworld.ru. Retrieved 2015-10-15.
- "Гусинский, Владимир". lenta.ru. Retrieved 2015-10-15.
- "FRONTLINE/WORLD . Moscow - Rich in Russia . How to Make a Billion Dollars - Vladimir Gusinsky | PBS". www.pbs.org. Retrieved 2015-10-15.
- "CNN.com - Biographies". www.cnn.com. Retrieved 2015-10-15.
- "Igor Malashenko | C-SPAN.org". www.c-span.org. Retrieved 2015-10-15.
- Hoffman, David (2011-01-01). The Oligarchs: Wealth and Power in the New Russia. PublicAffairs. ISBN 161039111X.
- Burrett, Tina (2010-12-14). Television and Presidential Power in Putin’s Russia. Routledge. ISBN 9781136857553.
- Oates, Sarah (2008-02-18). Introduction to Media and Politics. SAGE. ISBN 9781473903722.
- Nicholas Daniloff, Sergei Grigoriev (1995). "Chechen Crisis And The Media" (PDF). Retrieved October 15, 2015.
- "THE TYCOON AND THE KREMLIN". The New Yorker. Retrieved 2015-10-15.
- DIXON, ROBYN (2000-06-14). "Owner of Media Outlets Critical of Kremlin Is Arrested". Los Angeles Times. ISSN 0458-3035. Retrieved 2015-10-15.
- "Congressional Record - 104th Congress (1995-1996) - THOMAS (Library of Congress)". thomas.loc.gov. Retrieved 2015-10-15.
- Stanley, Alessandra (1996-01-11). "Russia's Jews Organize, With Swiss Caterer's Help". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2015-10-15.
- "Congressional Record - 104th Congress (1995-1996) - THOMAS (Library of Congress)". thomas.loc.gov. Retrieved 2015-10-15.
- "Congressional Record - 105th Congress (1997-1998) - THOMAS (Library of Congress)". thomas.loc.gov. Retrieved 2015-10-15.
- "Confessions of an oligarch: Shortly before his mysterious death, Boris Berezovsky revealed how he amassed a £2bn fortune in the ruthless pillage of post-Soviet Russia". Mail Online. Retrieved 2015-10-15.
- "Assessing Russia's Democratic Presidential Election - Harvard - Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs". belfercenter.ksg.harvard.edu. Retrieved 2015-10-15.
- "CNN.com - NTV fact file: From Gusinsky to Gazprom - April 10, 2001". www.cnn.com. Retrieved 2015-10-15.
- Higgins, Andrew; Journal, Alan Cullison Staff Reporters of The Wall Street. "U.S. Financier Sits at Center Of Russian Media Tempest". Wall Street Journal. ISSN 0099-9660. Retrieved 2015-10-15.
- "Implications of Vladimir Gusinsky’s Arrest". Carnegie Endowment for International Peace. Retrieved 2015-10-15.
- "TV Mogul Gusinsky Did Bid for Svyazinvest | News". The Moscow Times. Retrieved 2015-10-15.
- Renaud, Chris (February 23, 2001). "Putin Shoots The Messenger". Wall Street Journal. Retrieved October 15, 2015.
- Journal, Jeanne Whalen Staff Reporter of The Wall Street. "Media-Most Might Give Gazprom A Blocking Stake to Pay Off a Debt". Wall Street Journal. ISSN 0099-9660. Retrieved 2015-10-15.
- "NTV's $150M Satellite Launched From Florida | News". The Moscow Times. Retrieved 2015-10-15.
- "Boeing, Hughes Ready for Launch of Russian TV Satellite". www.prnewswire.com. Retrieved 2015-10-15.
- "The Spark : Russia: Yeltsin, "The Family" and the Bureaucratic Mafia". the-spark.net. Retrieved 2015-11-16.
- "Yeltsin keeps it all in 'The Family' [On the rise of Vladimir Putin]". www.iwp.edu. Retrieved 2015-11-16.
- DIXON, ROBYN (2000-06-01). "Pushing the Boundaries of a Free Press". Los Angeles Times. ISSN 0458-3035. Retrieved 2015-11-16.
- "Re-examining the 1999 apartment bombings in Russia | The Stanford Post-Soviet Post". postsovietpost.stanford.edu. Retrieved 2015-11-16.
- Knight, Amy (2012-11-22). "Finally, We Know About the Moscow Bombings". The New York Review of Books. ISSN 0028-7504. Retrieved 2015-11-16.
- Dunlop, John (2014-04-15). The Moscow Bombings of September 1999: Examinations of Russian Terrorist Attacks at the Onset of Vladimir Putin's Rule. Columbia University Press. ISBN 9783838266084.
- "Ten Years Ago, Russia's Independent NTV, The Talk Of The Nation, Fell Silent". RadioFreeEurope/RadioLiberty. 2011-04-14. Retrieved 2015-11-16.
- Durham, Robert B. (2014-08-25). False Flags, Covert Operations, & Propaganda. Lulu.com. ISBN 9781312462885.
- Litvinenko, Alexander (2007). Blowing Up Russia: The Secret Plot to Bring Back KGB Terror. Encounter Books. ISBN 1594032017.
- Bohlen, Celestine (2000-01-01). "YELTSIN RESIGNS: THE OVERVIEW; Yeltsin Resigns, Naming Putin as Acting President To Run in March Election". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2015-11-16.
- "Vladimir A. Gusinsky, photo, biography". www.persona.rin.ru. Retrieved 2015-11-16.
- "1. How NTV was taken away - Limonov vs. Putin". www.e-reading.club. Retrieved 2015-11-16.
- "Russian Television under Putin | Časopis pro politiku a mezinárodní vztahy". www.globalpolitics.cz. Retrieved 2015-11-16. horizontal tab character in
|title=at position 34 (help)
- "Putin’s Choice". The Nation. ISSN 0027-8378. Retrieved 2015-11-16.
- "Owner of independent TV station in Russia is arrested, imprisoned". tribunedigital-baltimoresun. Retrieved 2015-11-16.
- "Gusinsky Ruling Leads to a Slippery Slope | Opinion". The Moscow Times. Retrieved 2015-11-16.
- "ARCHIVE OF THE OFFICIAL SITE OF THE 2008-2012 PRIME MINISTER OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION VLADIMIR PUTIN - Prime Minister of the Russian Federation". archive.premier.gov.ru. Retrieved 2015-11-16.
- "Activities". eng.yabloko.ru. Retrieved 2015-11-16.
- "William J. Clinton: Remarks on Proposed Medicare Prescription Drug Benefit Legislation and an Exchange With Reporters". www.presidency.ucsb.edu. Retrieved 2015-11-16.
- "Was Putin Out of the Loop?". Los Angeles Times. 2000-06-15. ISSN 0458-3035. Retrieved 2015-11-16.
- "(Un)Civil Societies Report: June 22, 2000". RadioFreeEurope/RadioLiberty. 2000-06-22. Retrieved 2015-11-16.
- "Military.com Content". www.military.com. Retrieved 2015-11-16.
- "Western Press Review: What Does Gusinsky's Arrest Say About Putin?". RadioFreeEurope/RadioLiberty. 2000-06-06. Retrieved 2015-11-16.
- "RUSSIA - GUSINSKY". fas.org. Retrieved 2015-11-16.
- Soldatov, Andrei; Borogan, Irina (2015-09-08). The Red Web: The Struggle Between Russia's Digital Dictators and the New Online Revolutionaries. PublicAffairs. ISBN 9781610395748.
- "NEMTSOV SAYS PUTIN KNEW WHAT LESIN WAS UP TO.". The Jamestown Foundation. Retrieved 2015-11-16.
- "Charges Dropped Against Russian Media Mogul". ABC News. 2006-01-06. Retrieved 2015-11-16.
- DIXON, ROBYN (2000-11-14). "Arrest Warrant Out for Media Chief". Los Angeles Times. ISSN 0458-3035. Retrieved 2015-11-16.
- "Russia's Media Morass - Committee to Protect Journalists". cpj.org. Retrieved 2015-11-16.
- "European Court of Human Rights condemns Russia in media case - Committee to Protect Journalists". cpj.org. Retrieved 2015-11-16.
- "PROSECUTOR GENERAL'S OFFICE THREATENS NEW INVESTIGATION OF MEDIA-MOST.". The Jamestown Foundation. Retrieved 2015-11-16.
- "ARREST WARRANT ISSUED FOR VLADIMIR GUSINSKY.". The Jamestown Foundation. Retrieved 2015-11-16.
- "Gusinsky Hunt Goes To Interpol | News". The Moscow Times. Retrieved 2015-11-16.
- "Gusinsky battles extradition to Russia". Variety. Retrieved 2015-11-16.
- Hoffman, David (2000-12-13). "Russian Media Magnate Arrested at Villa in Spain". The Washington Post. ISSN 0190-8286. Retrieved 2015-11-16.
- "News in Brief | News". The Moscow Times. Retrieved 2015-11-16.
- "Interpol rejects Gusinsky arrest request | The Russia Journal". russiajournal.com. Retrieved 2015-11-16.
- Koltsova, Olessia (2006-09-27). News Media and Power in Russia. Routledge. ISBN 9781134283408.
- "Media Most, Gazprom sign new debt relief deal". www.screendaily.com. Retrieved 2015-11-16.
- "Auditors Question Worth of Media-MOST | Business". The Moscow Times. Retrieved 2015-11-16.
- "Implications of Vladimir Gusinsky’s Arrest". Carnegie Endowment for International Peace. Retrieved 2015-11-16.
- DANISZEWSKI, JOHN (2000-12-13). "Russian Media Mogul Arrested in Spain; Moscow Seeks Extradition". Los Angeles Times. ISSN 0458-3035. Retrieved 2015-11-16.
- Jeffries, Ian (2011-03-07). Political Developments in Contemporary Russia. Taylor & Francis. ISBN 9781136849657.
- "An Unwarranted Arrest". The Washington Post. 2000-12-13. ISSN 0190-8286. Retrieved 2015-11-16.
- "NTV's Gusinsky Arrested In Spain | News". The Moscow Times. Retrieved 2015-11-16.
- "Gusinsky freed on bail". BBC. 2000-12-22. Retrieved 2015-11-16.
- Reuters, From (2000-12-23). "Russian Mogul Gusinsky Released From Jail in Spain". Los Angeles Times. ISSN 0458-3035. Retrieved 2015-11-16.
- "HUDOC - European Court of Human Rights". hudoc.echr.coe.int. Retrieved 2015-11-19.
- "Spain on Trial". The Washington Post. 2001-03-18. ISSN 0190-8286. Retrieved 2015-11-19.
- "WORLD - Spanish High Court rejects extradition". www.hurriyetdailynews.com. Retrieved 2015-11-19.
- "CNN.com - Gusinsky wins extradition battle - April 18, 2001". www.cnn.com. Retrieved 2015-11-19.
- Daly, Emma (2001-04-19). "Spanish Court Rejects Extradition of Gusinsky". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2015-11-19.
- "Spanish Court Releases Gusinsky | News". The Moscow Times. Retrieved 2015-11-19.
- "American Journalism Review". ajrarchive.org. Retrieved 2015-11-19.
- "Russia: Gusinsky Laundered $100M | News". The Moscow Times. Retrieved 2015-11-19.
- "CNN.com - Russia issues new Gusinsky warrant - April 25, 2001". www.cnn.com. Retrieved 2015-11-19.
- "Russian tycoon flees to Israel". BBC. 2001-04-25. Retrieved 2015-11-19.
- Press, From Associated (2001-04-26). "Media Mogul Sought by Russia Leaves Spain". Los Angeles Times. ISSN 0458-3035. Retrieved 2015-11-19.
- "Russia: Gusinsky Takes Refuge In Israel". RadioFreeEurope/RadioLiberty. 2001-04-25. Retrieved 2015-11-19.
- "INTERPOL CHIEF SAYS THE CASE AGAINST GUSINSKY IS POLITICAL...". The Jamestown Foundation. Retrieved 2015-11-19.
- "Russian tycoon held in Athens". BBC. 2003-08-24. Retrieved 2015-11-19.
- "Putin's former tormentor held in Athens". The Independent. Retrieved 2015-11-19.
- "RTVi — телеканал, говорящий на весь мир по-русски". rtvi.com. Retrieved 2015-11-19.
- "The Russians are Here!: Russian TV in America". The Russians are Here!. 2009-02-22. Retrieved 2015-11-19.
- "For Russian television shows, independence is the exception". tribunedigital-baltimoresun. Retrieved 2015-11-19.
- "site statistics "NEWSru.com: самые быстрые новости. Видео, фото архив новостей в стране и мире."". www.liveinternet.ru. Retrieved 2015-11-19.
- "Former Russian Media Baron Detained in Greece, Awaits Extradition Decision". PBS NewsHour. Retrieved 2015-11-19.
- "CNN.com - Ex-Russian media mogul in custody - Aug. 23, 2003". www.cnn.com. Retrieved 2015-11-19.
- "Implications of Vladimir Gusinsky’s Arrest". Carnegie Endowment for International Peace. Retrieved 2015-11-19.
- "Gusinsky released on bail following pressure on Greece". Haaretz.com. Retrieved 2015-11-19.
- "Russian Media Mogul Out on Bail in Greece - Radio Islam". www.radioislam.org. Retrieved 2015-11-19.
- "'Bizarre' Burglary in Gusinsky's Hotel Suite | News". The Moscow Times. Retrieved 2015-11-19.
- "WORLD IN BRIEF". The Washington Post. 2003-09-27. ISSN 0190-8286. Retrieved 2015-11-19.
- "Greece Refuses to Extradite Gusinsky | News". The Moscow Times. Retrieved 2015-11-19.
- "Greece rejects Gusinsky extradition call". www.aljazeera.com. Retrieved 2015-11-19.
- "Greece rejects Gusinsky extradition bid". Haaretz.com. Retrieved 2015-11-19.
- (nyt), Erin E. Arvedlund (2003-10-15). "World Briefing | Europe: Russia: Greece Refuses To Extradite Tycoon". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2015-11-19.
- "Greece refuses to extradite tycoon". BBC. 2003-10-14. Retrieved 2015-11-19.
- "European Court of Human Rights condemns Russia in media case - Committee to Protect Journalists". cpj.org. Retrieved 2015-11-19.
- "Human Rights Court Sides With Gusinsky | News". The Moscow Times. Retrieved 2015-11-19.
- "Court of Human Rights Rules in favor of Gusinsky in suit vs. Russia". PravdaReport. Retrieved 2015-11-19.
- "Europe court condemns Russia for holding oligarch". www.freerepublic.com. Retrieved 2015-11-19.
- "Forbes | Владимир Гусинский давно не российский бизнесмен? Это не так". m.forbes.ru. Retrieved 2015-12-23.
- "NMDC". newmediadistribution.com. Retrieved 2015-12-23.
- Arvedlund, Erin E. (2005-03-08). "Israel Freezes Some Assets of a Bank Under Inquiry". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2015-11-19.
- Devi, Sharmila (2005-03-08). "Israeli money-laundering probe widens". Financial Times. ISSN 0307-1766. Retrieved 2015-11-19.
- "Vladimir Gusinsky Lands Successfully - Kommersant Moscow". www.kommersant.com. Retrieved 2015-11-19.
- "Gusinsky questioned about Hapoalim money laundering - Globes English". Globes. Retrieved 2015-11-19.
- "Israel Closes Gusinsky Case | News". The Moscow Times. Retrieved 2015-11-19.
- "Envoy and tycoon cleared in £300m fraud inquiry". Telegraph.co.uk. Retrieved 2015-11-19.
- "Police sources: We had evidence of money-laundering against Gusinsky". Haaretz.com. Retrieved 2015-11-19.
- "Prosecution closes money-laundering case against Gusinsky". Haaretz.com. Retrieved 2015-11-19.
- "Hapoalim vindicated in 'Russian desk' case". Haaretz.com. Retrieved 2015-11-19.
- "Calcalist". translate.google.com. www.calcalist.co.il. Retrieved 2015-11-19.
- "Erring prosecutor in Hapoalim case won promotion". Haaretz.com. Retrieved 2015-11-19.
- "Judiciary: 22 August 2010 at Slippery Slope". www.hahem.co.il. Retrieved 2015-11-19.
- "Globs". translate.google.com. www.globes.co.il. Retrieved 2015-11-19.
- "NEWSru.co.il :: Новости Израиля и мира. События на Ближнем Востоке. Фоторепортажи.". newsru.co.il. Retrieved 2015-11-19.
- "LiveInternet: Site rating". www.liveinternet.ru. Retrieved 2015-11-19.
- Ramos, Charles Edward (August 16, 2012). "Judgement" (PDF). Supreme Court of the State of New York, Commercial Division.
- "NEWSru.ua :: Новини України і світу". www.newsru.ua. Retrieved 2015-11-19.
- "Gusinsky, Kagalovsky launch Ukraine cabler". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved 2015-11-19.
- "Owners Battle for TV Station". www.occrp.org. Retrieved 2015-11-19.
- "Covington & Burling LLP | News | Covington Scores Major Victory for Russian Media Empire". www.cov.com. Retrieved 2015-11-19.
- "NY Court OKs $32M Award In TV Network Partnership Fight - Law360". www.law360.com. Retrieved 2015-11-19.
- "New Media Holding Co., LLC v Kagalovsky". Justia Law. Retrieved 2015-11-19.
- "Gusinsky sells RTVi for $10 mln to former head of Zvezda TV channel - paper - Interfax". www.interfax.com. Retrieved 2015-11-19.
- "Gusinsky's television station bought the former CEO of "Stars"". newspepper.su. Retrieved 2015-11-19.
- "The Propaganda of the Putin Era". Institute of Modern Russia. Retrieved 2015-11-19.
- "Covington Scores $30 Million Win in Russian Oligarchs' Manhattan Showdown". The American Lawyer. Retrieved 2015-11-19.
- "Maariv editors in chief quit over budget discords". Haaretz. 12 May 2009.
- Article from the Wall Street Journal which mentions Gusinsky: In Russia, a Top Rabbi Uses Kremlin Ties to Gain Power.
- His biography(Russian)
- ECHR judgment(French)