|Vladimir Nikolayevich Voinovich|
|Native name||Владимир Николаевич Войнович|
26 September 1932 |
Stalinabad, Tajik SSR, USSR
|Notable works||The Life and Extraordinary Adventures of Private Ivan Chonkin (1969–2007)
Moscow 2042 (1986)
Monumental Propaganda (2000)
|Notable awards||Andrei Sakharov Prize For Writer's Civic Courage, State Prize of the Russian Federation|
from Voinovich’s interview for Ekho Moskvy, 14 December 2013
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Vladimir Nikolayevich Voinovich, also spelled Voynovich (Russian: Влади́мир Никола́евич Войно́вич, born 26 September 1932, Stalinabad) is a Russian writer, poet, playwright and journalist, a former Soviet dissident. He is a member of the Serbian Academy of Sciences and Arts in Department of Language and Literature.
Voinovich was born in Stalinabad, Tajik SSR, Soviet Union. His father Nikolai Pavlovich Voinovich (1905—1987) was a journalist of Serbian descent who worked as an editor in local newspapers; his ancestors moved to the Russian Empire during the 19th century. Vladimir Voinovich also states that his father belonged to the Vojnović noble family, although this is solely based on his surname and the book by the Yugoslavian writer Vidak Vujnovic Vojinovici i Vujinovici od srednjeg veka do danas (1985) which he received as a gift from the author during his stay in Germany. His mother Roza Klementievna (born Revekka Kolmanovna) Goykhman (1908—1978) was of Jewish descent. She started as a journalist, working with her husband, but later became a teacher of mathematics.
In 1936 Voinovich's father was arrested on the allegation of anti-Soviet agitation and spent five years in prison. He was set free in 1941. The family then moved to their relatives in Zaporozhye, but with the start of the Great Patriotic War Nikolai Voinovich was sent to the front line. The rest of the family was evacuated several times following the Nazi occupation, living in various Russian regions. In 1945 they returned to Zaporozhye where Vladimir Voinovich finished a vocational school. Between 1951 and 1955 he did peacetime service in the Soviet Army. During that time he started publishing his poetry in the army newspaper.
Following the demobilization Voinovich moved to Moscow and tried to enter the Maxim Gorky Literature Institute (also known as Litinstitute). After a failed attempt he entered the Moscow Krupskaya Pedagogical Institute, the faculty of history. He studied for a year and a half and was suggested then to move to Kazakhstan as part of the Virgin Lands Campaign. According to Voinovich, he didn't plan to, yet decided to accept the offer after one of the students made public their private conversation where Voinovich heavily criticized the Soviet kolkhoz system. He spent some time in Kazakhstan, «seeking inspiration», and on his return to Moscow started working on his first novel.
Voinovich is famous for his satirical fiction, but also for writing some poetry. While working for Moscow radio in the early 1960s, he produced the lyrics for the cosmonauts' anthem, Fourteen Minutes To Lift-off ("14 минут до старта").
At the outset of the Brezhnev stagnation period, Voinovich's writings stopped being published in the USSR, but became very popular in samizdat and in the West. In 1974, because of his writing and his participation in the human rights movement, Voinovich was excluded from the Soviet Writers' Union. His telephone line was cut off in 1976 and he and his family were forced to emigrate in 1980. He settled in Munich, West Germany and worked for Radio Liberty.
Mikhail Gorbachev restored his Soviet citizenship in 1990 and since then the writer spends most of his time in Russia.
The first and second parts of his magnum opus The Life and Extraordinary Adventures of Private Ivan Chonkin ("Жизнь и необычайные приключения солдата Ивана Чонкина") are set in the Red Army during World War II, satirically exposing the daily absurdities of the totalitarian regime. "Chonkin" is now a widely known figure in Russian popular culture and the book was also made into a film by the Czech director Jiří Menzel. Chonkin is often referred to as "the Russian Švejk". The third part of the novel was published in 2007. Not as well known so far as the previous two parts, it portrays the post-War life of the characters until the present, including Chonkin's involuntary emigration to the USA. Much attention is also paid to the figures of Lavrentiy Beria and Joseph Stalin, the latter being mockingly depicted as a son of Nikolai Przhevalsky and a Przewalski's horse. According to the author, the writing of the whole novel took him almost fifty years.
In 1986 he wrote a dystopian novel, Moscow 2042 (published 1987). In this novel, Voinovich portrayed a Russia ruled by the "Communist Party of State Security" combining the KGB, the Russian Orthodox Church and the Communist party. This party is led by a KGB general Bukashev (the name means "the bug") who meets the main character of the novel in Germany. A Slavophile, Sim Karnavalov (apparently inspired by Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn), eventually overthrows the Party and enters Moscow on a white horse.
Voinovich's other novels have also won acclaim. His The Ivankiad concerns a writer trying to get an apartment in the bureaucratic clog of the Soviet system. The Fur Hat, is a satire alluding to Gogol's Overcoat. His Monumental Propaganda is a stinging critique of post-Communist Russia, a story that shows the author's opinion that Russians haven't changed much since the days of Joseph Stalin.
On February 25, 2015, Voinovich published an "Open Letter from Vladimir Voinovich to the President of Russia," in which he concerned himself with the impending death of Ukrainian pilot Nadiya Savchenko in a Russian prison due to a hunger strike. In this letter, he advised President Putin that allowing the young Ukrainian heroine to die might have a greater effect on world opinion than the annexation of Crimea and the war in the Donbass. In the event of her death, he advised the Russian president to avoid public appearances in Western capitals since "crowds of people will greet you with insulting cries and hurl foul-smelling things at you, while Savchenko’s name will be known everywhere." He concluded the letter with the words, "Judging by the absurdity of the charges laid against her, she should simply be released."
Since 1995 he has ventured into graphic arts and sells his paintings in Russian galleries and on the Web.
Awards and honors
Voinovich has been married three times. Between 1957 and 1964 he was married to Valentina Vasilievna Boltushkina (1929—1988), together they had two children: daughter Marina Voinovich (1958—2006) and son Pavel Voinovich (born 1962), also a Russian writer and publicist, author of historical novels.. His second wife was Irina Danilovna Braude (1938—2004). They had one daughter Olga Voinovich (born 1973), a German writer. Following Irina's death in 2004 Voinovich married Svetlana Yakovlevna Kolesnichenko (née Lianozova), an entrepreneur, also a widow of the Russian journalist Tomas Kolesnichenko. They currently live in Moscow.
Stories and novels
- "Мы здесь живём (повесть)" [We Lives Here (story)]. Novy Mir (in Russian) (1). 1961.
- "Хочу быть честным (повесть)" [I Want to Be Honest (story)]. Novy Mir (in Russian) (2). 1963.
- "Расстояние в полкилометра (рассказ)" [A Distance of Half a Kilometer (short story)]. Novy Mir (in Russian) (2). 1963.
- Мы здесь живём (повесть) [We Lives Here (story)] (in Russian). Moscow: Soviet writer. 1963.
- "Два товарища (повесть)" [Two Comrades (story)]. Novy Mir (in Russian). 1963 (No. 2), 1967 (No. 1). Check date values in:
- Мы здесь живём. Два товарища. Владычица (повести) [We Lives Here. Two Comrades. Mistress (stories)] (in Russian). Moscow: Soviet writer. 1972.
- Степень доверия. Повесть о Вере Фигнер [A Degree of Trust. The Story about Vera Figner] (in Russian). Moscow: Politizdat. 1972.
- "Жизнь и необычайные приключения солдата Ивана Чонкина (часть 1)" [The Life and Extraordinary Adventures of Private Ivan Chonkin (part 1)]. Grani (in Russian). Frankfurt am Main (72). 1969.
- "Путем взаимной переписки (повесть)" [By Means of Mutual Correspondence (story)]. Grani (in Russian). Frankfurt am Main (87–88). 1973.
- "Происшествие в "Метрополе"" [Incident in "Metropol"]. Kontinent (in Russian). Paris (5). 1975.
- Жизнь и необычайные приключения солдата Ивана Чонкина [The Life and Extraordinary Adventures of Private Ivan Chonkin] (in Russian). Paris: YMCA-Press. 1975.
- Иванькиада, или Рассказ о вселении писателя Войновича в новую квартиру [The Ivankiad: or, The tale of the writer Voinovich's installation in his new apartment] (in Russian). Ann Arbor, Michigan: Ardis Publishing. 1976.
- The Life and Extraordinary Adventures of Private Ivan Chonkin. Vintage/Ebury, Random House Group. 1977. ISBN 0224013289.
- "A Distance of Half a Kilometer". Chicago Review. 29 (2): 5–21. Autumn 1977. doi:10.2307/25303676. JSTOR 25303676.
- Претендент на престол: Новые приключения солдата Ивана Чонкина [Pretender to the Throne: The Further Adventures of Private Ivan Chonkin] (in Russian). Paris: YMCA-Press. 1979.
- Pretender to the Throne: The Further Adventures of Private Ivan Chonkin. Northwestern University Press. 1981. ISBN 0810112442.
- "Etude". TriQuarterly (55): 130. Fall 1982.
- "Писатель в советском обществе" [Writer in Soviet Society]. Possew (in Russian). Frankfurt am Main (9): 32. 1983.
- "Фиктивный брак (водевиль)" [Sham Marriage (vaudeville)]. Time and We (in Russian). New York (72). 1983.
- "Если враг не сдается…: Заметки о социалистическом реализме" [If Enemy Does not Surrender…: Notes of Socialist Realism]. Country and World (in Russian). Munich (10). 1984.
- "Трибунал" [Tribunal] (in Russian). London. 1985.
- Антисоветский Советский Союз [The Anti-Soviet Soviet Union] (in Russian). Ann Arbor, Michigan: Ardis Publishing. 1985.
- Москва 2042 [Moscow 2042] (in Russian). Ann Arbor, Michigan: Ardis Publishing. 1986.
- Woinowitsch, Wladimir (1989) . Ihr seid auf dem richtigen Weg, Genossen [You are on the right way, comrades] (in German). Piper. ISBN 3492030041.
- Шапка [The Hat] (in Russian). London: Overseas Publications Interchange Limited. 1988. ISBN 1870128656.
- Дело № 34840 [The Case No 34840] (in Russian). Moscow: Text. 1994. ISBN 5871060951.
- The Life and Extraordinary Adventures of Private Ivan Chonkin (reprint ed.). Northwestern University Press. 1995. ISBN 0810112434.
- Замысел [The Design] (in Russian). Moscow: Vagrius. 1995.
- Запах шоколада (повести и рассказы) [The Smell of Chocolate (stories and short stories)] (in Russian). Moscow: Vagrius. 1997.
- Монументальная пропаганда [Monumental Propaganda] (in Russian). Moscow: Izograf. 2000.
- Портрет на фоне мифа [A Portrait Against the Background of a Myth] (in Russian). Moscow: Eksmo-Press. 2002. ISBN 5040102534.
- Перемещённое лицо [A Displaced Person] (in Russian). Moscow: Eksmo. 2007. ISBN 5699237437.
- Автопортрет: роман моей жизни [Self-portrait: Novel of My Life] (in Russian). Moscow: Eksmo. 2007. ISBN 5699390022.
- Два плюс один в одном флаконе [Two Plus One Rolled into One] (in Russian). Moscow: Eksmo. 2010. ISBN 5699417621.
- A Displaced Person: The Later Life and Extraordinary Adventures of Private Ivan Chonkin. Northwestern University Press. 2012. ISBN 0810126621.
- Малое собрание сочинений в 5-ти томах [A small collection of works in 5 volumes] (in Russian). Moscow: Fabula. 1993–1995.
Articles and interviews
- Voinovich, Vladimir (June 1975). "I am a realist". Index on Censorship. 4 (2): 49–57. doi:10.1080/03064227508532424.
- Voinovich, Vladimir (20 June 1976). "Oh, for a room of my own". The New York Times Magazine (20).
- Voinovich, Vladimir; Hosking, Geoffrey (August 1980). "Profile". Index on Censorship. 9 (4): 19–22. doi:10.1080/03064228008533088.
- Phillips, William; Shragin, Boris; Aleshkovsky, Yuz; Kott, Jan; Siniavski, Andrei; Aksyonov, Vassily; Litvinov, Pavel; Dovlatov, Sergei; Nekrassov, Viktor; Etkind, Efim; Voinovich, Vladimir; Kohak, Erazim; Loebl, Eugen (Winter 1984). "Writers in exile III: a conference of Soviet and East European dissidents". The Partisan Review. 51 (1): 11–44.
- Voinovich, Vladimir (October 1985). "The life and fate of Vasily Grossman". Index on Censorship. 14 (5): 9–10. doi:10.1080/03064228508533943.
- Voinovich, Vladimir (Spring 1985). "The life and fate of Vasily Grossman and his novel". Survey: A Journal of East and West Studies. 29 (1): 186–189.
- Voinovich, Vladimir (19 July 1987). "Where glasnost has its limits". The New York Times Magazine: 31.
- Voinovich, Vladimir; Heim, Michael (Autumn 1990). "An exile's dilemma". The Wilson Quarterly. 14 (4): 114–120. JSTOR 40258529.
- Voinovich, Vladimir (January 1996). "The gang of four". Index on Censorship. 25 (1): 62–70. doi:10.1177/030642209602500116.
- Voinovich, Vladimir; Jamieson, John (2003). "Stream of consciousness". New Zealand Slavonic Journal: 165–169. JSTOR 40922151.
- Копылова, Вера (23 August 2007). "Один в поле Войнович. Папа Чонкина: "В закрытом обществе писатель был гораздо нужнее, чем теперь"" [One man in the field is Voinovich. Chonkin's father: "In a closed society writer was much more needed than now"]. Moskovskij Komsomolets (in Russian).
- Тимофеева, Ольга (15 January 2016). "Владимир Войнович: "У вождей с либеральными намерениями, но диктаторским характером ум требует одного, а натура другого"" [Vladimir Voinovich: "Leaders with liberal intentions but dictatorial nature have mind that requires one thing and nature that requires another thing"]. Novaya Gazeta (in Russian) (3).
- Золовкин, Сергей (22 March 2016). ""Простой таджикский рабочий, отягченный еврейской фамилией…" Владимир Войнович — за праздничным столом в Мюнхене в окружении русскоговорящих журналистов" ["A simple Tajik worker, weighed down by a Jewish surname…" Vladimir Voinovich round the festive board in Munich, surrounded by Russian-speaking journalists]. Novaya Gazeta (in Russian) (22).
- 1963 — A Dream Come True aka Toward Meeting a Dream — lyrics (Fourteen Minutes To Lift-off)
- 1964 — Welcome, or No Trespassing — lyrics (Fourteen Minutes To Lift-off)
- 1973 — It Will Take Less Than a Year — based on the story I Want to be Honest
- 1990 — Hat — based on the play Domestic Cat of Average Downiness by Voinovich and Grigori Gorin
- 1994 — Life and Extraordinary Adventures of Private Ivan Chonkin — based on the novel of the same name
- 2000 — Two Comrades — based on the novel of the same name
- 2006 — Gardens in Autumn — as actor (episode)
- 2007 — Adventures of Private Ivan Chonkin (mini-series) — based on the novel of the same name
- 2009 — Not Now — based on the story The Smell of Chocolate
- Galloway, David (2013) . "Voinovich, Vladimir Nikolaevich". In Smorodinskaya, Tatiana; Evans-Romaine, Karen; Goscilo, Helena. Encyclopedia of contemporary Russian culture. Routledge. pp. 666–667. ISBN 1136787852.
- Farmer, Rachel (1 January 1999). "Vladimir Voinovich–a stupid Galileo?". Canadian-American Slavic Studies. 33 (2–4): 279–291. doi:10.1163/221023999X00238.
- Hosking, Geoffrey (1984). "Vladimir Voinovich: Chonkin and after". In Matich, Olga; Heim, Michael. The third wave: Russian literature in emigration. Ann Arbor, Michigan: Ardis Publishing. p. 151. ISBN 0882337823.
- Hosking, Geoffrey (1980). "Vladimir Voinovich, Georgy Vladimov". Beyond socialist realism: Soviet fiction since Ivan Denisovich. London: Elek/Granada. pp. 136–161. ISBN 0236401734.
- Kasack, Wolfgang (1980). "Vladimir Voinovich and his undesirable satires". In Birnbaum, Henrik; Eekman, Thomas. Fiction and drama in Eastern and Southeastern Europe: evolution and experiment in the postwar period: proceedings of the 1978 UCLA Conference. Slavica Publishers. pp. 259–276. ISBN 0893570648.
- Lewis, Barry (1996). "Homunculi Sovietici: the Soviet 'writers' in Voinovich's Shapka". Australian Slavonic and East European Studies: Journal of the Australian and New Zealand Slavists' Association and of the Australasian Association for Study of the Socialist Countries. 10 (1): 17–28.
- Milivojevic, Dragan (Spring 1979). "The many voices of Vladimir Voinovich". Rocky Mountain Review of Language and Literature. 33 (2): 55–62. doi:10.2307/1346811. JSTOR 1346811.
- Nekrasov, Viktor (28 September 1962). "Индивидуальность таланта (о Владимире Войновиче)" [Individuality of talent (about Vladimir Voinovich)]. Литература и Жизнь (in Russian) (116). p. 3.
- Nekrasov, Viktor (9 October 1977). "Войновичиада: рецензия на книгу В. Войновича "Иванькиада"" [Voinovichiada: the review of V. Voinovich's book The Ivankiad]. Новое Русское Слово (in Russian).
- Olshanskaya, Natalia (October 2000). "Anti-utopian carnival: Vladimir Voinovich rewriting George Orwell". Forum for Modern Language Studies. XXXVI (4): 426–437. doi:10.1093/fmls/XXXVI.4.426.
- Olshanskaya, Natalia (2011). "Russian dystopia in exile: translating Zamiatin and Voinovich". In Baer, Brian. Contexts, subtexts and pretexts: literary translation in Eastern Europe and Russia. John Benjamins Publishing. pp. 265–276. ISBN 9027287333.
- Petro, Peter (January 1980). "Hašek, Voinovich, and the tradition of anti-militarist satire". Canadian Slavonic Papers. 22 (1): 116–121. doi:10.1080/00085006.1980.11091615.
- Porter, Robert (July 1987). "Animal magic in Solzhenitsyn, Rasputin, and Voynovich". The Modern Language Review. 82 (3): 675–684. doi:10.2307/3730425. JSTOR 3730425.
- Porter, Robert (April 1980). "Vladimir Voinovich and the comedy of innocence". Forum for Modern Language Studies. XVI (2): 97–108. doi:10.1093/fmls/XVI.2.97.
- Rancour-Laferriere, Daniel (Spring 1991). "From incompetence to satire: Voinovich's image of Stalin as castrated leader of the Soviet Union in 1941". Slavic Review. 50 (1): 36–47. doi:10.2307/2500597. JSTOR 2500597.
- Sazonchik, Ol'ga (15 November 2009). "О копрофагии у В. Войновича" [On coprophagy in V. Voinovich]. Russian Literature (in Russian). 66 (4): 423–441. doi:10.1016/j.ruslit.2009.11.003.
- Vasilyev, Yuri (27 September 2012). "The post-Soviet optimistic pessimism of Vladimir Voinovich". The Atlantic.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Vladimir Voinovich.|
- Vladimir Voinovich. Parents, childhood, Khujand, father returned (in Russian). From the autobiography Self-portrait: Novel of My Life, ISBN 5699390022
- Vladimir Voinovich. Seizure of Moscow (in Russian). From the autobiography Self-portrait: Novel of My Life, ISBN 5699390022
- Vladimir Voinovich. At the Virgin Land (in Russian). From the autobiography Self-portrait: Novel of My Life, ISBN 5699390022
- Gross, John (2 June 1987). "Books of the times". The New York Times.
- Voinovich Pavel Vladimirovich at the Eksmo official website (in Russian)
- Interview with Vladimir and Olga Voinovich at Echo of Moscow, September 23, 2012 (in Russian)
- Vladimir Voinovich interview to Dmitry Gordon, May 27, 2016 (in Russian)